Index 
Texts adopted
Tuesday, 16 January 2018 - StrasbourgFinal edition
Management, conservation and control measures applicable in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation ***I
 Implementation of EU macro-regional strategies
 Conservation of fishery resources and protection of marine ecosystems through technical measures ***I
 International ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans in the context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals
 Women, gender equality and climate justice

Management, conservation and control measures applicable in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation ***I
PDF 384kWORD 50k
Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on 16 January 2018 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council laying down management, conservation and control measures applicable in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) (COM(2017)0128 – C8-0121/2017 – 2017/0056(COD))(1)
P8_TA(2018)0001A8-0377/2017

(Ordinary legislative procedure: first reading)

Text proposed by the Commission   Amendment
Amendment 1
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 7 a (new)
(7a)  When implementing the conservation and management measures adopted by SPRFMO, the Union and Member States should endeavour to promote coastal fishing activities and the use of fishing gear and techniques which are selective and have a reduced environmental impact, including gear and techniques used in traditional and artisanal fisheries, thereby contributing to a fair standard of living for local economies.
Amendment 2
Proposal for a regulation
Article 1 – paragraph 1
This Regulation lays down management, conservation and control provisions relating to fishing for straddling species in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO).
This Regulation lays down management, conservation and control provisions relating to fishing for straddling fish stocks in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO).
Amendment 3
Proposal for a regulation
Article 2 – paragraph 1 – point c
(c)  Third country fishing vessels upon requesting access or being the object of an inspection in Union ports and carrying fishery products harvested in the SPRFMO Convention Area.
(c)  Third country fishing vessels upon requesting access to, or being the object of an inspection in, Union ports and carrying fishery products harvested in the SPRFMO Convention Area.
Amendment 4
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 1
(1)  ‘SPRFMO Convention Area’ means the high seas geographical area south of 10° N, north of the CCAMLR Convention Area as defined in the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, east of the SIOFA Convention Area as defined in the Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement, and west of the areas of fisheries jurisdictions of South American States;
(1)  ‘SPRFMO Convention Area’ means the geographical area marked out in Article 5 of the Convention on the Conservation and Management of High Seas Fishery Resources in the South Pacific Ocean;
Amendment 5
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 2
(2)  ‘fishing vessel’ means any vessel of any size used or intended for use for the purposes of commercial exploitation of fishery resources, including support ships, fish processing vessels, vessels engaged in transhipment and carrier vessels equipped for the transportation of fishery products, except container vessels;
(2)  ‘fishing vessel’ means any vessel used or intended for fishing, including fish processing vessels, support ships, carrier vessels and any other vessel directly engaged in fishing operations;
Amendment 6
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 7
(7)  ‘bottom fishing footprint’ means the spatial extent of bottom fishing during a defined period of time in the SPRFMO Convention Area;
(7)  ‘bottom fishing footprint’ means the spatial extent of bottom fishing in the SPRFMO Convention Area during the period 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2006;
Amendment 7
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 10
(10)  ‘established fishery’ means a fishery that has not been closed and that has been subject to fishing or has been subject to fishing with a particular gear type or technique in the previous ten years;
deleted
Amendment 8
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 10 a (new)
(10a)  ‘large-scale pelagic driftnets’ (drift gillnets) means a gillnet or other net, or a combination of nets, which is more than 2,5 kilometres in length the purpose of which is to enmesh, entrap or entangle fish by drifting on the surface or in the water.
Amendment 9
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 10 b (new)
(10b)  ‘deepwater gillnets’ (trammel net, set nets, anchored nets, sink nets) means strings of single, double or triple netting walls, held vertically, on or near the bottom, in which fish will gill, entangle or enmesh. Deepwater gillnets consist of single or, less commonly, double or triple netting mounted together on the same frame ropes. Several types of nets may be combined in one gear. Those nets can be used either alone or, as is more usual, in large numbers placed in line (‘fleets’ of nets). The gear can be set, anchored to the bottom or left drifting, free or connected with the vessel.
Amendment 10
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 11
(11)  ‘IUU fishing activities’ means any illegal, unreported or unregulated fishing activity as defined in Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008;
(11)  ‘IUU fishing’ means fishing activities defined in point 1 of Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008;
Amendment 11
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1 – point 16
(16)  ‘vulnerable marine ecosystem’ means any marine ecosystem whose integrity is, according to the best scientific information available and to the precautionary principle, threatened by significant adverse impacts resulting from physical contact with bottom gears in the normal course of fishing operations, including, inter alia, reefs, seamounts, hydrothermal vents, cold water corals or cold water sponge beds.
(16)  ‘vulnerable marine ecosystem’ means any marine ecosystem whose integrity (i.e. ecosystem structure or function) is, according to the best scientific information available and to the precautionary principle, threatened by significant adverse impacts resulting from physical contact with bottom gears in the normal course of fishing operations, including, inter alia, reefs, seamounts, hydrothermal vents, cold water corals or cold water sponge beds.
Amendment 12
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 a (new)
Article 6a
Allocation of fishing opportunities for jack mackerel
In accordance with Article 17 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, when allocating the fishing opportunities for jack mackerel stocks available to them, Member States shall use transparent and objective criteria, including those of an environmental, social and economic nature, and shall also endeavour to distribute national quotas fairly among the various fleet segments giving special consideration to traditional and artisanal fishing, and to provide incentives to Union fishing vessels deploying selective fishing gear or using fishing techniques with reduced environmental impact.
Amendment 13
Proposal for a regulation
Article 7 – paragraph 6
6.  Union fishing vessels shall be prohibited from discharging offal during shooting and hauling. Where this is not feasible, vessels shall batch waste for two hours or longer.
6.  Union fishing vessels shall be prohibited from discharging offal during shooting and hauling. Where this is not feasible and when it is necessary to discharge biological waste due to operational safety concerns, vessels shall batch waste for two hours or longer.
Amendment 14
Proposal for a regulation
Article 8 – paragraph 4
4.  Union fishing vessels shall be prohibited from discharging offal during shooting and hauling.
4.  Where possible, Union fishing vessels shall be prohibited from discharging offal during shooting and hauling.
Amendment 15
Proposal for a regulation
Article 8 – paragraph 5
5.  Union fishing vessels shall convert offal into fish meal and retain all waste material with any discharge restricted to liquid discharge/sump water. Where this is not feasible, fishing vessels shall batch waste for two hours or longer.
5.  Where possible and appropriate, Union fishing vessels shall convert offal into fish meal and retain all waste material with any discharge restricted to liquid discharge/sump water. Where this is not feasible, fishing vessels shall batch waste for two hours or longer.
Amendment 16
Proposal for a regulation
Article 8 – paragraph 6
6.  Nets shall be cleaned after every fishing operation to remove entangled fish and benthic material to discourage interactions with birds during gear deployment.
6.  Where possible, nets shall be cleaned after every fishing operation to remove entangled fish and benthic material to discourage interactions with birds during gear deployment.
Amendment 17
Proposal for a regulation
Article 9 – paragraph 1 – point b a (new)
(ba)   any observed seabird interaction data.
Amendment 18
Proposal for a regulation
Article 10 – paragraph 2 – point b
(b)  the average catch level over the period 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2006;
(b)  the average annual catch level over the period 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2006;
Amendment 19
Proposal for a regulation
Title 3 – Chapter II a (new)
Chapter II a
Gillnets
Amendment 20
Proposal for a regulation
Article 17 a (new)
Article 17 a
Gillnets
1.  The use of large-scale pelagic driftnets and all deepwater gillnets is prohibited throughout the SPRFMO Convention Area.
2.  Flag Member States whose vessels seek to transit the SPRFMO Convention Area with gillnets on board shall:
(a)  give at least 36 hours advance notice to the SPRFMO Secretariat prior to entering the SPRFMO Convention Area, including the expected entry and exit dates and length of gillnet carried on board;
(b)  ensure their vessels operate a vessel monitoring system (VMS) polling once every two hours while in the SPRFMO Convention Area;
(c)  submit VMS position reports to the SPRFMO Secretariat within 30 days of the vessel leaving the SPRFMO Convention Area; and
(d)  if gillnets are accidentally lost or fall overboard from the vessel, report the date, time, position and length (metres) of gillnets lost to the SPRFMO Secretariat as soon as possible and in any event within 48 hours of the gear being lost.
Amendment 21
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 5
5.  Notwithstanding Article 15(1) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, Union fishing vessels not included in the SPRFMO Record of vessels shall not be permitted to engage in fishing activities for species harvested in the SPRFMO Convention Area.
5.  Notwithstanding Article 15(1) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, Union fishing vessels not included in the SPRFMO Record of vessels shall not be permitted to engage in fishing activities for species under the responsibility of the SPRFMO in the Convention Area.
Amendment 22
Proposal for a regulation
Article 19 – paragraph 4
4.  This Article shall be without prejudice of Articles 21 and 22 of Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009 and Article 4 (3) and (4) of Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008.
4.  This Article shall be without prejudice to Articles 21 and 22 of Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009 and Article 4(3) and (4) of Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008.
Amendment 23
Proposal for a regulation
Article 25 – paragraph 1 – point c
(c)  designate a point of contact for the purposes of transmitting inspection reports pursuant to Article 11(3) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008.
(c)  designate a point of contact for the purposes of receiving inspection reports pursuant to Article 11(3) of Council Regulation (EC) No 1005/2008.
Amendment 24
Proposal for a regulation
Article 30 – paragraph 1
Member States shall submit to the Commission any documented information that indicates possible instances of non-compliance by any fishing vessel with SPRFMO conservation and management measures in the SPRFMO Convention Area over the past two years at least 120 days in advance of the annual meeting. The Commission shall examine that information and, if appropriate, forward it to the SPRFMO Secretariat at least 90 days in advance of the annual meeting.
Member States shall submit to the Commission any documented information that indicates possible instances of non-compliance by any fishing vessel with SPRFMO conservation and management measures in the SPRFMO Convention Area over the past two years at least 150 days in advance of the annual meeting. The Commission shall examine that information and, if appropriate, forward it to the SPRFMO Secretariat at least 120 days in advance of the annual meeting.
Amendment 25
Proposal for a regulation
Article 30 a – paragraph 2
2.  The authorities of a fishing vessel flagged to a Member State notified by the Commission of its inclusion in the Draft IUU Vessel List shall notify the vessel owner of its inclusion in the Draft SPRFMO IUU Vessel List and of the consequences that may result from its inclusion being confirmed in the IUU Vessel List adopted by the SPRFMO.
2.  When the Commission is notified that a vessel flagged to a Member State is included in the draft SPRFMO IUU vessel list, the Commission shall notify the authorities of the Member State concerned to that effect, which shall in turn notify the vessel owner of its inclusion in the Draft SPRFMO IUU Vessel List and of the consequences that may result from its inclusion being confirmed in the IUU Vessel List adopted by the SPRFMO.
Amendment 26
Proposal for a regulation
Article 32 c – paragraph 1 – point e
(e)  Position date and time (UTC);
(e)  Position (latitude and longitude), date and time (UTC);

(1) The matter was referred back for interinstitutional negotiations to the committee responsible pursuant to Rule 59(4), fourth subparagraph (A8-0377/2017).


Implementation of EU macro-regional strategies
PDF 190kWORD 55k
European Parliament resolution of 16 January 2018 on the implementation of EU macro-regional strategies (2017/2040(INI))
P8_TA(2018)0002A8-0389/2017

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) and in particular Title XVIII thereof,

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1303/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 laying down common provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund, the Cohesion Fund, the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and laying down general provisions on the European Regional Development Fund, the European Social Fund, the Cohesion Fund and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 1083/2006(1) (hereinafter ‘the CPR’),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1299/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 on specific provisions for the support from the European Regional Development Fund to the European territorial cooperation goal(2),

–   having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1302/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 amending Regulation (EC) No 1082/2006 on a European grouping of territorial cooperation (EGTC) as regards the clarification, simplification and improvement of the establishment and functioning of such groupings(3),

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 25 April 2017 on the implementation of EU Macro-Regional Strategies,

–  having regard to the Commission report of 16 December 2016 on the implementation of EU macro-regional strategies (COM(2016)0805) and the accompanying Commission staff working document (SWD(2016)0443),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 10 June 2009 concerning the European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (COM(2009)0248),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 8 December 2010 entitled ‘European Union Strategy for Danube Region’ (COM(2010)0715),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 17 June 2014 concerning the European Union Strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian Region (COM(2014)0357),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 28 July 2015 concerning a European Union Strategy for the Alpine Region (COM(2015)0366),

–  having regard to the Commission report of 20 May 2014 concerning the governance of macro-regional strategies (COM(2014)0284),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 14 December 2015 entitled ‘Investing in jobs and growth – maximising the contribution of European Structural and Investment Funds’ (COM(2015)0639),

–  having regard to its resolution of 17 February 2011 on the implementation of the EU Strategy for the Danube Region(4),

–  having regard to its resolution of 3 July 2012 on the evolution of EU macro-regional strategies: present practice and future prospects, especially in the Mediterranean(5),

–  having regard to its resolution of 13 September 2012 on the EU Cohesion Policy Strategy for the Atlantic Area(6),

–  having regard to its resolution of 28 October 2015 on an EU strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian region(7),

–  having regard to its resolution of 13 September 2016 on an EU Strategy for the Alpine region(8),

–  having regard to the study of January 2015 entitled ‘New role of macro-regions in European Territorial Cooperation’, published by its Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Department B: Structural and Cohesion Policies,

–  having regard to the Interact report of February 2017 entitled ‘Added value of macro-regional strategies – programme and project perspective’,

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure, and Article 1(1)(e) of, and Annex 3 to, the decision of the Conference of Presidents of 12 December 2002 on the procedure for granting authorisation to draw up own-initiative reports,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Regional Development and the opinion of the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (A8-0389/2017),

A.  whereas a macro-region can be defined as a geographical area including regions from a number of different countries associated with one or more common features or challenges(9);

B.  whereas macro-regional strategies (MRS) have been established in areas representing the natural evolution of the EU in terms of cross-border cooperation; whereas they are important, as they are able to mobilise public and private actors, civil society and academia, and to mobilise resources towards achieving common EU policy goals;

C.  whereas MRS provide a platform for deeper and wider interaction at cross-sectoral, regional and cross-border level between EU Member States and neighbouring countries for the purposes of addressing common challenges, joint planning and fostering cooperation between and improving the integration of different partners and policy sectors, including in the areas of environment and biodiversity protection, climate mitigation and adaptation strategies, waste treatment and water supply, maritime spatial planning, and integrated coastal management systems; welcomes, in this context, the efforts made to promote cooperation between the ESI funds and the IPA;

D.  whereas macro-regions are involved in the implementation of relevant long-term, interconnected, cross-cutting political activities, as these macro-regions are linked to cohesion policy through the MRS objectives embedded in their OPs and set up projects through smart synergies; whereas macro-regions thereby contribute more effectively to achieving MRS goals, attracting private investment, demonstrating trust, and engaging in dialogue, cross-border cooperation and solidarity;

E.  whereas MRS are based on the ‘three no’s’ principle of no new funding, no new structures and no new legislation within the existing EU political framework;

F.  whereas pre-existing cooperation mechanisms at EU level and between Member States and regions facilitate the implementation of MRS, particularly in the early phases;

G.  whereas the Commission adopts a single report on the implementation of all four existing EU MRS every two years, mentioning their successes, as well as where further improvements need to be made, with the next report due by the end of 2018; whereas Parliament considers, in this framework, that an assessment is needed of the aspects pertaining to the environment, as one of the pillars of sustainable development;

Macro-regional strategies as platforms for cooperation and coordination

1.  Notes that the relevance of the MRS has been underlined by the globalisation process, which has rendered individual countries interdependent and necessitates solutions to the cross-border problems involved;

2.  Recognises that – to a varying degree – elements on which the quality of implementation depends, such as commitment, ownership, resources and governance, remain difficult to overcome in achieving the pre-determined goals;

3.  Stresses that MRS continue to make an invaluable and innovative contribution to cross-border, cross-sectoral and multi-level cooperation in Europe, the potential of which has not yet been sufficiently explored, with a view to boosting connectivity and consolidating the economic ties and knowledge transfer between regions and countries; notes, however, that – as a result of the process of agreeing on joint actions at multi-level and multi-country/regional level – access to EU funds for MRS projects remains a challenge;

4.  Considers that the MRS and associated environmental programmes are useful instruments for making the benefits of European cooperation visible to citizens, and therefore urges all parties to fully commit to the strategies and play their part in their implementation;

5.  Is of the opinion that multi-level governance with a proper role for the regions within its framework should be a cornerstone of any macro-regional strategy from its inception, involving regional and local communities and public-, private- and 3rd-sector stakeholders in the process; encourages the Member States and regions involved therefore to develop appropriate governance structures and working arrangements to facilitate cooperation, including joint planning, boosting funding opportunities and a bottom-up approach;

6.  Encourages improved coordination and better partnerships, both vertical and horizontal, between the different public and private actors, academia and NGOs, as well as international organisations operating in this field, and the various policies at EU, national, regional and local level in order to facilitate and improve the implementation of the MRS and cross-border cooperation; calls on the Commission to encourage the participation of these stakeholders, inter alia, in the MRS governing boards, while respecting the general application of EU principles;

7.  Emphasises the importance of sufficient human resources and administrative capacity for the competent national and regional authorities in order to ensure that the political commitment translates into effective implementation of the strategies; highlights, in this regard, the value of the Structural Reform Support Programme, which can provide assistance in capacity building and effective support for the development and financing of MRS projects upon the request of a Member State; calls, furthermore, on the Commission and the Member States to actively promote the dissemination and application of good administrative practice and experience from the successful implementation of MRS;

8.  Underlines the fact that MRS must be flexible enough to be adjusted and respond effectively to unforeseen events and needs which may affect the regions involved, the Member States and the EU in general; considers that the implementation of MRS needs to take account of specific regional and local conditions; highlights the necessity of the Commission’s coordinating role in this regard, also with a view to fine-tuning the specific objectives of each strategy;

The EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region (EUSBSR)

9.  Welcomes the results achieved since the launch of the strategy in 2009, particularly with regard to the cooperation mechanisms not only between (i.e. within the Council at the relevant ministerial meetings), but also within the regions and countries involved, such as within the parliament or government; notes that the EUSBSR is a stable cooperation framework with more than 100 flagship initiatives and new networks;

10.  Underlines the remaining challenges, in particular those relating to the environment and connectivity; urges the participating countries to step up efforts to tackle the pollution (i.e. water and air quality, and eutrophication) of the Baltic Sea, as it is one of the most polluted seas in the world; notes that achieving a good environmental status by 2020 is one of the key objectives of policy actions here;

11.  Attaches importance to the possibility of connecting the Baltic region to energy networks in order to reduce and eliminate energy poverty and to increase energy security and the security of supply;

The EU Strategy for the Danube Region (EUSDR)

12.  Highlights the positive impact the strategy has had on cooperation between the participating countries and regions by improving mobility and interconnections for all modes of transport, promoting clean energy, culture and sustainable tourism and, in particular, enhancing direct contacts between people and achieving greater cohesion between the regions and countries participating in the strategy;

13.  Considers the ‘Euro access’ project, the ‘Keep Danube clean’ initiative and the Danube Financing Dialogue clear positive examples of a way to overcome difficulties in financing the obstacles which projects of transnational and cross-border relevance often face; is of the opinion that, through this dialogue, the differences in development among regions in the Danube basin could be further reduced; considers, furthermore, that reopening a Danube Strategy Point could contribute to a smoother implementation of the strategy;

14.  Stresses that preventing damage caused by severe flooding remains one of the great environmental challenges for the countries of the Danube macro-region; highlights that supplementary joint measures to prevent cross-border pollution should be considered;

15.  Recalls the need for strategic projects and stresses that it is essential to maintain a high degree of political support and increase the resources and capacity of competent state authorities in order to tackle the remaining challenges; emphasises the need, therefore, to maintain the political momentum for the EUSDR and to ensure that the EUSDR Steering Group does good work;

16.  Invites the participating countries, given the natural link between the Danube River and the Black Sea, to enhance coordination between the EUSDR and the Black Sea Cross Border Cooperation and to work closely to overcome shared socio-economic, environmental and transport challenges;

17.  Stresses that a more integrated approach to mobility and multimodality in the Danube region would also be beneficial to the environment;

The EU Strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian Region (EUSAIR)

18.  Highlights the distinct nature of the EUSAIR on account of the number of potential and candidate participating countries, and considers that this format of cooperation can be a great opportunity for the entire region; takes the view that EUSAIR could give an impetus to the enlargement and integration process;

19.  Notes with concern the persistent problems as regards the lack of effective linkage between the availability of resources, governance and ownership, which are preventing EUSAIR’s objectives from being fully achieved; calls on the participating countries to provide the competent authorities with support and tailored measures to implement the strategy;

20.  Stresses that the region has been at the forefront of the migration crisis in recent years; considers that EUSAIR could help address such challenges with the necessary instruments and resources; welcomes, in this context, the Commission’s efforts to find solutions for the mobilisation of financial resources for migration-related activities, including cooperation with third countries;

21.  Considers the Sustainable Tourism pillar of the Adriatic and Ionian region to be a positive instrument to create sustainable economic growth in the region and raise awareness of environmental challenges and the MRS;

22.  Calls on the countries concerned to give priority to capacity building for the EUSAIR key implementers and the programme authorities responsible for EUSAIR-related operational programmes;

The EU Strategy for the Alpine Region (EUSALP)

23.  Considers the EUSALP as proof that the macro-regional concept can also be applied successfully to more developed regions; calls on its stakeholders to promote environment-related investments that address the consequences of climate change; points out, furthermore, that the Alpine region is an important regional transport hub and, at the same time, one of the largest unique natural and recreational areas which needs to be preserved; stresses, therefore, that sustainable and interrelated transport strategies need to be sought after;

24.  Welcomes the governance structure of the strategy which is currently being put in place, as the first steps in the implementation of the strategy have proven difficult and were governed by different structures, frameworks and timeframes; calls, therefore, on the participating countries to continue their commitment and support to EUSALP Action Group members;

25.  Stresses that the EUSALP can be a good example of a template strategy for territorial cohesion, as it simultaneously incorporates different specific areas, productive areas, mountains and rural areas and some of the most important and highly developed cities in the EU, and offers a platform for jointly addressing the challenges they face (climate change, demography, biodiversity, migration, globalisation, sustainable tourism and agriculture, energy supply, transport and mobility, and the digital divide); calls on the participating countries and regions to pay due attention to the use of the Interreg Alpine Space programme and other relevant funds in addressing common priorities;

26.  Stresses that the Alpine region is delineated by many borders and that removing these barriers is a prerequisite for cooperation to work, especially for the labour market and economic activities related to SMEs; points out that the EUSALP can also provide the opportunity to strengthen transnational cross-border cooperation between adjacent regions, cities and local communities and to forge links and networks between people, also in terms of interconnections in transport and digital coverage; points, in addition, to the environmental fragility of this region;

Macro-regional Europe after 2020?

27.  Points out that MRS bear fruit if they are rooted in a long-term political perspective and organised in such a way that all public, especially regional and local authorities, and private stakeholders and civil society are effectively represented from the outset, requiring an effective exchange of information, best practices, know-how and experience between macro-regions and their regional and local authorities; considers it necessary to strengthen the multi-level governance of MRS, which should be transparent, with more effective coordination and public communication mechanisms in order to make MRS known and for them to gain acceptance in local and regional communities;

28.  Believes that strategy implementation can only be successful if based on long-term vision and efficient coordination and cooperation structures with the necessary administrative capacity, as well as on shared long-term political commitment among the institutional levels concerned and if it is backed by adequate funding; highlights, therefore, the need to increase the effectiveness of the investments through seeking alignment, synergies and complementarities of regional and national funding with existing EU funding instruments, which, in addition to enhancing the ETC programmes, promote cross-border projects within the ESI funds and EFSI and also through direct funding;

29.  Believes that simplifying the funds and the procedures for their use within the framework of the MRS would increase their effectiveness;

30.  Proposes that the participating countries make clear commitments in terms of funding and human resources for the implementation of the MRS from the outset; calls on the Commission to help to better coordinate inside the MRS, to promote good practices and to develop incentives to encourage the active participation of and coordination between all parties concerned, also with a view to strengthening the link between EU policies and implementation of MRS; encourages, moreover, MRS to make use of green public procurement in order to boost eco-innovation, the bio-economy, the development of new business models and the use of secondary raw materials, such as in the circular economy, in order to achieve higher levels of environmental and health protection and to foster close links between producers and consumers;

31.  Stresses that greater result-orientation is required and concrete challenges need to be met, including in the area of environmental protection, in order to develop plans which have a real impact on the territory, and to justify the investment of resources, which should, for its part, be commensurate with the objectives set, and relate to the true needs of the territories concerned;

32.  Calls for any questions about the MRS, such as on ownership and the necessary political incentives, to be addressed in accordance with a modus operandi that is agreed upon in advance by all the regions concerned;

33.  Is of the opinion that the visibility and public perception of the activities of the macro-regions in the regions targeted, as well as the results achieved, need to be enhanced by carrying out information campaigns and exchanges of best practices, including through online platforms and social networks, thus making them easily accessible to the general public;

34.  Emphasises that the next revision of the multiannual financial framework (MFF) constitutes an opportunity to revise the MRS objectives at the same time, in order to strengthen their link with EU priorities and consolidate associated financial commitments;

35.  Calls on the Commission to submit, as part of its next revision of cohesion policy rules, proposals to promote a better implementation of MRS;

36.  Calls on the Commission, as part of the next report on the implementation of MRS which is due in 2018, to undertake a more in-depth analysis, including in particular on:

   (a) the effectiveness of ETC transnational programmes in providing financing and strategic impetus to MRS;
   (b) indicators which could be integrated in each MRS in order to allow better result-orientation, monitoring and evaluation;
   (c) measures to strengthen the link with EU priorities;
   (d) the simplification of the implementation and mainstreaming of funding schemes;
   (e) the quality of the involvement of regional and local government in the implementation of MRS;

37.  Emphasises that a call to develop new strategies such as for the Carpathians, the Atlantic, Mediterranean or Iberian regions should not divert attention from the primary objective of improved, deeper implementation of existing MRS;

38.  Supports the ‘three no’s’ principle for the MRS (no new EU legislation, no new EU funding and no new EU structures); suggests, however, that the Commission evaluate the impact of these ‘no’s’ on programmes under the ESI funds in its next implementation report on MRS;

39.  Highlights the need for a territorial approach in relation to cooperation activities on a case by case basis, as MRS are geared towards addressing territorial challenges that can be solved more effectively together; stresses the importance of bringing about synergies and convergence between the different components of territorial cooperation in ETC programmes and the macro-regions in order to strengthen the impact of transnational programmes, pool resources, simplify the financing of MRS and enhance the outcome of their implementation and efficiency of the resources invested;

40.  Reiterates the EU’s commitment to the implementation of the SDGs; stresses the importance of aligning the MRS objectives with the EU flagship initiatives, such as the Energy Union, the Paris Agreement on climate change and blue growth in marine macro-regions; draws attention to the management of environmental risks, such as preserving nature, biodiversity, and fishing stocks and combating marine litter, as well as developing sustainable and green tourism; encourages cooperation in the field of renewable energy; encourages, in this context, the use of smart specialisation strategies (S3), the strengthening of SMEs and the creation of quality jobs;

41.  Stresses that Parliament from the very outset supported the macro‑regions through pilot projects and preparatory actions; points, furthermore, to the experience accumulated by the Baltic Sea region which shows that long-term thinking should remain the basis for macro-regional cooperation;

42.  Calls on the Commission to invite the Parliament to participate as an observer in the work of the Macro-Regional Strategies High Level Group;

o
o   o

43.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the European Committee of the Regions, the European Economic and Social Committee and the governments and national and regional parliaments of the Member States and third countries participating in MRS.

(1) OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 320.
(2) OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 259.
(3) OJ L 347, 20.12.2013, p. 303.
(4) OJ C 188 E, 28.6.2012, p. 30.
(5) OJ C 349 E, 29.11.2013, p. 1.
(6) OJ C 353 E, 3.12.2013, p. 122.
(7) OJ C 355, 20.10.2017, p. 23.
(8) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0336.
(9)6 Schmitt et al. (2009), ‘EU macro-regions and macro-regional strategies – A scoping study’, Nordregio electronic working paper 2009:4.


Conservation of fishery resources and protection of marine ecosystems through technical measures ***I
PDF 1073kWORD 273k
Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on 16 January 2018 on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the conservation of fishery resources and the protection of marine ecosystems through technical measures, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1967/2006, (EC) No 1098/2007, (EC) No 1224/2009 and Regulations (EU) No 1343/2011 and (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 894/97, (EC) No 850/98, (EC) No 2549/2000, (EC) No 254/2002, (EC) No 812/2004 and (EC) No 2187/2005 (COM(2016)0134 – C8-0117/2016 – 2016/0074(COD))(1)
P8_TA(2018)0003A8-0381/2017

(Ordinary legislative procedure: first reading)

Text proposed by the Commission   Amendment
Amendment 1
Proposal for a regulation
Title
REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the conservation of fishery resources and the protection of marine ecosystems through technical measures, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1967/2006, (EC) No 1098/2007, (EC) No 1224/2009 and Regulations (EU) No 1343/2011 and (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 894/97, (EC) No 850/98, (EC) No 2549/2000, (EC) No 254/2002, (EC) No 812/2004 and (EC) No 2187/2005
REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the conservation of fishery resources and the protection of marine ecosystems through technical measures, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1967/2006, (EC) No 1098/2007, (EC) No 1224/2009 and Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 894/97, (EC) No 850/98, (EC) No 2549/2000, (EC) No 254/2002, (EC) No 812/2004 and (EC) No 2187/2005 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 494/2002
Amendment 2
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 2 a (new)
(2a)   Simplification of the existing rules is necessary for a better understanding and compliance by operators, national authorities and stakeholders. The consultation process of the Advisory Councils should be respected in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, and attention should be paid to ensure that all objectives on conservation and sustainability are fully respected.
Amendment 3
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 2 b (new)
(2b)   Simplification of the current rules on technical measures should not result in a weakening of the standards of conservation and sustainability.
Amendment 4
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 3
(3)  There is a need to develop a framework for the regulation of technical measures. That framework should establish general rules to apply across all Union waters and provide for the creation of technical measures that take account of the regional specificities of fisheries through the process of regionalisation introduced by the CFP.
(3)  There is a need to develop a framework for the regulation of technical measures. That framework should establish general rules to apply across all Union waters and provide for the creation of technical measures that take account of the regional specificities of fisheries through the process of regionalisation introduced by the CFP. That process should make it possible to combine effectively the common rules and local situations and situations per zone. However, the process should not result in a kind of renationalisation of the CFP, and it is important that the Advisory Councils should continue to ensure that regionalisation takes place under a Union approach in accordance with Recital 14 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
Amendment 5
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 4
(4)  The framework should cover the taking and landing of fisheries resources as well as the operation of fishing gears and the interaction of fishing activities with marine ecosystems.
(4)  The framework should cover the taking and landing of fisheries resources as well as the operation of fishing gears and the interaction of fishing activities with marine ecosystems and also take into account socio-economic dynamics.
Amendment 6
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 6
(6)  Technical measures where relevant should apply to recreational fisheries which can have a significant impact on the stocks of fish and shellfish species.
(6)  Recreational fisheries can have a significant impact on the marine environment, stocks of fish and other species, and should therefore be subject to technical measures.
Amendment 7
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 6 a (new)
(6a)   Fish caught by recreational anglers (hook and line fishing) are released with a high survival rate, until proven otherwise by scientific evidence.
Amendment 8
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 6 b (new)
(6b)   The landing obligation applies, pursuant to Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, to all catches of species which are subject to catch limits. However, where specimens of those species are caught and immediately released in recreational fisheries and scientific evidence demonstrates high survival rates for those species, as may be the case for fish caught by recreational fishermen using angling equipment, it should be possible to exclude the fisheries concerned from the landing obligation by applying procedures set out in that Regulation, in particular by adopting measures to that effect under multiannual plans and/or discard plans.
Amendment 9
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 7
(7)  Technical measures should contribute to achieving the CFP objectives to fish at maximum sustainable yield levels, reduce unwanted catches and eliminate discards and to contribute to the achievement of good environmental status (GES) as set out in Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council18.
(7)  Technical measures should contribute to achieving the CFP objectives.
__________________
18 Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (OJ L 164, 25.6.2008, p. 19).
Amendment 10
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 7 a (new)
(7a)  Technical measures should be proportionate to the objectives pursued. Their potential economic and social impact should be considered before they are adopted.
Amendment 11
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 7 b (new)
(7b)   The enforcement and implementation of technical measures, operational programmes and, where relevant, the issuing of licences, restrictions on the construction and operation of vessels and certain gear, should not be prejudicial to achieving better health and safety standards for vessels conducting fishing operations and fishing activities.
Amendment 12
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 7 c (new)
(7c)   Technical measures adopted under this Regulation should be coherent with the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011 – 2020, adopted under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, and support the implementation of the EU 2020 Biodiversity Strategy, in particular the target to ensure the sustainable use of fisheries resources and the actions relating thereto.
Amendment 13
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 8
(8)  Technical measures should specifically provide protection for juveniles and spawning aggregations of fish through the use of selective fishing gears and avoidance measures. Technical measures should also minimise and eliminate where possible, the impacts of fishing gears on the marine ecosystem and in particular on sensitive species and habitats. They should also contribute to having in place management measures for the purposes of complying with obligations under Council Directive 92/43/EEC19 , Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council20 and Directive 2008/56/EC.
(8)  Technical measures should specifically contribute to the protection of juveniles and spawning aggregations of fish through the use of selective fishing gears and avoidance measures. Technical measures should also contribute to minimising and, where possible, eliminating the negative impacts of fishing gears on the marine ecosystem and in particular on sensitive species and habitats. Incentives should be granted to encourage the use of gear and practices that have a low impact on the environment. Technical measures should also contribute to having in place management measures for the purposes of complying with obligations under Council Directive 92/43/EEC19, Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council20 and Directive 2008/56/EC.
__________________
__________________
19 Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7).
19 Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7).
20 Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (OJ L 20, 26.1.2010, p. 7).
20 Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (OJ L 20, 26.1.2010, p. 7).
Amendment 14
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 8 a (new)
(8a)   The incidental catching of sensitive species should be addressed in a comprehensive manner across all fisheries and gear types in view of the strict level of protection they are afforded under Directives 92/43/EEC, 2009/147/EC and 2008/56/EC, their high level of vulnerability and the obligation to achieve a good environmental status by 2020.
Amendment 15
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 9
(9)  To evaluate the effectiveness of technical measures, targets relating to the levels of unwanted catches; to the level of bycatches of sensitive species and to the extent of seabed habitats adversely affected by fishing; should be established that reflect the objectives of the CFP, Union environmental legislation (in particular Council Directive 92/43 and Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council21 ), and international best practice.
(9)  To evaluate the effectiveness of technical measures, performance indicators relating to the reduction of catches of fish below the minimum conservation reference size and incidental catches of sensitive species as well as to the reduction of negative environmental impacts on marine habitats as a result of fishing should be established that reflect the objectives of the CFP and Union environmental legislation (in particular Directive 92/43/EEC, Directive 2009/147/EC and Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council21 ).
__________________
__________________
21 Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (OJ L 327, 22.12.2000, p. 1).
21 Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (OJ L 327, 22.12.2000, p. 1).
Amendment 16
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 9 a (new)
(9a)   Member States should make the broadest possible use of the available measures in Regulation (EU) No 508/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council1a to support fishermen in implementing technical measures and ensure that the socio-economic objectives of the CFP are taken into account.
_______________
1a Regulation (EU) No 508/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 May 2014 on the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2328/2003, (EC) No 861/2006, (EC) No 1198/2006 and (EC) No 791/2007 and Regulation (EU) No 1255/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 149, 20.5.2014, p. 1).
Amendment 17
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 11
(11)  Certain destructive fishing gears or methods which use explosives, poisons, stupefying substances, electric current, pneumatic hammers or other percussive instruments; towed devices and grabs for harvesting red coral or other type of corals and coral-like species and certain spear-guns should be prohibited except in the specific case of the electric pulse trawl which may be used under certain strict conditions.
(11)  Certain destructive fishing gears or methods which use explosives, poisons, stupefying substances, electric current, pneumatic hammers or other percussive instruments; towed devices and grabs for harvesting red coral or other type of corals and coral-like species and certain spear-guns should be prohibited. In this regard it is necessary to ensure that there is appropriate knowledge about the impacts of innovative fishing gear including cumulative effects, before use of the gear is widely adopted. Additionally, a system for monitoring, control and evaluation should be in place, serving for enforcement and research as well as evaluation purposes. Finally, current licences should be made subject to scientific reassessment, before being given a permanently “non-prohibited” status.
Amendment 18
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 11 a (new)
(11a)   There is a need for detailed and quantified knowledge concerning the impacts of innovative fishing gear including their cumulative effects on the marine environment and species, before their use is widely adopted on a commercial scale. An effective programme of monitoring and evaluation should be established.
Amendment 20
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 15
(15)  For certain rare fish species, such as species of sharks and rays, even limited fishing activity could result in a serious risk to their conservation. To protect such species a general prohibition on fishing for them should be introduced.
(15)  For certain fish species that are rare or whose biological characteristics make them especially vulnerable to overexploitation, even limited fishing activity could result in a serious risk to their conservation. To protect such species a general prohibition on fishing for them should be introduced.
Amendment 21
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 21
(21)  In order to assist the catching sector implement the landing obligation, Member States should put in place measures to facilitate the storage and the finding of outlets for marine species which are below the minimum conservation reference size. These measures should include support for investment in the construction and adaptation of landing sites and shelters or support for investment to add value to fishery products.
(21)  In order to assist the catching sector with the implementation of, and ensure a level playing field by having full compliance with, the landing obligation, Member States should put in place measures to facilitate the storage and the finding of outlets for marine species which are below the minimum conservation reference size. These measures should include support for investment in the construction and adaptation of landing sites and shelters or support for investment to add value to fishery products.
Amendment 22
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 23
(23)  In cases where scientific advice indicates that there are significant unwanted catches of species which are not subject to catch limits and therefore not subject to the application of the landing obligation, Member States should carry out pilot projects with the aim of exploring ways to reduce such catches and with a view to introducing appropriate technical measures to achieve this aim.
(23)  In cases where scientific advice indicates that there are significant unwanted catches of species, Member States should carry out pilot projects with the aim of exploring ways to reduce such catches and with a view to introducing appropriate technical measures to achieve this aim.
Amendment 23
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 24
(24)  Where no technical measures are in place at regional level then defined baseline standards should apply. Those baseline standards should be derived from existing technical measures, taking account of STECF advice and the opinions of stakeholders. They should consist of baseline mesh sizes for towed gears and static nets, minimum conservation reference sizes, closed or restricted areas, nature conservation measures to mitigate against bycatches of marine mammals and seabirds in certain areas and any other regionally specific measures currently in existence that are still required to ensure conservation objectives continue to be met until such times measures are put in place under regionalisation.
(24)  Where no technical measures are in place at regional level, defined baseline standards should apply. Those baseline standards should be derived from existing technical measures, taking account of STECF advice and the opinions of stakeholders. They should consist of baseline mesh sizes for towed gears and static nets, minimum conservation reference sizes, closed or restricted areas, nature conservation measures to minimise, and, where possible, eliminate incidental catches of marine mammals and seabirds in certain areas and any other regionally specific measures currently in existence that are still required to ensure conservation objectives continue to be met until such times measures are put in place under regionalisation.
Amendment 24
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 25
(25)  Member States in conjunction with stakeholders can develop joint recommendations for appropriate technical measures that deviate from the baselines in accordance with the regionalisation process set out in the CFP.
(25)  Member States, in close cooperation with the relevant Advisory Councils, should be able to develop joint recommendations for appropriate technical measures, based on the best available scientific advice, that deviate from the baselines to adapt the technical measures to regional specificities of fisheries in accordance with the regionalisation process set out in the CFP, even if there is no multiannual plan.
Amendment 25
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 26
(26)  Such regional technical measures should as a minimum be equivalent in terms of exploitation patterns and protection for sensitive species and habitats as the baseline standards.
(26)  Regionalisation should be used to create tailor-made measures that consider the specificities of each fisheries area including safeguarding their sensitive species and habitats. Such regional technical measures should be sustainable and as a minimum ensure the same exploitation patterns and level of protection as the baseline standards. The adoption of any regional technical measure should be based on the best available scientific advice.
Amendment 26
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 26 a (new)
(26a)   Decisions taken by regional groups of Member States under regionalisation should meet the same standards of democratic oversight as those in the Member States concerned.
Amendment 27
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 26 b (new)
(26b)   Regionalisation should be used as a tool to encourage the participation of all relevant stakeholders, including non-governmental organisations, and empower fishermen and their engagement so that they can work in close cooperation with Member States, Advisory Councils and scientists, to create tailor-made measures that consider the specificities of each fishing area and safeguard their environmental conditions.
Amendment 28
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 27 a (new)
(27a)   Where there is a direct management interest concerning a single Member State, proposals for individual technical measures may be submitted, to modify existing conservation measures, subject to consultation of the relevant Advisory Councils.
Amendment 29
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 28
(28)  In developing joint recommendations to adopt alternative size and species selective gears to the baseline mesh sizes in multiannual plans regional groups of Member States should ensure that such gears result in, as a minimum, similar or improved selectivity patterns as the baseline gears.
(28)  In developing joint recommendations to adopt alternative size and species selective gears to the baseline mesh sizes, regional groups of Member States should ensure that such gears result in, as a minimum, similar or improved selectivity patterns as the baseline gears.
Amendment 30
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 29
(29)  In developing joint recommendations to amend or establish new closed or restricted areas in multiannual plans to protect juveniles and spawning aggregations, regional groups of Member States should define the specifications, extent, duration, gear restrictions and control and monitoring arrangements in their joint recommendations.
(29)  In developing joint recommendations to amend or establish new closed or restricted areas to protect juveniles and spawning aggregations, regional groups of Member States should define the specifications, extent, duration, gear restrictions and control and monitoring arrangements in their joint recommendations.
Amendment 31
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 30
(30)  In developing joint recommendations to amend or establish minimum conservation reference sizes in multiannual plans, regional groups of Member States should ensure the objectives of the CFP are not jeopardised by ensuring that the protection of juveniles of marine species should be respected while ensuring that no distortion is introduced into the market and that no market for fish below minimum conservation reference sizes is created.
(30)  In developing joint recommendations to amend or establish minimum conservation reference sizes, regional groups of Member States should contribute to achieving the objectives of the CFP by ensuring that the protection of juveniles of marine species is fully respected while ensuring that no distortion is introduced into the market and that no market for fish below minimum conservation reference sizes is created.
Amendment 32
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 31
(31)  The creation of real-time closures in conjunction with moving-on provisions as an additional measure for the protection of juveniles or spawning aggregations should be allowed as an option to be developed under joint recommendations. The conditions for the establishment and lifting of such areas as well as the control and monitoring arrangements should be defined in the relevant joint recommendations.
(31)  The creation of real-time closures in conjunction with moving-on provisions as an additional measure for the protection of juveniles or spawning aggregations or sensitive species should be allowed as an option to be developed under joint recommendations. The conditions for the establishment and lifting of such areas, including exemptions where appropriate, as well as the control and monitoring arrangements should be defined in the relevant joint recommendations.
Amendment 33
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 32
(32)  On the basis of scientific assessment of the impacts of innovative gears, duly evaluated by the STECF, the use of such or extension to the use of novel gears, such as the electric pulse trawl could be included as an option in joint recommendations from regional groups of Member States. The use of innovative fishing gears should not be permitted where scientific assessment indicates that their use will lead to negative impacts on sensitive habitats and non-target species.
(32)  On the basis of scientific assessment of the impacts of innovative gears, duly evaluated by the STECF, including the potential negative impact of certain gears, the use or the extension of use of innovative gears could be included as an option in joint recommendations from regional groups of Member States. The use of innovative fishing gears should not be permitted where scientific assessment indicates that their use will lead to negative direct or cumulative impacts on marine habitats, especially sensitive habitats or non-target species, or compromise the achievement of a good environmental status of marine waters.
Amendment 268
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 32 a (new)
(32a)  Regional groups should develop additional mitigation measures based on gear type, using scientific advice and best practice to minimise and, where possible, eliminate bycatches of seabirds and marine mammals, aligned with Council Directive 92/43/EEC and Council Directive 79/409/EEC1a and the Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas of 17 March 1992, as amended (ASCOBANS).
___________________________
1a Council Directive of 2 April 1979 on the conservation of wild birds (79/409/EEC) (OJ L 103, 25.4.1979, p. 1).
Amendment 34
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 33
(33)  In order to minimise the bycatches of sensitive species and impacts of fishing gears on sensitive habitats, regional groups of Member States should develop additional mitigation measures to reduce the impacts of fishing on sensitive species and habitats. Where scientific evidence shows that there is a serious threat to the conservation status of such species and habitats then Member States should introduce additional restrictions on the construction and operation of certain fishing gears or even the introduction of a total prohibition on their use in that region. In particular such provisions could be applied to the use of driftnets which in certain areas has resulted in significant catches of cetaceans and seabirds.
(33)  In order to minimise and, where possible, eliminate the incidental catches of sensitive species and impacts of fishing gears on sensitive habitats, regional groups of Member States should develop additional mitigation measures to reduce the impacts of fishing on sensitive species and habitats. Where scientific evidence shows that there is a serious threat to the conservation status of such species and habitats then Member States should introduce additional restrictions on the construction and operation of certain fishing gears or even the introduction of a total prohibition on their use in that region to safeguard the marine environment, local fish stocks and the local coastal communities concerned. In particular such provisions could be applied to the use of driftnets which in certain areas has resulted in significant catches of cetaceans and seabirds.
Amendment 35
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 35
(35)   In order to maintain existing detailed recommendations agreed by the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC) the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should be delegated to the Commission in respect of lists of vulnerable marine ecosystems and also specific technical measures related to defined measures to protect blue ling and redfish. The Commission should also be empowered to adopt delegated acts in respect of the incorporation into Union law of future amendments of those measures adopted by NEAFC which form the subject matter of certain expressly defined non-essential elements of this Regulation and which become binding upon the Union in accordance with the terms of this Convention. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level.
deleted
Amendment 36
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 36
(36)  In order not to hinder scientific research, artificial restocking and transplantation, the provisions of this Regulation should not apply to operations which may be necessary for the conducting of such activities.
(36)  In order not to hinder scientific research, direct restocking and transplantation, the provisions of this Regulation should not apply to operations which may be necessary for the conducting of such activities.
Amendment 37
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 37
(37)  Where available scientific advice indicates that immediate action is required to protect marine species, the Commission should be able in duly justified cases to adopt immediately applicable delegated acts establishing technical measures to alleviate such threats, in addition to or by way of derogation to this Regulation or technical measures otherwise fixed in accordance with Union law. Those measures should be designed in particular to address unexpected changes in stock patterns as a result of high or low levels of recruitment of juveniles into a stock, to provide protection for spawning fish or shellfish when stocks are at very low levels or other changes in the conservation status of fish stocks which may threaten the status of a stock. They could include restrictions on the use of towed or static gears or on fishing activities in certain areas or during certain periods.
(37)  Where the best available scientific advice indicates that immediate action is required to protect marine species and habitats, the Commission should be able in duly justified cases to adopt immediately applicable delegated acts establishing technical measures to alleviate such threats, in addition to or by way of derogation to this Regulation or technical measures otherwise fixed in accordance with Union law. Those measures should be designed in particular to address unexpected changes in stock patterns as a result of high or low levels of recruitment of juveniles into a stock, or incidental catches of sensitive species, to provide protection for spawning fish or shellfish when stocks are at very low levels or other changes in the conservation status of fish stocks or sensitive species, which may threaten the status of a stock, as well as to address deterioration of species populations and habitats due to fishing impacts and to provide for any other necessary conservation measures. Such measures could include restrictions on the use of towed or static gears or on fishing activities in certain areas or during certain periods.
Amendment 38
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 38
(38)  The power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty should be delegated to the Commission to update the list of fish and shellfish for which directed fishing is prohibited; to update the list of sensitive areas where fishing should be restricted; to adopt technical measures as part of multiannual plans; and to adopt technical measures as part of temporary discard plans. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level. The Commission, when preparing and drawing up delegated acts, should ensure a simultaneous, timely and appropriate transmission of relevant documents to the European Parliament and to the Council.
(38)  The power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty should be delegated to the Commission to define, for the purpose of establishing performance indicators for technical measures in relation to catches of fish below the minimum conservation reference size, key fisheries and the levels of such catches that apply to those key fisheries, to update the list of fish and shellfish for which directed fishing is prohibited; to update the list of sensitive areas where fishing should be restricted; to adopt technical measures as part of multiannual plans or, where necessary, outside the framework of multiannual plans; and to adopt technical measures as part of temporary discard plans. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level and based on STECF assessment. The Commission, when preparing and drawing up delegated acts, should ensure a simultaneous, timely and appropriate transmission of relevant documents to the European Parliament and to the Council.
Amendment 39
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 40
(40)  By the end of 2020 and every third year thereafter the Commission should report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation of this Regulation, on the basis of information supplied by Member States and the relevant Advisory Councils and following evaluation by the STECF. This report should assess the extent to which technical measures both regionally and at Union level have contributed to achieving the objectives and in reaching the targets of this Regulation. On the basis of that report, where at regional level there is evidence that the objectives and targets have not been met, Member States within that region should submit a plan setting out the corrective actions to be taken to ensure those objectives and targets can be met. The Commission should also propose to the European Parliament and to the Council any necessary amendments to this Regulation on the basis of that report.
(40)  By ... [three years after the date of entry into force of this Regulation] and every third year thereafter the Commission should report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation of this Regulation, on the basis of information supplied by Member States and the relevant Advisory Councils and following evaluation by the STECF. This report should assess the extent to which technical measures both regionally and at Union level have contributed to achieving the objectives and in reaching the performance indicator levels of this Regulation. On the basis of that report, where at regional level there is evidence that the objectives have not been met or that the performance indicators remain at an unsatisfactory level, Member States within that region should submit a plan setting out the corrective actions to be taken to ensure those objectives can be met and to improve the performance indicator levels. The Commission should also propose to the European Parliament and to the Council any necessary amendments to this Regulation on the basis of that report.
Amendment 40
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 42
(42)  Council Regulations (EC) No 1967/200629, (EC) No 1098/200730, (EC) No 1224/2009 31 and Regulations (EU) No 1343/201132 and (EU) No 1380/201333 of the European Parliament and of the Council should be amended accordingly.
(42)  Council Regulations (EC) No 1967/200629, (EC) No 1098/200730, (EC) No 1224/200931 and Regulation (EU) No 1380/201333 of the European Parliament and of the Council should be amended accordingly.
__________________
__________________
29 Council Regulation (EC) No 1967/2006 of 21 December 2006 concerning management measures for the sustainable exploitation of fishery resources in the Mediterranean Sea, amending Regulation (EEC) No 2847/93 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1626/94 (OJ L 409, 30.12.2006 p.11).
29 Council Regulation (EC) No 1967/2006 of 21 December 2006 concerning management measures for the sustainable exploitation of fishery resources in the Mediterranean Sea, amending Regulation (EEC) No 2847/93 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 1626/94 (OJ L 409, 30.12.2006 p.11).
30 Council Regulation (EC) No 1098/2007 of 18 September 2007 establishing a multiannual plan for the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea and the fisheries exploiting those stocks, amending Regulation (EEC) No 2847/93 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 779/97 (OJ L 248, 22.9.2007, p. 1).
30 Council Regulation (EC) No 1098/2007 of 18 September 2007 establishing a multiannual plan for the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea and the fisheries exploiting those stocks, amending Regulation (EEC) No 2847/93 and repealing Regulation (EC) No 779/97 (OJ L 248, 22.9.2007, p. 1).
31 Council Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009 of 20 November 2009 establishing a Community control system for ensuring compliance with the rules of the common fisheries policy, amending Regulations (EC) No 847/96, (EC) No 2371/2002, (EC) No 811/2004, (EC) No 768/2005, (EC) No 2115/2005, (EC) No 2166/2005, (EC) No 388/2006, (EC) No 509/2007, (EC) No 676/2007, (EC) No 1098/2007, (EC) No 1300/2008, (EC) No 1342/2008 and repealing Regulations (EEC) No 2847/93, (EC) No 1627/94 and (EC) No 1966/2006 (OJ L 343, 22.12.2009, p. 1.).
31 Council Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009 of 20 November 2009 establishing a Community control system for ensuring compliance with the rules of the common fisheries policy, amending Regulations (EC) No 847/96, (EC) No 2371/2002, (EC) No 811/2004, (EC) No 768/2005, (EC) No 2115/2005, (EC) No 2166/2005, (EC) No 388/2006, (EC) No 509/2007, (EC) No 676/2007, (EC) No 1098/2007, (EC) No 1300/2008, (EC) No 1342/2008 and repealing Regulations (EEC) No 2847/93, (EC) No 1627/94 and (EC) No 1966/2006 (OJ L 343, 22.12.2009, p. 1.).
32 Regulation (EU) No 1343/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on certain provisions for fishing in the GFCM (General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean) Agreement area and amending Council Regulation (EC) No 1967/2006 concerning management measures for the sustainable exploitation of fishery resources in the Mediterranean Sea (OJ L 347, 30.12.2001, p. 44).
33 Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC (OJ L 354, 28.12.2013, p. 22).
33 Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC (OJ L 354, 28.12.2013, p. 22).
Amendment 41
Proposal for a regulation
Recital 43
(43)   In order to supplement or amend existing detailed rules transposing recommendations agreed by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union should be delegated to the Commission in respect of technical measures in Regulation (EU) No 1343/2011. The Commission should also be empowered to adopt delegated acts in respect of the incorporation into Union law of future amendments of those measures adopted by GFCM which form the subject matter of certain expressly defined non-essential elements of this Regulation and which become binding upon the Union in accordance with the terms of the GFCM Agreement. Regulation (EU) No 1343/2011 should be amended accordingly. It is of particular importance that the Commission carry out appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level.
deleted
Amendment 42
Proposal for a regulation
Article 1 – paragraph 1 – point b
(b)  the operation of fishing gears and the interaction of fishing activities with marine ecosystems.
(b)  the operation of fishing gears.
Amendment 43
Proposal for a regulation
Article 1 – paragraph 1 – point b a (new)
(ba)   the interaction of those gears with marine ecosystems.
Amendment 44
Proposal for a regulation
Article 2 – paragraph 1
1.  This Regulation shall apply to activities pursued by Union fishing vessels and nationals of Member States, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the flag State, in the fishing zones referred to in Article 5 as well as by fishing vessels flying the flag of, and registered in, third countries when fishing in Union waters.
1.  Without prejudice to Article 29, this Regulation shall apply to all fishing activities (recreational and commercial) pursued by Union fishing vessels and nationals of Member States, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the flag State, in the fishing zones referred to in Article 5 as well as by fishing vessels flying the flag of, and registered in, third countries when fishing in Union waters.
Amendment 45
Proposal for a regulation
Article 2 – paragraph 2
2.  Articles 7 and 14 and Part A of Annexes V to X shall also apply to recreational fisheries.
2.  This Regulation shall also apply to recreational fisheries.
Amendment 46
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 1
1.  As tools to support the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), technical measures shall contribute to the objectives of the CFP set out in Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 and in particular in paragraphs 2, 3 and 5(a) and (j) of that Article.
1.  Technical measures shall contribute to the objectives of the CFP set out in Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
Amendment 47
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 2 – introductory part
2.  In addition, technical measures shall in particular:
2.  Technical measures shall in particular contribute to achieving the following objectives:
Amendment 48
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 2 – point a
(a)  optimise exploitation patterns to provide protection for juveniles and spawning aggregations of marine species;
(a)  ensuring sustainable exploitation patterns to provide protection for juveniles and spawning aggregations of marine species; and providing appropriate safeguards;
Amendment 49
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 2 – point b
(b)  ensure that bycatches of marine species listed under Directives 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC and other sensitive species that result from fishing are minimised and where possible eliminated such that they do not represent a threat to the conservation status of these species;
(b)  ensuring that incidental catches of sensitive marine species, in particular those listed under Directives 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC, that result from fishing are minimised and where possible eliminated;
Amendment 50
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 2 – point c
(c)  ensure that the environmental impacts of fishing on marine habitats are minimised and where possible eliminated such that they do not represent a threat to the conservation status of those habitats;
(c)  ensuring, including by using appropriate incentives, that the negative environmental impacts of fishing on marine habitats are minimised and where possible eliminated;
Amendment 51
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 2 – point d
(d)  contribute to having in place fisheries management measures for the purposes of complying with the obligations under Directives 92/43/EEC, 2009/147/EC, 2008/56/EC and 2000/60/EC.
(d)  having in place fisheries management measures for the purposes of complying with the obligations under Directives 92/43/EEC, 2009/147/EC, 2008/56/EC and 2000/60/EC.
Amendments 294 and 300
Proposal for a regulation
Article 3 – paragraph 2 – point d a (new)
(da)   ensuring that the conditions described in Descriptors 1, 3, 4 and 6 of Commission Decision 2010/477/EU are fulfilled.
Amendment 52
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – title
Targets
Performance indicators
Amendment 53
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 – introductory part
1.  Technical measures shall aim to achieve the following targets:
1.  In order to assess whether technical measures contribute to achieving the objectives referred to in Article 3, the following performance indicators shall be used:
Amendment 54
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 – point a
(a)  ensure that catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference sizes do not exceed 5% by volume in accordance with Article 2(2) and Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
(a)  the extent to which catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference sizes are progressively reduced to specific levels for key fisheries;
Amendment 55
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 – point b
(b)  ensure that bycatches of marine mammals, marine reptiles, seabirds and other non-commercially exploited species do not exceed levels provided for in Union legislation and international agreements.
(b)  the extent to which incidental catches of marine mammals, marine reptiles, seabirds and other non-commercially exploited species are progressively reduced and, where possible, eliminated;
Amendment 56
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 – point c
(c)  ensure that the environmental impacts of fishing activities on seabed habitats do not exceed the levels needed to achieve good environmental status for each habitat type assessed in the framework of Directive 2008/56/EC in each marine region or subregion in relation to both habitat quality and the spatial extent over which the required levels need to be achieved.
(c)  the extent to which the negative environmental impacts of fishing activities on marine habitats, including sensitive seabed habitats, are minimised and maintained below the levels needed to achieve good environmental status, in particular for each of the habitat types assessed in the framework of Directive 2008/56/EC, in each marine region or subregion in relation to both habitat quality and the spatial extent over which the required levels need to be achieved.
Amendment 57
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 of this Regulation and Article 18 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 supplementing this Regulation by defining, for the purpose of point (a) of paragraph 1 of this Article:
(a)  the key fisheries referred to in that point;
(b)  the levels of current catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference sizes for each of those key fisheries, based on data supplied by Member States for the reference years 2013-2015;
(c)  the specific levels to which catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference sizes for each of those key fisheries are to be reduced in order to achieve the objective of ensuring sustainable exploitation patterns and to provide protection for juveniles.
When establishing the specific levels referred to in point (c) of the first subparagraph, account shall be taken of the best available scientific advice, including by STECF, as well as of existing and future technical possibilities in relation to the avoidance of catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference size.
Amendment 58
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 b (new)
1b.  For the purpose of the delegated acts referred to in paragraph 1a, the Member States may submit a joint recommendation in accordance with Article 18(1) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 by ... [12 months after the date of entry into force of this Regulation].
Amendment 59
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 c (new)
1c.  Where no joint recommendation has been submitted by the deadline set out in paragraph 1b of this Article, or if a joint recommendation submitted by Member States is deemed not to be compatible with the objectives of this Regulation, the Commission shall by ... [18 months after the date of entry into force of this Regulation], and by way of derogation from Article 18(6) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, adopt delegated acts supplementing this Regulation by defining the elements referred to in the first subparagraph of paragraph 1a of this Article, in accordance with Article 32 of this Regulation.
Amendment 60
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 1 d (new)
1d.  In order to achieve a progressive reduction of catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference sizes to levels which ensure sustainable exploitation patterns, the specific levels referred to in point (c) of the first subparagraph of paragraph 1a shall be reviewed every three years, using the procedure set out in paragraphs 1a, 1b and 1c, and they shall be further reduced, where appropriate, in accordance with the best available scientific advice and existing and future technical possibilities in relation to the avoidance of such catches.
Amendment 61
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 – paragraph 2
2.  The extent to which these targets have been achieved shall be reviewed as part of the reporting process set out in Article 34.
2.  The assessment referred to in paragraph 1 shall be undertaken in the context of the reporting process set out in Article 34.
Amendment 346
Proposal for a regulation
Article 4 a (new)
Article 4a
Socio-economic objectives
In order to take into account the socio-economic objectives set out in points (c), (f) and (i) of Article 2(5) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, when adopting and implementing technical and conservation measures, Member States shall make extensive use of the measures set out in Articles 38, 39 and 40 of Regulation (EU) No 508/2014.
Amendment 62
Proposal for a regulation
Article 5 – paragraph 1 – point a
(a)  'North Sea' means ICES divisions34 IIa, IIIa and IV;
(a)  'North Sea' means Union waters in ICES divisions34 IIa, IIIa and IV;
__________________
__________________
34 ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) divisions are as defined in Regulation (EC) No 218/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on the submission of nominal catch statistics by Member States fishing in the north-east Atlantic (OJ L 87, 31.3.2009, p. 70).
34 ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea) divisions are as defined in Regulation (EC) No 218/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on the submission of nominal catch statistics by Member States fishing in the north-east Atlantic (OJ L 87, 31.3.2009, p. 70).
Amendment 63
Proposal for a regulation
Article 5 – paragraph 1 – point c
(c)  ‘North Western waters’ means ICES sub-areas V (excluding Va and non-Union waters of Vb), VI and VII;
(c)  ‘North Western waters’ means Union waters in ICES sub-areas V, VI and VII;
Amendment 64
Proposal for a regulation
Article 5 – paragraph 1 – point g
(g)  ‘Outermost Regions’ means waters around the outermost regions as referred to in the first paragraph of Article 349 of the Treaty divided into three sea basins: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and Indian Ocean;
(g)  ‘Union waters in the Indian Ocean and the West Atlantic’ means waters around Guadeloupe, French Guyana, Martinique, Mayotte, Réunion and Saint Martin under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of a Member State.
Amendment 65
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 1
(1)  ‘exploitation pattern’ means how fishing pressure is distributed across the age profile of a stock;
(1)  ‘exploitation pattern’ means how fishing mortality is distributed across the age and size profile of a stock;
Amendment 66
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 2
(2)  'selectivity' means a quantitative expression represented as a probability of capture of a certain size of fish in a certain size of mesh (or hook);
(2)  ‘selectivity’ means the probability of capture of a certain species or size of fish with certain gear characteristics;
Amendment 67
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 3
(3)   ‘selective fishing’ means a fishing method's ability to target and capture fish or shellfish by size and species type during the fishing operation allowing non-target species to be avoided or released unharmed;
deleted
Amendment 68
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 4
(4)  'directed fishing' means fishing for a defined species or combination of species where the total catch of that/those species makes up more than 50% of the economic value of the catch;
(4)  ‘directed fishing’ means fishing effort targeted towards a specific species or group of species where the exact composition varies across fisheries and the specific rules governing the minimum technical specifications of mesh sizes and selective devices by fishery is established at regional level;
Amendment 69
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 5 a (new)
(5a)   ‘conservation status of a species’ means the conservation status of species as defined in point (i) of Article 1 of Directive 92/43/EEC;
Amendment 70
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 5 b (new)
(5b)   ‘conservation status of a habitat’ means the conservation status of a natural habitat as defined in point (e) of Article 1 of Directive 92/43/EEC;
Amendment 71
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 7
(7)  ‘sensitive species’ means a species whose conservation status, including its habitat, distribution, population size and population condition is adversely affected by pressures arising from human activities, including fishing activities. Sensitive species, in particular, include species listed in Annexes II and IV of Directive 92/43/EEC, species covered by Directive 2009/147/EC and species whose protection is necessary to achieve good environmental status under Directive 2008/56/EC;
(7)  ‘sensitive species’ means a species whose conservation status, including its habitat, distribution, population size or population condition is adversely affected by pressures arising from human activities, including fishing activities. Sensitive species, in particular, include species listed in Annexes II and IV of Directive 92/43/EEC, species covered by Directive 2009/147/EC and species whose protection is necessary to achieve good environmental status under Directive 2008/56/EC;
Amendment 72
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 8
(8)  ‘small pelagic species’ means mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, anchovy, sardine, blue whiting, argentine, sprat, boarfish;
(8)  ‘small pelagic species’ means inter alia mackerel, herring, horse mackerel, anchovy, sardine, blue whiting, argentine, sprat, boarfish, bogue, Sardinella aurita and Sardinella maderensis;
Amendment 73
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 9 a (new)
(9a)   ‘traditional (subsistence) fisheries with passive fishing gears’ means non-commercial fishing activities exploiting marine living aquatic resources on a limited scale at local level, exclusively for personal needs and using only traditional fishing gear and techniques;
Amendment 74
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 10
(10)  ‘Advisory Councils’ means stakeholder groups established under the CFP to promote a balanced representation of all stakeholders and to contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the CFP;
(10)  ‘Advisory Councils’ means stakeholder groups established under Article 43 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, conducting their activity according to Article 44 and 45 of and Annex III to that Regulation;
Amendment 75
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 11
(11)  'trawl' means fishing gear which is actively towed by one or more fishing vessels and consisting of a net having a cone- or pyramid-shaped body (as trawl body) closed at the back by a codend; 'towed gear' means any trawls, Danish seines and similar gear with a cone- or pyramid shaped body closed at the back by a bag (codend) or comprising two long wings, a body and a bag (codend) and which are actively moved in the water;
(11)  ‘trawl’ means a fishing gear comprising a net which is actively towed by one or more fishing vessels and closed at the back by a bag (codend);
Amendment 76
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 11 a (new)
(11a)   ‘towed gear’ means any trawls, Danish seines and similar gear which are actively moved in the water by one or more vessels or any other mechanical system;
Amendment 77
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 12
(12)  'demersal trawl' means a trawl designed and rigged to operate on or near the seabed;
(12)  ‘demersal bottom trawl’ means a trawl designed and rigged to operate on or near the seabed;
Amendment 78
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 13
(13)  'demersal pair trawl' means a demersal trawl towed by two boats simultaneously, one towing each side of the trawl. The horizontal opening of the trawl is maintained by the distance between the two vessels as they tow the gear;
(13)  ‘demersal pair bottom trawl’ means a bottom trawl towed by two boats simultaneously, one towing each side of the trawl. The horizontal opening of the trawl is maintained by the distance between the two vessels as they tow the gear;
Amendment 79
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 15
(15)  ‘beam trawl’ means gear with a trawl net open horizontally by a steel or wooden tube, the beam, and netting with ground chains, chain mats or tickler chains actively towed on the bottom;
(15)  ‘beam trawl’ means gear with a trawl net open horizontally by a beam, wings or other similar devices;
Amendment 80
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 16
(16)  ‘electric pulse trawl’ means a fishing technique which uses an electric field to catch fish. The pulse trawl gear consists of a number of electrodes, attached to the gear in the towing direction, that emit short electric pulses;
(16)  ‘electric pulse trawl’ means a trawl which uses electric pulse current to catch marine biological resources;
Amendment 81
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 17 a (new)
(17a)   ‘shore seines’ means surrounding nets and towed seines set from a boat and towed from the shore or from a boat moored or anchored to the shore;
Amendment 82
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 20
(20)  ‘static nets’ means any type of gillnet, entangling net or trammel net that is either anchored to the seabed (gill nets or set nets) or allowed to drift with the tide (drift nets) for fish to swim into and become entangled or enmeshed in the netting;
(20)  ‘static nets’ means any type of gillnet, entangling net or trammel net that is anchored to the seabed (gill nets or set nets) for fish to swim into and become entangled or enmeshed in the netting;
Amendment 83
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 21
(21)  ‘driftnet’ means a net made up of one or more walls of netting, hung jointly in parallel on the headline(s), held on the water surface or at a certain distance below it by floating devices and drifting with the current, either independently or with the boat to which it may be attached. It may be equipped with devices aiming to stabilise the net or to limit its drift such as a sea-anchor or an anchor on the bottom attached at one single end of the net;
(21)  ‘driftnet’ means a net held on the water surface or at a certain distance below it by floating devices and drifting with the current, either independently or with the boat to which it may be attached. It may be equipped with devices aiming to stabilise the net or to limit its drift;
Amendment 84
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 22
(22)  ‘bottom-set gillnet’ means a net made up of a single piece of net and held vertically in the water by floats and weights. It catches living aquatic resources by enmeshing them and is fixed, or capable of being fixed by any means to the seabed;
(22)  ‘gillnet’ means a static net made up of a single piece of net and held vertically in the water by floats and weights;
Amendment 85
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 23
(23)  ‘bottom-set entangling net’ means a single wall of netting rigged so that the netting is hung onto the ropes to create a greater amount of slack netting than a gillnet. Entangling nets usually have less floatation on the head rope and do not stand as high when fishing, as the average bottom set gill net and are fixed, or capable of being fixed by any means to the seabed;
(23)  ‘entangling net’ means a static net consisting of a wall of netting rigged so that the netting is hung onto the ropes to create a greater amount of slack netting than a gillnet;
Amendment 86
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 24
(24)  ‘bottom-set trammel net’ means a net made up of two or more layers of netting with two outer layers of a large mesh size with a sheet of fine small mesh sandwiched between them and is fixed, or capable of being fixed by any means to the seabed;
(24)  ‘trammel net’ means a static net made up of two or more layers of netting with two outer layers of a large mesh size with a sheet of small mesh sandwiched between them;
Amendment 87
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 26
(26)  ‘longline’ means a fishing gear consisting of a main line, sometimes of considerable length, to which snoods with baited or unbaited hooks are fixed at regular intervals. The main line is anchored either horizontally on or near the bottom, vertically or can be allowed to drift on the surface;
(26)  ‘longline’ means a fishing gear consisting of a main line of variable length, to which branch lines (snoods) with hooks are fixed at intervals determined by the target species. The main line is anchored either horizontally on or near the bottom, vertically or can be allowed to drift on the surface;
Amendment 88
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 27
(27)  ‘pots and creels’ means traps in the form of cages or baskets made with various materials designed to catch crustaceans or fish that are set on the seabed either singly or in rows connected by ropes (buoy-lines) to buoys on the surface showing their position and having one or more openings or entrances;
(27)  ‘pots and creels’ means traps in the form of cages or baskets designed to catch crustaceans, molluscs or fish that are set on the seabed or suspended on it, either singly or in rows connected by ropes (buoy-lines) to buoys on the surface showing their position and having one or more openings or entrances;
Amendment 89
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 28
(28)  ‘handline’ means a fishing technique where a single fishing line is held in the hands. One or more lures or baited hooks are attached to the line;
(28)  ‘handline’ means a single hand-held fishing line to which one or more lures or baited hooks are attached;
Amendment 90
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 29
(29)  ‘St Andrews cross’ means a grab which employs a scissor-like action to harvest for example bivalve molluscs or red coral from the seabed;
(29)  ‘St Andrews cross’ means a grab which may employ a scissor-like action to harvest for example bivalve molluscs or red coral from the seabed;
Amendment 91
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 30
(30)  ‘codend’ means the rearmost part of the trawl, having either a cylindrical shape, i.e. the same circumference throughout, or a tapering shape. Made up of one or more panels (pieces of netting) of the same mesh size attached to one another along their sides in the axis of the trawl by a seam where a side rope may be attached. For regulatory purposes this shall be taken as the last 50 meshes of the net;
(30)  ‘codend’ means the rearmost part of the trawl, having either a cylindrical shape, i.e. the same circumference throughout, or a tapering shape. Made up of one or more panels (pieces of netting) attached to one another along their sides. For regulatory purposes this shall be taken as the last 50 meshes of the net;
Amendment 92
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 31
(31)  ‘mesh size’ means the mesh size of any codend of a towed gear as measured in accordance with the procedure set out in Commission Regulation (EC) No 517/200840;
(31)  ‘mesh size’ means:
(a)   in knotted nets: the greatest distance between two opposite knots on the same mesh when it is fully extended;
(b)   in knotless nets: the greatest distance between two opposite corners along the longest axis on the same mesh when it is fully extended;
__________________
40 Commission Regulation (EC) No 517/2008 of 10 June 2008 laying down detailed rules for the implementation of Council Regulation (EC) No 850/98 as regards the determination of the mesh size and assessing the thickness of twine of fishing nets (OJ L 151, 11.6.2008, p. 5).
Amendment 93
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 32
(32)  ‘square mesh’ means the mesh shape originating from mounting netting with 45° deviation from the N-direction such that the bars run parallel and at 90° to the trawl axis;
(32)  ‘square mesh’ means a four-sided mesh consisting of two sets of parallel bars with the same nominal length, where one set is parallel, and the other is at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the net;
Amendment 94
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 33
(33)  ‘diamond mesh’ means normal rhomboid shape of meshes in sheet netting;
(33)  ‘diamond mesh’ means four bars of the same length, in which the diagonals of the mesh are perpendicular and one diagonal is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the netting;
Amendment 95
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 36
(36)   ‘sieve net’ means a device attached to the full circumference of the shrimp trawl near the beam, and tapering to an apex where it is attached to the bottom sheet of the shrimp trawl. An exit hole is cut where the sieve net and codend join, allowing species or individuals too large to pass through the sieve to escape, whereas the shrimp can pass through the sieve and into the codend;
deleted
Amendment 96
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 38
(38)  ‘immersion time’ means the period from the point of time when the nets are first put in the water until the point of time when the nets are fully recovered on board the fishing vessel;
(38)  ‘immersion time’ means the period from the point of time when a gear is first put in the water until the point of time when it is fully recovered on board the fishing vessel;
Amendment 97
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 39
(39)  ‘gear monitoring sensors’ means remote electronic sensors that can be placed on trawls or purse seine to monitor key performance parameters such as the distance between trawl doors or size of the catch;
(39)  ‘gear monitoring sensors’ means remote electronic sensors that are attached to monitor key parameters such as the distance between trawl doors or volume of the catch;
Amendment 98
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 39 a (new)
(39a)   ‘weighted line’ means a line of baited hooks with added weight to increase its sinking speed and thereby reduce its time of exposure to seabirds;
Amendment 99
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 40
(40)  'acoustic deterrent device' means remote devices used to make species such as marine mammals aware and warn them of the presence of fishing gears by emitting acoustic signals;
(40)  'acoustic deterrent device' means remote devices that emit acoustic signals to deter species such as marine mammals from fishing gears;
Amendment 100
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 42
(42)  ‘high grading’ means the practice of discarding low priced fish that are subject to catch limits, even though they could have been legally landed, so as to maximise the total economic or monetary value of the fish brought back to harbour.
(42)  ‘high grading’ means the practice of discarding low priced fish that are subject to catch limits, even though they should have been legally landed, so as to maximise the total economic or monetary value of the fish brought back to harbour;
Amendment 101
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 43 a (new)
(43a)   ‘significant adverse impacts’ means significant adverse impacts as defined in point (c) of Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 734/2008;
Amendment 102
Proposal for a regulation
Article 6 – paragraph 1 – point 45 a (new)
(45a)  'performance indicators' means a set of parameters aimed at assessing the efficiency of technical measures.
Amendments 303 and 349
Proposal for a regulation
Article 7 – paragraph 1 – point b
(b)  electric current except for the use of the electric pulse trawl as set out in Article 24 and Part E of Annex V;
(b)  electric current;
Amendment 103
Proposal for a regulation
Article 7 – paragraph 1 – point g
(g)  any type of projectile;
(g)  any type of projectile, with the exception of those used to kill caged or trapped tuna and of handheld spears and spear guns used in recreational fishing without an aqualung, from dawn until dusk;
Amendment 296
Proposal for a regulation
Article 7 – paragraph 1 a (new)
Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 2, this Article shall apply in international waters and the waters of third countries.
Amendment 104
Proposal for a regulation
Article 9 – paragraph 1
1.  No part of any towed gear shall be constructed of a mesh size smaller than the codend mesh size. This provision shall not apply to netting devices used for the attachment of gear monitoring sensors.
1.  No part of any towed gear shall be of a mesh size smaller than the codend mesh size. This provision shall not apply to netting devices used for the attachment of gear monitoring sensors or to selectivity devices to improve size or species selectivity for marine species.
Amendment 105
Proposal for a regulation
Article 9 – paragraph 3
3.  It shall be prohibited to construct any codend or attach any device that obstructs or otherwise effectively diminishes the mesh size of the codend or any part of a towed gear. This provision shall not exclude the use of specified devices used to reduce wear and tear, to strengthen or to limit the escape of catches in the forward part of towed gears.
3.  The use and transport on board fishing vessels of any device that obstructs or otherwise effectively diminishes the mesh size of the codend or any part of a towed gear shall be prohibited. This provision shall not exclude the use of specified devices used to reduce wear and tear, to strengthen or to limit the escape of catches in the forward part of towed gears, or the installation of catch control devices.
Amendment 106
Proposal for a regulation
Article 10 – title
General restrictions on the use of static nets
General restrictions on the use of static nets and driftnets
Amendment 107
Proposal for a regulation
Article 10 – paragraph 4 – indent 1
—  Albacore (Thunnus alalunga),
(Does not affect English version.)
Amendment 108
Proposal for a regulation
Article 10 – paragraph 5
5.  It shall be prohibited to deploy any bottom set gillnet, entangling net and trammel nets at any position where the charted depth is greater than 600 metres.
5.  It shall be prohibited to deploy any bottom set gillnet, entangling net and trammel nets at any position where the charted depth is greater than 200 metres.
Amendment 109
Proposal for a regulation
Article 10 – paragraph 5 a (new)
5a.   Notwithstanding paragraph 5:
(a)  specific derogations as specified in Annex V Part C point 6, Annex VI Part C points 6 and 9 and Annex VII Part C point 4 shall apply where the charted depth is between 200 and 600 metres;
(b)  the deployment of bottom set gillnets, entangling nets and trammel nets at any position where the charted depth is greater than 200 metres shall be allowed in the fishing zone defined in point (e) of Article 5.
Amendment 272
Proposal for a regulation
Article 10 – paragraph 5 b (new)
5b.  It shall be prohibited to deploy any bottom set gillnet, entangling net or trammel net in sites designated in accordance with Directives 92/43/EEC, 2009/147/EC and 2008/56/EC where this has an adverse effect on the conservation status of the sensitive species and habitats.
Amendment 111
Proposal for a regulation
Article 11 – paragraph 3
3.  When caught as bycatches, species referred to in paragraph 1 and 2 shall not be harmed and specimens shall be promptly released back into the sea.
3.  When caught accidentally, species referred to in paragraph 2 shall not be harmed and specimens shall be promptly released back into the sea.
Amendment 112
Proposal for a regulation
Article 11 – paragraph 3 a (new)
3a.   Paragraph 3 shall not apply when the flag Member State has an official programme that addresses the collection and scientific study of specimens of the species listed in Annex I.
Amendment 113
Proposal for a regulation
Article 11 – paragraph 4
4.  Where the best available scientific advice indicates that an amendment of the list in Annex I is necessary through the addition of new species which require protection, the Commission shall be empowered to adopt such amendments by means of delegated acts in accordance with Article 32.
4.  Where the best available scientific advice indicates that an amendment of the list in Annex I is necessary through the addition of new species which require protection or the deletion of species which no longer need to remain on the list, the Commission shall be empowered to adopt such amendments by means of delegated acts in accordance with Article 32.
Amendment 114
Proposal for a regulation
Article 11 – paragraph 5
5.  Measures adopted pursuant to paragraph 4 of this Article shall aim at achieving the target set out in Article 4(1)(b).
5.  Measures adopted pursuant to paragraph 4 of this Article should be preceded by an assessment of the performance indicators set out in Article 4(1)(b).
Amendment 115
Proposal for a regulation
Article 12 – title
Bycatches of marine mammals, seabirds and marine reptiles
Catches of marine mammals, seabirds and marine reptiles
Amendment 116
Proposal for a regulation
Article 12 – paragraph 2
2.  When caught as bycatch, species referred to in paragraph 1 shall not be harmed and specimens shall be promptly released.
2.  When caught accidentally, species referred to in paragraph 1 shall not be harmed and specimens shall be promptly released. Fishing vessel operators shall record and transmit to the relevant authorities information on those incidental catches, in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2017/1004 of the European Parliament and of the Council1a.
_______________________
1a Regulation (EU) 2017/1004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 May 2017 on the establishment of a Union framework for the collection, management and use of data in the fisheries sector and support for scientific advice regarding the common fisheries policy and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 199/2008 (OJ L 157, 20.6.2017, p. 1).
Amendment 117
Proposal for a regulation
Article 12 – paragraph 3
3.  Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, the retention on board, transhipment or landing of specimens of marine species referred to in paragraph 1 which have been caught as bycatch, shall be authorised as far as this activity is necessary to secure assistance for the recovery of the individual animals and provided that the competent national authorities concerned have been fully informed in advance.
3.  Notwithstanding paragraphs 1 and 2, the retention on board, transhipment or landing of specimens of marine species referred to in paragraph 1 which have been caught accidentally, shall be permitted as far as this activity is necessary to secure assistance for the recovery of the individual animals. The retention on board, transhipment or landing of specimens of marine species shall be permitted where the specimen is dead and provided that it can be used for scientific purposes. The competent national authorities concerned shall be fully informed in advance.
Amendment 118
Proposal for a regulation
Article 12 – paragraph 3 a (new)
3a.   Paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply when the flag Member State has an official programme that addresses the collection and scientific study of specimens of seabirds, reptiles or marine mammals.
Amendment 119
Proposal for a regulation
Article 12 – paragraph 5
5.  Measures adopted pursuant to in paragraph 4 of this Article shall aim at achieving the target set out in Article 4(1)(b).
5.  Measures adopted pursuant to paragraph 4 of this Article shall aim at achieving the objectives of this Regulation in relation to the performance indicators set out in Article 4(1)(b).
Amendment 120
Proposal for a regulation
Article 12 – paragraph 5 a (new)
5a.   Member States shall monitor the effectiveness of measures adopted under this Article on minimising incidental catches and report to the Commission on progress by ... [two years after the date of entry into force of this Regulation] and every three years thereafter.
Amendment 121
Proposal for a regulation
Article 13 – paragraph 1
1.  It shall be prohibited to deploy the fishing gears specified in Annex II within the relevant areas set out in that Annex.
1.  It shall be prohibited to deploy the fishing gears specified in Annex II within the relevant areas set out in that Annex. Appropriate assessment shall be carried out by Member States when fishing gears are deployed in special areas of conservation under Directive 92/43/ EEC and special protection areas under Directive 2009/147/EC.
Amendment 122
Proposal for a regulation
Article 13 – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.   The deliberate disturbance, deterioration or destruction of sensitive habitats and of breeding sites or resting places of sensitive species shall be prohibited.
Amendment 123
Proposal for a regulation
Article 13 – paragraph 2
2.  Where the best available scientific advice recommends an amendment of the list of areas in Annex II, including the addition of new areas, the Commission shall be empowered to adopt such amendments by means of delegated acts, pursuant to the procedure laid down in Article 11(2) and 11(3) of Regulation (EU) 1380/2013. When adopting such amendments, the Commission shall give particular attention to the mitigation of negative effects of the displacement of fishing activity to other sensitive areas.
2.  Where the best available scientific advice recommends an urgent amendment of the list of areas in Annex II, the Commission shall be empowered to adopt such amendments by means of delegated acts, pursuant to the procedure laid down in Article 11(2) and 11(3) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013. When presenting a proposal with such amendments, the Commission shall provide a full map of the vulnerable area and give particular attention to the mitigation of negative social, economic and environmental effects of the displacement of fishing activity to other areas.
Amendment 124
Proposal for a regulation
Article 13 – paragraph 3
3.  Where such habitats occur in waters under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of a Member State, that Member State is empowered to establish closed areas or other conservation measures to protect such habitats, pursuant to the procedure laid down in Article 11 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013. Such measures shall be compatible with the objectives of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) 1380/2013 and be at least as stringent as measures under Union law.
3.  Where the areas referred to in Annex II are in waters under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of a Member State, that Member State is empowered to establish closed areas or other conservation measures to protect such habitats, pursuant to the procedure laid down in Article 11 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013. Such measures shall be compatible with the objectives of Article 2 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 and be at least as stringent as measures under Union law.
Amendment 125
Proposal for a regulation
Article 13 – paragraph 4 a (new)
4a.   Member States shall adopt measures to protect areas where vulnerable marine ecosystems as defined in point (b) of Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 734/2008 occur or are likely to occur in waters falling under their sovereignty or jurisdictions and close those areas to bottom fishing activities unless the best available scientific advice demonstrates that such activities do not have significant adverse impacts on those ecosystems. Such measures shall be consistent with the Resolutions adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, in particular Resolutions 61/105 and 64/72, and shall as a minimum be equivalent in terms of level of protection provided for vulnerable marine ecosystems under Regulation (EC) No 734/2008.
Amendment 126
Proposal for a regulation
Article 14 – paragraph 1 – point a
(a)  ensuring the protection of juveniles of marine species pursuant to Article 15(11) and 15(12) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013;
(a)  ensuring the protection of juveniles of marine species so that the majority of the fish caught have reached spawning age before being caught and pursuant to Article 15(11) and 15(12) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013;
Amendment 127
Proposal for a regulation
Article 14 – paragraph 1 – point a a (new)
(aa)   prohibiting the placing on the market for human consumption of juveniles of marine species pursuant to point (b) of Article 2(5) and Article 15(11) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013;
Amendment 128
Proposal for a regulation
Article 14 a (new)
Article 14a
Imported fisheries products intended for human consumption
Imported fisheries products intended for human consumption that have been caught outside Union waters in the areas, subareas and divisions referred to in Article 5 shall comply with the minimum conservation reference sizes laid down in the Annexes to this Regulation.
Amendment 129
Proposal for a regulation
Article 15 – paragraph 1
Member States shall have in place measures to facilitate the storage of or find outlets for catches below minimum conservation reference sizes landed in accordance with Article 15(1) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013. Those measures may include support for investment in the construction and adaptation of landing sites and shelters, or support for investments to add value to fishery products.
Member States shall have in place adequate measures to facilitate the storage of or find outlets for catches below minimum conservation reference sizes landed in accordance with Article 15(1) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013. Those measures shall include support for investment in the construction and adaptation of landing sites and shelters, as well as support for investments to add value to fishery products.
Amendment 130
Proposal for a regulation
Article 16 – paragraph 1
1.  The practices of high grading and slipping shall be prohibited.
1.  The practice of high grading shall be prohibited.
Amendment 131
Proposal for a regulation
Article 16 – paragraph 2
2.  Paragraph 1 shall not apply to catches of species which are exempted from the application of the landing obligation in accordance with Article 15(4) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
2.  Paragraph 1 shall not apply to fishing activities in the Mediterranean Sea or catches of species which are exempted from the application of the landing obligation in accordance with Article 15(4) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
Amendment 132
Proposal for a regulation
Article 17 – title
Species not subject to catch limits
Pilot projects for the avoidance of unwanted catches
Amendment 133
Proposal for a regulation
Article 17 – paragraph 1
1.  Member States may conduct pilot projects with the aim of exploring methods for the avoidance, minimisation and elimination of unwanted catches of the species not subject to catch limits. Those pilot projects shall take account of the opinions of the relevant Advisory Councils and be based on best available scientific advice.
1.  Member States may conduct pilot projects with the aim of exploring methods for the avoidance, minimisation and elimination of unwanted catches. Those pilot projects shall take account of the opinions of the relevant Advisory Councils and be based on best available scientific advice.
Amendment 134
Proposal for a regulation
Article 17 – paragraph 2
2.  Where the results of those pilot studies or other scientific advice indicate that unwanted catches of species which are not subject to catch limits are significant, Member States may establish technical measures to reduce those unwanted catches in accordance with the procedure set out in Article 19 of Regulation (EU) 1380/2013. Those technical measures shall apply solely to fishing vessels flying the flag of that Member State.
2.  Where the results of those pilot studies or other scientific advice indicate that unwanted catches of species which are not subject to catch limits are significant, Member States shall establish technical measures to avoid or as far as possible reduce those unwanted catches in accordance with the procedure set out in Article 19 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 or in Article 18 of this Regulation.
Amendment 135
Proposal for a regulation
Article 17 – paragraph 2 a (new)
2a.   In cases where other Member States wish to establish similar technical measures, a joint recommendation may be submitted in accordance with Article 18.
Amendment 137
Proposal for a regulation
Article 17 a (new)
Article 17a
Documentation
In accordance with Article 49 of Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009, Member States may introduce electronic monitoring arrangements in order to document catches, discards and fishing activity.
Amendment 138
Proposal for a regulation
Chapter 2 – section 5 a (new)
SECTION 5a
ADAPTATION OF FISHING VESSELS
Article 17b
Adaptation of tonnage
On new and existing fishing vessels, increases in the tonnage of the vessel intended to improve safety on board, working conditions and the hygiene and quality of products, as well as increases in the tonnage of the vessel intended to store unwanted catches subject to the landing obligation in accordance with Article 15 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 shall be authorised, provided that they do not result in an increase in the vessel’s catch potential. The corresponding volumes shall not be taken into account for the purpose of assessing fishing capacity in the light of the ceilings imposed in Annex II to Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 or in the entry/exit schemes referred to in Article 23 of that Regulation.
Amendment 139
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – title
Guiding principles
Regional technical measures
Amendment 140
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 1 – point g

(g)  in Annex XI for the Outermost Regions.

(g)  in Annex XI for the Union waters in the Indian Ocean and the West Atlantic.

Amendment 141
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 1 a (new)
However, the provisions on mesh sizes set out in Part B of Annexes V to XI shall only apply in so far as, by ... [18 months after the date of entry into force of this Regulation], no delegated act has been adopted pursuant to paragraph 2 of this Article covering the same subject-matter for the fisheries concerned. In the event that Part B of an Annex to this Regulation becomes applicable, the Commission shall, notwithstanding point 4 of Article 6(1), by the same date adopt a delegated act in accordance with Article 32 supplementing this Regulation by providing a definition of “directed fishing” for the purpose of applying Part B in the relevant fishing zone and to the fisheries concerned.
Until the date of expiry of the deadline set out in the second subparagraph of this paragraph or until the date of adoption of the delegated act referred to in that subparagraph, whichever is earlier, the provisions applicable to mesh sizes on ... [the day before the date of entry into force of this Regulation*] shall continue to apply in respect of the fishing areas concerned.
________________________
* If this approach is accepted, Articles 35-41 are to be adapted in the course of the negotiations with Council, after having identified the measures that will remain applicable after the date indicated here.
Amendment 142
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.   Where appropriate in order to achieve the objectives of the CFP and to take into account the specificities of a region, technical measures that deviate from the measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article may be adopted in the context of a multiannual plan referred to in Articles 9 and 10 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
Amendment 143
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 2
2.  In accordance with the procedure set out in Article 18 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 Member States may submit joint recommendations defining appropriate technical measures at the regional level that deviate from the measures set out in paragraph 1.
2.  Where no multiannual plan is in place for the fisheries in question or where the relevant multiannual plan does not establish technical measures or a procedure for the adoption of such technical measures, the Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 of this Regulation and Article 18 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 supplementing this Regulation by defining appropriate technical measures at the regional level that deviate from the measures set out in paragraph 1, in particular by establishing mesh sizes to be applied at regional level. For the purpose of adopting such delegated acts, Member States may submit a joint recommendation in accordance with Article 18(1) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 by ... [12 months after the date of entry into force of this Regulation]. The Commission shall make those joint recommendations public immediately after their submission by the Member States and shall make public any scientific assessment carried out to ensure their compliance with Article 18(5) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
Amendment 144
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 2 a (new)
2a.  The measures adopted pursuant to paragraphs 1a and 2 shall:
(a)  aim at achieving the objectives set out in Article 3 of this Regulation, taking particular account of the performance indicators set out in Article 4 hereof;
(b)  be guided by the principles of good governance set out in Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013;
(c)  provide incentives to fishing vessels deploying selective fishing gear or using fishing techniques with reduced environmental impact, including through the allocation of fishing opportunities; and
(d)  be at least equivalent to the measures referred to in paragraph 1 or, in the case of rules on mesh sizes, to the measures applicable on... [the day before the date of entry into force of this Regulation] in terms of exploitation patterns and the level of protection provided for sensitive species and habitats.
Amendment 145
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 3
3.  Technical measures recommended in accordance with paragraph 2 shall as a minimum be equivalent in terms of exploitation patterns and level of protection provided for sensitive species and habitats as those measures referred to in paragraph 1.
3.  In accordance with Article18(5) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, Member States shall base the joint recommendations referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article on the best available scientific advice. That scientific advice shall take into account the impact of such measures on the targeted species and sensitive species and habitats, demonstrating the benefits for the conservation of the marine ecosystem.
Amendment 146
Proposal for a regulation
Article 18 – paragraph 3 a (new)
3a.   Notwithstanding Article 18(1), (3) and (6) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, the Commission may adopt such delegated acts also in the absence of a joint recommendation referred to in these paragraphs.
Amendment 147
Proposal for a regulation
Article 19
Article 19
deleted
Regional measures under multiannual plans
1.  The Commission shall be empowered to establish technical measures at regional level with the aim of achieving objectives of multiannual plans referred to in Articles 9 and 10 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013. Such measures shall be established by means of delegated acts adopted in accordance with Article 32 of this Regulation and Article 18 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013.
2.  Measures established in accordance with paragraph 1 may:
(a)  amend or supplement the measures set out in Annexes V to XI;
(b)  derogate from the measures set out in Annexes V to XI for a specific area or time period, provided it can be demonstrated that those measures have no conservation benefit in that area or period or that the alternative measures achieve the same objectives.
3.  A multiannual plan may define the kind of technical measures that may be adopted pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 for the relevant region.
4.  The measures adopted pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 shall
(a)  aim at achieving the objectives and targets set out in Articles 3 and 4 of this Regulation;
(b)  be guided by the principles of good governance set out in Article 3 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013; and
(c)  provide incentives to fishing vessels deploying selective fishing gear or using fishing techniques with reduced environmental impact through the allocation of fishing opportunities.
5.  Where Member States submit joint recommendations for the establishment of technical measures as referred to in paragraph 1, they shall provide scientific evidence to support the adoption of those measures.
6.  The Commission may require the STECF to assess the joint recommendations referred to in paragraph 5.
Amendment 148
Proposal for a regulation
Article 20 – paragraph 1 – introductory part
1.  When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 19 to define size selective and species selective gears, they shall provide evidence demonstrating that those gears meet at least one of the following criteria:
1.  When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 18 to define size selective and species selective gears, they shall provide evidence demonstrating that those gears meet at least one of the following criteria:
Amendment 149
Proposal for a regulation
Article 21 – paragraph 1 – introductory part
When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 19 to amend the closed or restricted areas listed in Part C of Annexes V to VIII and X and Part B of Annex XI or establish new closed or restricted areas they shall include the following elements in respect of such closed or restricted areas in those joint recommendations:
When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 18 to amend the closed or restricted areas listed in Part C of Annexes V to VIII and X and Part B of Annex XI, establish new closed or restricted areas, or do away with them, they shall include the following elements in respect of such closed or restricted areas in those joint recommendations:
Amendment 150
Proposal for a regulation
Article 21 – paragraph 1 a (new)
If Member States do not adopt joint recommendations, the Commission may adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 establishing closed or restricted areas on the basis of the best available scientific advice.
Amendment 151
Proposal for a regulation
Article 22 – paragraph 1
1.  When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 19 to amend or establish minimum conservation reference sizes listed in Part A of Annexes V to X they shall respect the objective of ensuring the protection of juveniles of marine species.
1.  When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 18 to amend or establish minimum conservation reference sizes listed in Part A of Annexes V to X they shall respect the objective of ensuring the protection of juveniles of marine species. Joint recommendations shall be based on the best available scientific evidence and shall take into account biological grounds, in particular the maturity size of the species. Joint recommendations shall not jeopardise the control and enforcement provisions relating to the landing and marketing of fishery products.
Amendment 152
Proposal for a regulation
Article 23 – paragraph 1 – introductory part
When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 19 to allow for the creation of real-time closures and moving on provisions with the aim of ensuring the protection of aggregations of juveniles or spawning fish or shellfish species, they shall include the following elements:
When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 18 to allow for the creation of real-time closures and moving on provisions with the aim of ensuring the protection of aggregations of juveniles or spawning fish or shellfish species or sensitive species, they shall include the following elements:
Amendment 153
Proposal for a regulation
Article 23 – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.   In the event that the vessels of only one Member State are affected by the real-time closures or the displacements, measures based on the best available scientific advice shall be adopted to reduce the impact on the affected vessels.
Amendments 304 and 154
Proposal for a regulation
Article 24 – paragraph 1
1.  When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 19 to allow for the use or extend the use of innovative fishing gears including the pulse trawl as described in Part E of Annex V within a specific sea basin, they shall provide an assessment of the likely impacts of using such gears on the targeted species and on sensitive species and habitats.
1.  When Member States submit joint recommendations in accordance with Article 18 to allow for the use or extend the use of innovative fishing gears within a specific sea basin, they shall provide an assessment of the likely impacts of using such gears on the targeted species and on sensitive species and habitats.
Such an assessment shall be based on use of the innovative gear during a trial period which shall be limited to no more than 5 % of the vessels currently in that metier for a period of at least four years.
Amendment 155
Proposal for a regulation
Article 24 – paragraph 3
3.  The use of innovative fishing gears shall not be permitted where those assessments indicate that their use will lead to negative impacts on sensitive habitats and non-target species.
3.  The use of innovative fishing gears shall only be permitted on a commercial scale where the assessment referred to in paragraph 1 indicates that in comparison with existing regulated fishing gear and techniques, their use will not lead to direct or cumulative negative impacts on marine habitats, including sensitive habitats or non-target species.
Amendment 156
Proposal for a regulation
Article 25 – paragraph 1 – indent 2 a (new)
—   provide information on the effectiveness of existing mitigation measures and monitoring arrangements;
Amendment 158
Proposal for a regulation
Article 25 – paragraph 1 a (new)
Member States shall ensure that the fishermen directly concerned by these measures are appropriately consulted.
Amendment 159
Proposal for a regulation
Article 26 – paragraph 1 – point d a (new)
(da)   derogations adopted on the basis of Article 15(4) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013;
Amendment 160
Proposal for a regulation
Article 26 – paragraph 2
2.  The measures referred to in paragraph 1 shall aim at achieving the objectives set out in Article 3 and in particular for the protection of aggregations of juveniles or spawning fish or shellfish species.
2.  The measures referred to in paragraph 1 shall aim at achieving the objectives set out in Article 3 and in particular for the protection of aggregations of juveniles or spawning fish or shellfish species. They shall be at least as stringent as technical measures applicable under Union law.
Amendment 161
Proposal for a regulation
Article 26 a (new)
Article 26a
Pilot projects on full documentation of catches and discards
1.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 of this Regulation and Article 18 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, supplementing this Regulation by defining pilot projects that develop a system of full documentation of catches and discards based on measurable targets and objectives, for the purpose of a results-based management of fisheries.
2.  The pilot projects referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article may derogate from the measures set out in Part B of Annexes V to XI for a specific area and for a maximum period of one year, provided that it can be demonstrated that such pilot projects aim at achieving the objectives set out in Article 3 and complying with the performance indicators set out in Article 4 and, in particular, aim at improving the selectivity of the fishing gear or practice concerned or otherwise reduce its environmental impact. That one-year period may be extended by one more year under the same conditions. It shall be limited to no more than 5% of the vessels in that metier per Member State.
3.  Where Member States submit joint recommendations for the establishment of pilot projects as referred to in paragraph 1, they shall provide scientific evidence to support their adoption. STEFC shall assess those joint recommendations and shall make that assessment public. Within six months of the conclusion of the project, the Member States shall submit a report to the Commission outlining the results, including a detailed assessment of the changes in selectivity and other environmental impacts.
4.  STECF shall assess the report referred to in paragraph 3. Where STECF concludes that the new gear or practice successfully achieves the objectives set out in paragraph 2, the Commission may submit a proposal in accordance with the TFEU to allow for the generalised use of that gear or practice. The STECF assessment shall be made public.
5.  The Commission shall adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 supplementing this Regulation by defining the technical specifications of a system for the full documentation of catches and discards referred to in paragraph 1.
Amendment 162
Proposal for a regulation
Chapter IV
CHAPTER IV
deleted
REGIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS
Article 28
North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC)
The Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 in order to
(a)   transpose into Union law certain technical measures agreed by the North East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC), including lists of vulnerable marine ecosystems and specific technical measures related to fisheries for blue ling and redfish defined in NEAFC Recommendations 05:2013, 19:2014, 01:2015, 02:2015; and
(b)   adopt other technical measures supplementing or amending certain non-essential elements of legislative acts which transpose NEAFC recommendations.
Amendment 163
Proposal for a regulation
Article 29 – paragraph 1 – introductory part
1.  The technical measures provided for in this Regulation shall not apply to fishing operations conducted solely for the purpose of scientific investigations subject to the following conditions:
1.  The technical measures provided for in this Regulation shall not apply to fishing operations conducted in the context of scientific investigations subject to the following conditions:
Amendment 164
Proposal for a regulation
Article 29 – paragraph 2 – point b
(b)  they are sold for purposes other than direct human consumption.
(b)  in the case of fish below the minimum conservation reference size, they are sold for purposes other than direct human consumption.
Amendment 165
Proposal for a regulation
Article 30 – title
Artificial restocking and transplantation
Direct restocking and transplantation
Amendment 166
Proposal for a regulation
Article 30 – paragraph 1
1.  The technical measures provided for in this Regulation shall not apply to fishing operations conducted solely for the purpose of artificial restocking or transplantation of marine species, provided that those operations are carried out with the permission and under the authority of the Member State or Member States having a direct management interest.
1.  The technical measures provided for in this Regulation shall not apply to fishing operations conducted solely for the purpose of direct restocking or transplantation of marine species, provided that those operations are carried out with the permission and under the authority of the Member State or Member States having a direct management interest.
Amendment 167
Proposal for a regulation
Article 30 – paragraph 2
2.  Where the artificial restocking or transplantation is carried out in the waters of another Member State or Member States, the Commission and all those Member States shall be informed at least one month in advance of the intention to conduct such fishing operations.
2.  Where the direct restocking or transplantation is carried out in the waters of another Member State or Member States, the Commission and all those Member States shall be informed at least one month in advance of the intention to conduct such fishing operations.
Amendment 168
Proposal for a regulation
Article 31 – paragraph 1
1.  Where available scientific advice indicates that immediate action is required to protect marine species, the Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 to alleviate such threats. Those acts may concern, in particular, restrictions on the use of fishing gears or on fishing activities in certain areas or during certain periods.
1.  Where available scientific advice indicates that immediate action is required to protect marine species or marine habitats, the Commission shall be empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 32 to alleviate such threats. Those acts may concern, in particular, restrictions on the use of fishing gears or on fishing activities in certain areas or during certain periods, or any other conservation measure needed.
Amendment 273
Proposal for a regulation
Article 31 – paragraph 2 – point b a (new)
(ba)  provide protection for sensitive species and habitats, where there is evidence of a serious threat to their conservation.
Amendment 169
Proposal for a regulation
Article 31 – paragraph 3
3.  Delegated acts referred to in paragraph 1 shall apply for a period of no more than three years without prejudice to paragraph 6 of Article 32.
3.  Delegated acts referred to in paragraph 1 shall apply for a period of no more than two years without prejudice to paragraph 6 of Article 32.
Amendment 170
Proposal for a regulation
Article 34 – paragraph 1
1.  By the end of 2020 and every third year thereafter, and on the basis of information supplied by Member States and the relevant Advisory Councils and following evaluation by the STECF, the Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation of this Regulation. This report shall assess the extent to which technical measures both regionally and at Union level have contributed to achieving the objectives set out in Article 3 and in reaching the targets set out in Article 4.
1.  By ... [three years after the date of entry into force of this Regulation] and every third year thereafter, and on the basis of information supplied by Member States and the relevant Advisory Councils and following evaluation by the STECF, the Commission shall submit a report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation of this Regulation. This report shall assess the extent to which technical measures both regionally and at Union level have contributed to achieving the objectives referred to in Article 3 on the basis of the performance indicators set out in article 4.
Amendment 171
Proposal for a regulation
Article 34 – paragraph 2
2.  On the basis of that report, where at regional level there is evidence that the objectives and targets have not been met, within six months after the submission of the report as referred to in paragraph 1 Member States within that region shall submit a plan setting out the corrective actions to be taken to ensure those objectives and targets can be met.
2.  On the basis of that report, where at regional level there is evidence that the objectives have not been met or the specific levels of catches below minimum conservation size for key fisheries as referred to in point (a) of Article 4(1) have been exceeded, within twelve months after the submission of the report referred to in paragraph 1 Member States within that region shall submit a plan setting out the corrective actions to be taken to ensure the objectives set out in Article 3 can be met and catches of marine species below minimum conservation reference sizes can be reduced to the levels referred to in point (a) of Article 4(1).
Amendment 172
Proposal for a regulation
Article 34 – paragraph 2 a (new)
2a.  The Commission shall assist Member States in establishing a national action plan in order to address identified difficulties in implementing new technical measures to achieve the requirements set out in Article 4. Member States shall take all measures necessary to implement that action plan.
Amendment 173
Proposal for a regulation
Article 34 – paragraph 3 a (new)
3a.   Where the report shows that a Member State has failed to comply with its obligations regarding control and data collection, the Commission may interrupt or suspend the EMFF funding for that Member State, in accordance with Articles 100 and 101 of Regulation (EU) No 508/2014.
Amendment 174
Proposal for a regulation
Article 35 – paragraph 1 – point a
(a)  Articles 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 25 are deleted;
(a)  Articles 3, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, the second subparagraph of Article 13(3), and Articles 14, 15, 16 and 25 are deleted;
Amendment 175
Proposal for a regulation
Article 36
Article 36
deleted
Amendments to Regulation (EC) No 1098/2007
In Regulation (EC) No 1098/2007, Articles 8 and 9 are deleted.
Amendment 176
Proposal for a regulation
Article 37 – paragraph 1 – point b
Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009
Article 54 c – paragraph 2 – point a
(a)  the vessel does not simultaneously carry or use on board either towed gear of mesh size less than 80 mm or one or more purse seines or similar fishing gears; or
(a)  the vessel does not simultaneously carry or use on board either towed gear of mesh size less than 70 mm or one or more purse seines or similar fishing gears; or
Amendment 177
Proposal for a regulation
Article 37 – paragraph 1 – point b
Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009
Article 54 c – paragraph 2 – point b – indent 2
the graded fish are frozen immediately after grading and no graded fish are returned to the sea; and
the graded fish are frozen after grading and no graded fish are returned to the sea; and
Amendment 178
Proposal for a regulation
Article 37 – paragraph 1 – point b
Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009
Article 54 c – paragraph 2 – point b – indent 3
(the equipment is installed and located on the vessel in such a way as to ensure immediate freezing and not to allow the return of marine species to the sea.
the equipment is installed and located on the vessel in such a way as to ensure freezing and not to allow the return of marine species to the sea.
Amendment 179
Proposal for a regulation
Article 37 – paragraph 1 – point b
Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009
Article 54 c – paragraph 3 a (new)
3a.   The competent authority of the flag State shall certify the freezer trawler plans to ensure that they are in accordance with the applicable rules.
Amendment 180
Proposal for a regulation
Article 38
Article 38
deleted
Amendment to Regulation (EU) No 1343/2011
Article 26 of Regulation (EC) No 1343/2011, is amended as follows:
(1)   the following point is added:
‘(h) technical measures in Articles 4, 10, 12, 15, 15a, 16, 16b, 16c, 16d, 16f, 16g, 16h, 16i, 16j and 16k.; ’
(2)   the following paragraph is added:
‘The Commission shall also be empowered to adopt delegated acts, in accordance with Article 27, in order to transpose into Union law other technical measures established by the GFCM that become obligatory for the Union and to supplement or amend certain non-essential elements of legislative acts which transpose GFCM recommendations on technical measures. ’
Amendment 181
Proposal for a regulation
Article 40 – paragraph 1
Regulations (EC) No 894/97, (EC) No 850/98, ((EC) No 2549/2000, (EC) No 254/2002, (EC) No 812/2004 and (EC) No 2187/2005 are repealed.
Regulations (EC) No 894/97, (EC) No 850/98, (EC) No 2549/2000, (EC) No 254/2002, (EC) No 812/2004 and (EC) No 2187/2005 as well as Commission Regulation (EC) No 494/20021a are repealed.
____________________________
1a Commission Regulation (EC) No 494/2002 of 19 March 2002 establishing additional technical measures for the recovery of the stock of hake in ICES sub-areas III, IV, V, VI and VII and ICES divisions VIII a, b, d, e (OJ L 77, 20.3.2002, p. 8).
Amendment 182
Proposal for a regulation
Annex I – point n a (new)
(na)  houting (Coregonus oxyrhynchus) in ICES sub-area IVb (Union waters);
Amendment 183
Proposal for a regulation
Annex I – point n b (new)
(nb)  the Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and common sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) in Union waters;
Amendment 184
Proposal for a regulation
Annex I – point o
(o)  berried female crawfish (Palinuridae spp.) and berried female lobster (Homarus gammarus) in all Union waters except when used for direct restocking or transplantation purposes;
(Does not affect the English version.)
Amendment 185
Proposal for a regulation
Annex I – point p
(p)  date shell (Lithophaga lithophaga) and common piddock (Pholas dactylus) in Union waters in the Mediterranean.
(p)  date shell (Lithophaga lithophaga), fan mussel (Pinna nobilis) and common piddock (Pholas dactylus) in Union waters in the Mediterranean;
Amendment 186
Proposal for a regulation
Annex I – point p a (new)
(pa)  hatpin urchin (Centrostephanus longispinus).
Amendment 187
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – point 5 a (new)
5a.   The size of a spinous spider crab shall be measured, as shown in Figure 5a, as the length of the carapace, along the mid-line, from the edge of the carapace, between the rostrums to the posterior edge of the carapace.
Amendment 188
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – point 5 b (new)
5b.   The size of an edible crab shall be measured, as shown in Figure 5b, as the maximum width of the carapace measured perpendicular to the anteroposterior midline of the carapace.
Amendment 189
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – point 5 c (new)
5c.   The size of a whelk shall be measured, as shown in Figure 5c, as the length of the shell.
Amendment 190
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – point 5 d (new)
5d.   The size of any swordfish shall be measured, as shown in Figure 5d, as the length from the fork of the caudal fin to the tip of the lower jaw.
Amendment 191
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – Figure 5 a (new)
Figure 5a Spinous spider crab (Maia squinada)
20180116-P8_TA(2018)0003_EN-p0000002.png
Amendment 192
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – Figure 5 b (new)
Figure 5b Edible crab (Cancer pagarus)
20180116-P8_TA(2018)0003_EN-p0000003.png
Amendment 193
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – Figure 5 c (new)
Figure 5c Whelk (Buccinum spp)
20180116-P8_TA(2018)0003_EN-p0000004.png
Amendment 194
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IV – Figure 5 d (new)
Figure 5d Swordfish (Xiphias gladius)
20180116-P8_TA(2018)0003_EN-p0000005.png
Amendment 195
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 1 – row 14

Text proposed by the Commission

Mackerel (Scomber spp.)

20 cm

Amendment

 

Mackerel (Scomber spp.)

30 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 196
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 1 – row 15

Text proposed by the Commission

Herring (Clupea harengus)

20 cm

Amendment

 

Herring (Clupea harengus)

20 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 197
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 1 – row 16

Text proposed by the Commission

Horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.)

15 cm

Amendment

Horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.)

15 cm 1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 198
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 1 – row 17

Text proposed by the Commission

Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

12 cm or 90 individuals per kilo

Amendment

Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

12 cm or 90 individuals per kilo1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 199
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V - Part A - table 1 - row 19

Text proposed by the Commission

Sardine (Sardina pilchardus)

11 cm

Amendment

Sardine (Sardina pilchardus)

11 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 200
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V - Part A - table 1 - row 20

Text proposed by the Commission

Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

87 mm

Amendment

Lobster (Homarus gammarus)

87 mm (carapace length)

Amendment 201
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 1 – row 34

Text proposed by the Commission

Crawfish (Palinurus spp.)

95 mm

Amendment

Crawfish (Palinurus spp.)

95 mm (carapace length)

Amendment 202
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V - Part A - table 2 - row 13

Text proposed by the Commission

Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)

Total length 105mm

 

Carapace length 32mm

Amendment

Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus)

Total length 105mm

 

Carapace length 32mm

 

Norway lobster tails 59 mm

Amendment 203
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V - Part A - table 2 - row 14

Text proposed by the Commission

Mackerel (Scomber spp.)

20 cm

Amendment

Mackerel (Scomber spp.)

20 cm 1a

 

__________________

 

1aThe minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 204
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 2 – row 15

Text proposed by the Commission

Herring (Clupea harengus)

18 cm

Amendment

Herring (Clupea harengus)

18 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1aThe minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 205
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part A – table 2 – row 16

Text proposed by the Commission

Horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.)

15 cm

Amendment

Horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.)

15 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1aThe minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 206
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part B – paragraph 1 – table – row 2 b (new)

Text proposed by the Commission

Amendment

At least 90 mm

Skagerrak and Kattegat

A panel with a mesh size of at least 270 mm (diamond mesh) or of 140mm1a (square mesh) shall be fitted.

 

 

__________________

 

 

1a In the Kattegat subdivision, a square mesh panel of 120 mm shall be fitted (on the trawl between 1 October and 31 December and on the purse seine between 1 August and 31 October).

Amendments 305 and 355
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part B - paragraph 1 – table –row 4

 

Text proposed by the Commission

 

 

At least 80mm

ICES Division IVb south of 54° 30'N and ICES Division IVc

Directed fishing for sole with beam trawls or [Pulse Trawls]. A panel with a mesh size of at least 180mm fitted in the upper half of the anterior part of the net.

 

Amendment

 

 

At least 80mm

ICES Division IVb south of 54° 30'N and ICES Division IVc

Directed fishing for sole with beam trawls. A panel with a mesh size of at least 180mm fitted in the upper half of the anterior part of the net.

Amendment 208
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part B – paragraph 1 – table – row 4 b (new)

Text proposed by the Commission

Amendment

At least 40mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for squid (85 % of catches) (Lolignidae, Ommastrephidae).

Amendment 209
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part B – paragraph 1 – table – row 6

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 16mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for small pelagic species.

 

 

Directed fishing for Norway pout. A sorting grid with a maximum bar spacing of 22 mm in the Norway Pout fishery shall be fitted.

 

 

Directed fishing for Crangon crangon. A sorting grid, sieve net or equivalent selectivity device shall be fitted.

Amendment

At least 16mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for small pelagic species (80 % of catches).

 

 

Directed fishing for Norway pout (50 % of catches). A sorting grid with a maximum bar spacing of 35 mm in the Norway Pout fishery shall be fitted.

 

 

Directed fishing for common shrimp and Aesop shrimp (90 % of catches). A selective net or a sorting grid shall be fitted in accordance with nationally agreed standards.

Amendment 210
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part B – paragraph 2 – title
2.  Baseline mesh sizes for static nets
2.  Baseline mesh sizes for static nets and driftnets
Amendment 211
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part B – paragraph 2 – introductory part
The following mesh sizes for static nets shall apply in the North Sea and Skagerrak/Kattegat.
The following mesh sizes for static nets and driftnets shall apply in the North Sea and Skagerrak/Kattegat.
Amendment 212
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part C – paragraph 1 – point 1.1
1.1  Fishing for sandeels with any towed gear with a codend mesh size less than 80 mm or any static net with a mesh size of less than 100 mm shall be prohibited within the geographical area bounded by the east coast of England and Scotland, and enclosed by sequentially joining with rhumb lines the following coordinates, which shall be measured according to the WGS84 system:
1.1  Fishing for sand eels with any towed gear with a codend mesh size less than 32 mm shall be prohibited within the geographical area bounded by the east coast of England and Scotland, and enclosed by sequentially joining with rhumb lines the following coordinates, which shall be measured according to the WGS84 system:
Amendment 213
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part C – paragraph 2 – point 2.2 – indent 1
—  vessels whose engine power does not exceed 221kW using demersal trawls or Danish seines;
—  vessels whose engine power does not exceed 221 kW using bottom trawls or Danish seines;
Amendment 214
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part C – paragraph 2 – point 2.2 – indent 2
—  paired vessels whose combined engine power does not exceed 221kW at any time using demersal pair trawls;
—  paired vessels whose combined engine power does not exceed 221 kW at any time using pair bottom trawls;
Amendment 215
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part C – paragraph 2 – point 2.2 – indent 3
—  vessels whose engine power exceeds 221kW shall be permitted to use demersal trawls or Danish seine, and paired vessels whose combined engine power exceeds 221kW shall be permitted to use demersal pair trawls provided that such vessels do not engage in directed fishing for plaice and sole and respect the relevant mesh size rules contained in Part B of this Annex.
—  vessels whose engine power exceeds 221 kW shall be permitted to use demersal trawls or Danish seine, and paired vessels whose combined engine power exceeds 221 kW shall be permitted to use pair bottom trawls provided that such vessels do not engage in directed fishing for plaice and sole and respect the relevant mesh size rules contained in Part B of this Annex.
Amendment 216
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part C – paragraph 6 – point 6.2
6.2  Directed fishing for deepwater sharks as listed in Annex I of Regulation (EC) No 2347/20021 in charted depths of less than 600 metres shall be prohibited. When accidentally caught deepwater sharks shall be retained on board. Such catches shall be landed and counted against quotas. Where accidental catches of deepwater sharks by the vessels of any Member State exceed 10 tonne then those vessels may no longer avail of the derogations set out in point 6.1.
6.2  Directed fishing for deepwater sharks as listed in Annex I of Regulation (EU) 2016/2336 of the European Parliament and of the Council 1 in charted depths of less than 600 metres shall be prohibited. When accidentally caught deepwater sharks for which fishing is expressly prohibited under Union law shall be released back into the sea as soon as possible. Catches of deepwater species of shark subject to catch limits shall be retained on board. Such catches shall be landed and counted against quotas. In the event that a Member State does not have a sufficient quota, the Commission shall be permitted to apply Article 105(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009. Where accidental catches of deepwater sharks by the vessels of any Member State exceed 10 tonnes then those vessels may no longer avail of the derogations set out in point 6.1.
__________________
__________________
1 Council Regulation (EC) No 2347/2002 of 16 December 2002 establishing specific access requirements and associated conditions applicable to fishing for deep-sea stocks (OJ L 351, 28.12.2002, p. 6).
1 Regulation (EU) 2016/2336 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 establishing specific conditions for fishing for deep-sea stocks in the north-east Atlantic and provisions for fishing in international waters of the north-east Atlantic and repealing Council Regulation (EC) No 2347/2002 (OJ L 354, 23.12.2016, p. 1).
Amendment 274
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part D – subheading
Measures to reduce incidental catches of cetaceans in ICES division IIIa and sub-area IV
Measures to reduce incidental catches of marine mammals in ICES division IIIa and sub-area IV
Amendment 275
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part D – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.  Measures to minimise incidental catches of seabirds
1.  Scientific research programmes shall be established in the North Sea to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in the North Sea where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.
3.  Vessels fishing with longlines in the North Sea shall use a combination of scientifically tested technical solutions such as tori lines, changes to line weights, hook shielding and setting longline gear during the hours of darkness with the minimum of deck lighting necessary for safety. The combinations should be determined on the basis of gear configurations and the susceptible species likely to be caught by fleets. Specification should comply with the standards as set out in international agreed guidelines.
4.  Member States shall monitor and assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures that have been established, including in relation to the fishing catch and fishing effort.
Amendments 306, 314, 315 and 356
Proposal for a regulation
Annex V – Part E
Part E
deleted
Innovative fishing methods
The use of electric pulse trawls in ICES divisions IVb and IVc
Notwithstanding Article 13, fishing with an electric pulse trawl shall be allowed in ICES divisions IVb and IVc under conditions defined in accordance with the second indent of paragraph 1of Article 27 of this Regulation, regarding the characteristics of the pulse used and control monitoring measures in place south of a rhumb line joined by the following points, which shall be measured according to the WGS84 coordinate system:
–  a point on east coast of the United Kingdom at latitude 55°N
–  east to latitude 55°N, longitude 5°E
–  north to latitude 56°N
–  east to a point on the west coast of Denmark at latitude 56°N
Amendment 324
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – part A – table - row 14

Text proposed by the Commission

 

Mackerel (Scomber spp.)

20 cm

Amendment

 

Mackerel (Scomber spp.)

20 cm1a

 

___________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % may not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 218
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part A– table – row 15

Text proposed by the Commission

Herring (Clupea harengus)

20 cm

Amendment

Herring (Clupea harengus)

20 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 219
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part A – table – row 16

Text proposed by the Commission

Horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.)

15 cm3

 

__________________

 

3 In Union waters in ICES sub-areas, V, VI south of 56° N and VII, except ICES divisions VIId, e, f, a minimum conservation reference size of 130 mm shall apply.

Amendment

Horse mackerel (Trachurus spp.)

15 cm3, 3a

 

__________________

 

3 In Union waters in ICES sub-areas, V, VI south of 56° N and VII, except ICES divisions VIId, e, f, a minimum conservation reference size of 130 mm shall apply.

 

3a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 220
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part A – table – row 17

Text proposed by the Commission

Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

12 cm or 90 individuals per kilo

Amendment

Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus)

12 cm or 90 individuals per kilo1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 221
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part B – paragraph 1 – table – row 2

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 120 mm

Whole area

None

Amendment

At least 100 mm1a

Whole area

None

__________________

 

 

1a To be phased in over a two year period from the date of entry into force of this Regulation. For ICES Divisions VIId and VIIe a mesh size of at least 100 mm shall apply.

 

 

Amendment 223
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – part B – paragraph 2 – title
2.  Baseline mesh sizes for static nets
2.  Baseline mesh sizes for static nets and driftnets
Amendment 224
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – part B – paragraph 2 – introductory part
The following mesh sizes for static nets shall apply in North Western waters.
The following mesh sizes for static nets and driftnets shall apply in North Western waters.
Amendment 225
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part B – paragraph 2 – table– row 2

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 120 mm1

Whole area

None

Amendment

At least 120 mm1

Whole area

None

__________________

 

 

1 For directed fishing for anglerfish (30% of catches) a mesh size of at least 220 mm shall be used. A mesh size of at least 110 mm for directed fishing for pollock and hake (50% of catches) in ICES divisions VIId and VIIe

 

 

Amendment 226
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI - Part B - table - row 4

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 50mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for small pelagic species

Amendment

At least 50mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for small pelagic species (80 % of catches)

 

 

Directed fishing for red mullet (50 % of catches)

Amendment 227
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part C – paragraph 1 – subparagraph 1 – introductory part
From 1 January to 31 March, and from 1 October to 31 December each year, it shall be prohibited to conduct any fishing activity using any towed gears or static nets in the area enclosed by sequentially joining with rhumb lines the following co-ordinates, measured according to the WGS84 coordinate system:
From 1 January to 31 March, and from 1 October to 31 December each year, it shall be prohibited to conduct any fishing activity using any bottom towed gears or bottom static nets in the area enclosed by sequentially joining with rhumb lines the following co-ordinates, measured according to the WGS84 coordinate system:
Amendment 228
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part C – paragraph 3 – point 3.2
3.2  By way of derogation from point 1, within the area and time period referred to therein the use of demersal trawls shall be permitted provided such trawls are fitted with selective devices that have been assessed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF). Where bycatches of cod caught by the vessels of any Member State operating within the areas referred to in point 3.1 exceed 10 tonnes then those vessels may no longer fish within that area.
3.2  By way of derogation from point 1, within the area and time period referred to therein the use of demersal trawls shall be permitted provided such trawls are fitted with selective devices that have been assessed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF).
Amendment 229
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part C – paragraph 9 – title
9.  Use of static nets in ICES divisions Vb, VIa, VII b,c,j,k
9.  Use of static nets in ICES divisions Vb, VIa, VIb, VII b, c, h, j, k
Amendment 230
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part C – paragraph 9 – point 9.2
9.2.  Directed fishing for deepwater sharks as listed in Annex I of Regulation (EC) No 2347/2002 in charted depths of less than 600 metres shall be prohibited. When accidentally caught deepwater sharks shall be retained on board. Such catches shall be landed and counted against quotas. Where accidental catches of deepwater sharks by the vessels of any Member State exceed 10 tonnes then vessels may no longer avail of the derogations as described in point 9.1.
9.2.  Directed fishing for deepwater sharks as listed in Annex I of Regulation (EU) 2016/2336 in charted depths of less than 600 metres shall be prohibited. When accidentally caught deepwater sharks for which fishing is expressly prohibited under Union law shall be released back into the sea as soon as possible. Catches of deepwater species of shark subject to catch limits shall be retained on board. Such catches shall be landed and counted against quotas. In the event that a Member State does not have a sufficient quota, the Commission shall be permitted to apply Article 105(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009. Where accidental catches of deepwater sharks by the vessels of any Member State exceed 10 tonnes then those vessels may no longer avail of the derogations set out in point 9.1.
Amendment 276
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part D – paragraph 1 – title
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of cetaceans in ICES divisions VIa and VII d, e, f, g, h and j
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of marine mammals in ICES divisions VI and VII
Amendment 277
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.1 (new)
2.1.  Scientific research programmes shall be established in North Western Waters to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
Amendment 278
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.2 (new)
2.2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in North Western Waters where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.
Amendment 279
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VI – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.3 (new)
2.3.  Member States shall monitor and assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures that have been established, including in relation to the fishing catch and fishing effort.
Amendment 231
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part A – table – row 15

Text proposed by the Commission

Herring (Clupea harengus)

20 cm

Amendment

Herring (Clupea harengus)

20 cm1a

 

__________________

 

1a The minimum conservation reference sizes for sardines, anchovies, herring, horse mackerel and mackerel shall not apply within the 10 % limit of live weight of the total catches retained on board of each of those species.

 

The percentage of undersized sardine, anchovy, herring, horse mackerel or mackerel shall be calculated as the proportion by live weight of all marine organisms on board after sorting or on landing.

 

The percentage shall be calculated on the basis of one or more representative samples. The limit of 10 % shall not be exceeded during transhipment, landing, transportation, storage, display or sale.

Amendment 232
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part A – table – row 18

Text proposed by the Commission

Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

42 cm

Amendment

Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

36 cm

Amendment 233
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part A – table – row 23

Text proposed by the Commission

Queen scallop (Chlamys spp.)

40 mm

Amendment

Queen scallop (Chlamys spp., Mimachlamys spp.)

40 mm

Amendment 234
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part A – table – row 26

Text proposed by the Commission

Short-necked clam (Venerupis philippinarum)

35 mm

Amendment

Short-necked clam (Ruditapes philippinarum)

35 mm

Amendment 235
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part A – table – row 34

Text proposed by the Commission

Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

750 grammes3

 

__________________

 

3 In all waters in that part of the eastern central Atlantic comprising divisions 34.1.1, 34.1.2 and 34.1.3 and sub-area 34.2.0 of fishing zone 34 of the CECAF region a gutted weight of 450 grammes shall apply.

Amendment

Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)

1000 grammes3

 

__________________

 

3 In all waters in that part of the eastern central Atlantic comprising divisions 34.1.1, 34.1.2 and 34.1.3 and sub-area 34.2.0 of fishing zone 34 of the CECAF region a gutted weight of 450 grammes shall apply.

Amendment 242
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part C – paragraph 4 – point 4.2
4.2.  Directed fishing for the deepwater sharks listed in Annex I of Regulation (EC) No 2347/2002 that have a charted depth of less than 600 metres. When accidentally caught deepwater sharks shall be retained on board. Such catches shall be landed and counted against quotas. Where accidental catches of deepwater sharks by the vessels of any Member State exceed 10 tonnes then those vessels may no longer avail of the derogations as described in point 1.
4.2.  Directed fishing for the deepwater sharks listed in Annex I of Regulation (EU) 2016/2336 that have a charted depth of less than 600 metres. When accidentally caught deepwater sharks for which fishing is expressly prohibited under Union law shall be released back into the sea as soon as possible. Catches of deepwater species of shark subject to catch limits shall be retained on board. Such catches shall be landed and counted against quotas. In the event that a Member State does not have a sufficient quota, the Commission shall be permitted to apply Article 105(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1224/2009. Where accidental catches of deepwater sharks by the vessels of any Member State exceed 10 tonnes then those vessels may no longer avail of the derogations set out in point 1.
Amendment 243
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part C – paragraph 4 – point 4.2 a (new)
4.2a.  The Commission may decide, after consulting STECF, to exclude certain types of fisheries in ICES zones VIII, IX and X from the scope of paragraph 4.1 if it is demonstrated by means of information provided by Member States or the implementation of specific management making use of regionalisation, which could involve reducing the vessels operating in the area, reducing fishing months etc., or of multiannual plans that those fisheries have a very low level of shark bycatches or discards.
Amendment 280
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part D – paragraph 1 – title
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of cetaceans in ICES sub-areas VIII and IXa
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of marine mammals in ICES sub-areas VIII and IX
Amendment 281
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.1 (new)
2.1.  Scientific research programmes shall be established in South Western Waters to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
Amendment 282
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.2 (new)
2.2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in South Western Waters where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.
Amendment 283
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VII – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.3 (new)
2.3.  Member States shall monitor and assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures that have been established, including in relation to the fishing catch and fishing effort.
Amendment 247
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VIII – Part B – paragraph 2 – table – row 2

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 157 mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for salmon

Amendment

deleted

 

 

Amendment 284
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VIII – Part D – paragraph 1 – title
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of cetaceans
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of marine mammals
Amendment 285
Proposal for a regulation
Annex VIII – Part D – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.  Measures to minimise incidental catches of seabirds
1.1.  Scientific research programmes shall be established in the Baltic Sea to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
1.2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in the Baltic Sea where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.
1.3  Member States shall monitor and assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures that have been established, including in relation to the fishing catch and fishing effort.
Amendment 251
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part B – paragraph 1 – table – row 2

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 40 mm square mesh codend

Whole area

A diamond mesh codend of 50 mm2 may be used as an alternative to the 44 mm square mesh cod end at the justified request of the vessel owner

 

 

________________

 

 

2 Only one type of net (either 40 mm square mesh or 50 mm diamond mesh) is allowed to be kept on board or deployed.

Amendment

At least 40 mm square mesh codend

Whole area

A diamond mesh codend of 50 mm2 may be used as an alternative to the 40 mm square mesh cod end at the justified request of the vessel owner

 

 

________________

 

 

2 Only one type of net (either 40 mm square mesh or 50 mm diamond mesh) is allowed to be kept on board or deployed.

Amendment 254
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part B – paragraph 2 a (new)
2a.   The existing derogations to the provisions set out in paragraphs 1, 1a and 2 of this Part for encircling gears affected by a management plan referred to in Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1967/2006 and adopted pursuant to Article 9 of that Regulation shall remain in effect unless otherwise provided for under Article 18 of this Regulation.
Amendment 255
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part C – paragraph 5
It shall be prohibited to have on board or set more than 250 pots or creels per vessel to catch deepwater crustacean (including Plesionika spp., Pasiphaea spp. or similar species).
It shall be prohibited to have on board or set more than 250 pots or creels per vessel to catch deep-water crustacean.
Amendment 256
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part C – paragraph 5 – subparagraph 1 a (new)
Highly localised fleets using artisanal gear shall be authorised to catch deep-water crustacean (including Plesionika spp., Pasiphaea spp. or similar species).
Amendment 257
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part C – paragraph 6 a (new)
6a.  Restrictions on underwater spear fishing
It is prohibited to fish with underwater spears using an aqualung and at night, from dusk until dawn.
Amendment 286
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part D – paragraph 1 – title
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of cetaceans
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of marine mammals
Amendment 287
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.1 (new)
2.1.  Scientific research programmes shall be established in the Mediterranean to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
Amendment 288
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.2 (new)
2.2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in the Mediterranean where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.
Amendment 289
Proposal for a regulation
Annex IX – Part D – paragraph 2 – point 2.3 (new)
2.3.  Member States shall monitor and assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures that have been established, including in relation to the fishing catch and fishing effort.
Amendment 259
Proposal for a regulation
Annex X – Part B – paragraph 1 – table – row 2

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 50 mm

Whole area

40 mm square mesh codends may be used as an alternative

Amendment

At least 40 mm

Whole area

50 mm diamond mesh codends1a may be used as an alternative to the 40 mm square mesh codend at the duly substantiated request of the vessel owner.

 

 

__________________

 

 

1a Only one type of net (either 40 mm square mesh or 50 mm diamond mesh) may be carried on board or deployed.

Amendment 260
Proposal for a regulation
Annex X – Part B – paragraph 2 – table – row 2

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 400 mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for turbot

Amendment

At least 400 mm

Whole area

Fishing for turbot with bottom set gillnets

Amendment 261
Proposal for a regulation
Annex X – Part C
Part C
deleted
Closed or restricted areas
Seasonal Closure to protect turbot
Directed fishing, transhipment, landing and first sale of turbot shall be permitted from 15 April to 15 June annually in Union waters of the Black Sea.
Amendment 290
Proposal for a regulation
Annex X – Part D – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.  Measures to minimise incidental catches of seabirds
1a.1.  Scientific research programmes shall be established in the Black Sea to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
1a.2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in the Black Sea where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.
1a.3.  Member States shall monitor and assess the effectiveness of the mitigation measures that have been established, including in relation to the fishing catch and fishing effort.
Amendment 262
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part A – title
Baseline mesh sizes for towed gears
1.   Baseline mesh sizes for towed gears
Amendment 263
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part A – paragraph 1 – introductory part
The following codend mesh sizes shall apply in the Outermost Regions.
The following codend mesh sizes shall apply in Union waters in the Indian Ocean and in the West Atlantic
Amendment 264
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part A – table – row 3

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 45 mm

All waters off the coast of the French department of Guyana that come under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of France

Directed fishing for shrimp (Penaeus subtilis, Penaeus brasiliensis, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri)

Amendment

At least 45 mm

All waters off the coast of the French department of Guyana that come under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of France

Directed fishing for shrimp (Penaeus subtilis, Penaeus brasiliensis, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri) (15 % of catches)

Amendment 265
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part A – table – row 4

Text proposed by the Commission

At least 14 mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for small pelagic species with encircling nets

Amendment

deleted

 

 

Amendment 266
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part A – paragraph 1 a (new)
1a.  Baseline mesh size for purse seines
The following mesh sizes for purse seines shall apply in Union waters in the Indian Ocean and in the West Atlantic
Amendment 267
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part A – paragraph 1 a (new) – table (new)

Text proposed by the Commission

Amendment

Mesh size

Geographical areas

Conditions

At least 14 mm

Whole area

Directed fishing for small pelagic species with purse seines

Amendment 291
Proposal for a regulation
Annex XI – Part B a (new)
Part Ba
Mitigation measures for sensitive species
1.  Measures to reduce incidental catches of marine mammals
1.1.  It shall be prohibited for vessels to deploy static nets, driftnets, pelagic trawls or high vertical opening trawls or other fisheries where evidence identifies bycatch in Outermost Regions, without the simultaneous use of proven mitigation technology. Exemptions should be made only for those fisheries with demonstrated negligible cumulative bycatch.
1.2.  Point 1 shall not apply to fishing operations conducted solely for the purpose of scientific investigation which are carried out with the authorisation and under the authority of the Member States or Member States concerned and which aim at developing new technical measures to reduce the incidental capture or killing of cetaceans.
1.3.  Member States, through dedicated annual monitoring schemes, shall monitor and assess, by means of scientific studies or pilot projects, the effectiveness of the mitigation devices as described in point 1.1 in the fisheries and areas concerned.
2.  Measures to minimise incidental catches of seabirds
2.1.   Scientific research programmes shall be established in the Outermost Regions to identify the overlap of sensitive species with fishing gear and fishing effort and determine technical solutions for fishing gears.
2.2.  Spatial measures shall be applied in the Outermost Regions where scientific research has identified areas where sensitive seabirds are known to be incidentally caught until these can be replaced with other technical measures.

(1) The matter was referred back for interinstitutional negotiations to the committee responsible pursuant to Rule 59(4), fourth subparagraph (A8-0381/2017).


International ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans in the context of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals
PDF 306kWORD 83k
European Parliament resolution of 16 January 2018 on international ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans in the context of the 2030 SDGs (2017/2055(INI))
P8_TA(2018)0004A8-0399/2017

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Joint Communication of the Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy of 10 November 2016 on ‘International ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans’ (JOIN(2016)0049),

–  having regard to the draft Council conclusions of 24 March 2017 on ‘International ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans’,

–  having regard to the Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee of 29 March 2017 on the Joint Communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – ‘International ocean governance: an agenda for the future of our oceans’ (JOIN(2016)0049)(1),

–  having regard to the document adopted by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly on 25 September 2015 entitled ‘Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development’ and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) included therein,

–  having regard to Sustainable Development Goal 14 of the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDG 14), which encourages the conservation and sustainable exploitation of the oceans, seas and marine resources for purposes of sustainable development;

–  having regard to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2015 Paris Agreement, which entered into force on 4 November 2016 and its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions,

–  having regard to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which entered into force on 29 December 1993, and the Aichi targets of the Strategic Plan for Biological Diversity 2011-2020, adopted in October 2010,

–  having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), being complemented by the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of UNCLOS relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, United Nations Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the European Union Common Fisheries Policy,

–  having regard to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) of 3 March 1973,

–  having regard to Article 191 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU),

–  having regard to the document adopted at the UN Ocean Conference on 9 June 2017 in New York entitled ‘Our Ocean, Our Future: Call for Action’,

–  having regard to Directive 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on safety of offshore oil and gas operations,

—  having regard to the Commission communication of 2 December 2015 entitled ‘Closing the loop – An EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy’ (COM(2015)0614),

–  having regard to its negotiation mandate of 14 March 2017 on the waste package(2) (proposals for amending Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives(3), Directive 94/62/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 1994 on packaging and packaging waste(4), Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste(5), Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on end-of-life vehicles(6), Directive 2006/66/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 September 2006 on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators and repealing Directive 91/157/EEC(7), and Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)(8)),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy,

–  having regard to Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive),

—  having regard to the European Union’s Integrated Maritime Policy of 2007 (COM(2007)0575) and to the 2012 Progress Report thereon (COM(2012)0491),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) No 1255/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2011 establishing a Programme to support the further development of an Integrated Maritime Policy(9),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 15 October 2009 entitled ‘Developing the international dimension of the Integrated Maritime Policy of the European Union’ (COM(2009)0536),

—  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2016/1625 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 September 2016 amending Regulation (EC) No 1406/2002 establishing a European Maritime Safety Agency(10),

–  having regard to Directive 2014/89/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 2014 establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning(11),

—  having regard to the European Union Maritime Security Strategy adopted by the European Council on 24 June 2014,

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2015/757 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2015 on the monitoring, reporting and verification of carbon dioxide emissions from maritime transport, and amending Directive 2009/16/EC(12),

–  having regard to its negotiation mandate of 15 February 2017 on the proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive 2003/87/EC to enhance cost-effective emission reductions and low-carbon investments(13),

–  having regard to its resolution of 16 March 2017 on an integrated European Union policy for the Arctic(14),

–  having regard to Directive 2012/33/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 amending Council Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels and the ongoing impact assessment on the extension of the Sulphur Emission Control Areas within the European Waters,

–  having regard to the proposal of Baltic Sea and North Sea countries to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) to introduce designated Nitrogen Oxide Emission Control Areas (NECAs),

–  having regard to Directive 2000/59/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 November 2000 on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues,

–  having regard to its resolution of 1 December 2016 on liability, compensation and financial security for offshore oil and gas operations(15),

–  having regard to the European Academies Science Advisory Council policy report of 28 January 2016 on ‘Marine sustainability in an age of changing oceans and seas’,

–  having regard to the study of November 2015 prepared at request of Parliament’s Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety on ‘Emission Reduction Targets for International Aviation and Shipping’ (PE 569.964),

–  having regard to the Annex on ‘Action to boost the clean energy transition’ to the Commission communication on ‘Clean Energy For All Europeans’ (COM(2016)0860);

–  having regard to the fourth edition of the ‘Our Ocean Conference’, hosted by the European Union in Malta on 5 and 6 October 2017;

—  having regard to its resolution of 21 October 2010 on Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP) – Evaluation of progress made and new challenges(16),

—  having regard to the Commission communication of 20 February 2014 entitled ‘A European Strategy for more Growth and Jobs in Coastal and Maritime Tourism’ (COM(2014)0086),

—  having regard to the Council conclusions on ‘Priorities for the EU’s maritime transport policy until 2020: Competitiveness, Decarbonisation, Digitalisation to ensure global connectivity, an efficient internal market and a world-class maritime cluster’ (9976/17),

–  having regard to the European Environment Agency’s (EEA) report on ‘Marine protected areas in Europe’s seas’ (EEA 3/2015),

–  having regard to the Commission study of September 2017 entitled ‘Realising the potential of the outermost regions for sustainable blue growth’,

–  having regard to the 1992 Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment in the Baltic Sea Area which entered into force on 17 January 2000, HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan, adopted by all the coastal states and the EU in 2007, and the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region,

–  having regard to Resolution 69/292 adopted by the UN General Assembly in June 2015 on the development of an international legally binding instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction,

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 13 September 2012 entitled ‘Blue Growth: opportunities for marine and maritime sustainable growth’ (COM(2012)0494),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 20 January 2014 on Blue Energy: Action needed to deliver on the potential of ocean energy in European seas and oceans by 2020 and beyond (COM(2014)0008),

—  having regard to its resolution of 2 July 2013 on Blue Growth: Enhancing sustainable growth in the EU’s marine, maritime transport and tourism sectors(17),

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety and the opinions of the Committee on Transport and Tourism and the Committee on Fisheries (A8-0399/2017),

A.  whereas it is widely agreed that the environmental health of the oceans is under significant threat and at risk of being irreversibly damaged unless targeted and coordinated efforts are undertaken by the world community;

B.  whereas the accumulation and dissemination of marine litter may be one of the fastest growing threats to the health of the world’s oceans; whereas microplastics are of particular concern because their small size renders them accessible to a wide range of organisms (seabirds, fish, mussels, lugworms and zooplankton); whereas the estimated 150 million tonnes of plastics that have accumulated in the world’s oceans causes serious environmental and economic damage, including to coastal communities, tourism, shipping and fishing;

C.  whereas current pressures on the marine environment include damage to habitats and ecosystems, persistent hazardous substances in sediments and waterbodies, degradation of coral barrier reefs, invasive species, pollution and nutrient enrichment and maritime traffic, as well as exploitation of raw materials and overexploitation of marine species, acidification, and warming of waters induced by climate change;

D.  whereas about 4,8 million to 12,7 million tonnes of plastic debris such as food packaging and plastic bottles were washed offshore in 2010 alone(18), corresponding to some 1,5 % to 4,5 % of the world’s total plastic production, and the cumulative amount of waste will lead to a tenfold increase in the total amount of plastic discarded into the sea by 2020;

E.  whereas ‘litter’ means waste of small size in publicly accessible areas that has been improperly discarded in the environment (on the land, in fresh water and in the sea), whether wilfully or by negligence;

F.  whereas more than 100 tonnes of plastic waste and microplastics are polluting and threatening the life of our oceans;

G.  whereas without significant changes, by the year 2100 more than half of the world’s marine species may stand on the brink of extinction;

H.  whereas the use of plastics for consumer products has become increasingly widespread, and production has steadily increased since the material was first put into wide use half a century ago, resulting in about 322 million tonnes of plastic being manufactured globally in 2015; whereas increasing production combined with both changes in the way we use plastic and demographic developments have led to an increase in the amount of plastic debris dumped in our oceans; whereas if this trend continues, according to the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), almost 33 billion tonnes of plastic will have accumulated by 2050;

I.  whereas 80 % of marine litter emanates from the land and, therefore, the marine litter problem cannot be tackled effectively over time without first addressing the issues of effective policy and action to reduce and contain litter on the land;

J.  whereas the most common forms of debris are cigarette filters, plastic bags, fishing equipment such as nets, and all types of packaging; whereas between 60 % and 90 % of marine debris has been manufactured using one or more plastic polymers, such as polyethylene (PE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), all of which have an extremely long degradation time; whereas as a result the majority of plastics manufactured today will take decades or even centuries to disappear;

K.  whereas plastic waste causes death and disease to marine wildlife through suffocation, entanglement and intoxication; whereas plastic materials broken up by waves and sunlight to form microparticles that are less than 5 mm in diameter end up in the stomach of marine creatures such as mussels, worms and zooplankton, while nanoplastics that are barely half a millimetre in size penetrate the cell membranes and nuclei of small marine animals; whereas plastic debris that is invisible to the naked eye enters the food chain at its very source;

L.  whereas according to the UNEP, the estimated natural capital cost of marine plastic debris amounts to approximately USD 8 billion a year(19), and fishing, marine transport, tourism and the leisure industry are just some of the many sectors affected by marine pollution;

M.  whereas until there is an internationally agreed definition of biodegradability (in the marine environment), the adoption of plastic products labelled as ‘biodegradable’ will not bring about a significant decrease, either in the quantity of plastic entering the oceans, or the risk of physical and chemical impacts on the marine environment;

N.  whereas nutrient pollution (eutrophication) coming from diverse sources, including agricultural run-off and sewage and wastewater discharges, overloads marine environments with high concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients, which can produce large algal blooms, the decomposition of which after they die consumes oxygen while creating hypoxic, or oxygen-depleted, ‘dead zones’ where fish and other marine life cannot thrive; whereas an estimated 500 dead zones now exist in the world and many more areas suffer the adverse effects of high nutrient pollution;

O.  whereas owing to their extreme reliance on underwater sounds for basic life functions such as searching for food and mates and the absence of any mechanism to safeguard them against it, marine creatures are threatened by industrial noise from shipping, seismic exploration, and naval sonar used for routine training exercises, which can result in hearing damage, masking their communication and navigation signals, as well as leading to physiological and reproductive problems;

P.  whereas the loss of marine biodiversity is weakening the ocean ecosystem and its ability to withstand disturbances, adapt to climate change and play its role as a global ecological and climate regulator; whereas climate change due to human activity has a direct impact on marine species by altering their abundance, diversity and distribution and affecting their feeding, development and breeding, as well as the relationships between species;

Q.  whereas the trans-boundary nature of the ocean means that activities and the pressures that they cause necessitate collaborative work between governments across marine regions to ensure the sustainability of shared resources; whereas the multiplicity and complexity of ocean governance measures therefore necessitate a broad range of interdisciplinary expertise, as well as regional and international cooperation;

R.  whereas the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of European Union Member States extend over 25,6 million km2, virtually all of which area is located in the Outermost Regions and the Overseas Countries and Territories, making the European Union the largest maritime area in the world; whereas the EU therefore has a duty to play a leading role in establishing effective and ambitious international governance of the oceans;

S.  whereas it has been researched that direct impacts of an oil spill on marine organisms and biological systems and processes could include behavioural disturbances and death of marine species, microbial blooms, hypoxia (lowering of oxygen concentrations in water), toxic effects of chemicals used to disperse oil, and the death of deep-sea corals;

T.  whereas maritime transport has an impact on the global climate and on air quality, as a result of CO2 emissions and also of non-CO2 emissions including nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, methane, particulate matter and black carbon;

U.  whereas prospecting, drilling, and the transport of oil and gas reserves located under the sea floor in many parts of the world can seriously damage sensitive marine areas and disturb marine species; whereas in many cases, oil and gas exploration and drilling are permitted in or near Marine Protected Areas (MPAs);

V.  whereas Article 191 TFEU commits the Union to a high level of protection in its environmental policy, including through the application of the precautionary principle and the polluter pays principle;

W.  whereas the risks posed by the use of heavy fuel oil (HFO) in Arctic maritime transport are multiple: in the event of spills, the highly dense fuel emulsifies, sinks and can travel extremely long distances if it gets trapped in ice; spilled HFO poses enormous risks to the food security of Arctic indigenous communities, whose subsistence depends on fishing and hunting; combustion of HFO produces sulphur oxides and heavy metals, as well as large amounts of black carbon, which, when deposited on Arctic ice, stimulates the absorption of heat into the ice mass, accelerating the melting process and the effects of climate change; whereas the transport and use of HFO is prohibited by the IMO in the waters surrounding the Antarctic;

X.  whereas nitrogen oxide emissions, especially in port cities and coastal areas, are to a large extent generated by shipping and are a major concern for public health and environmental protection in Europe; whereas overall nitrogen oxide emissions from shipping in the EU remain largely unregulated and it is estimated that if left unabated they will surpass land-based nitrogen oxide emissions as early as 2020(20);

Y.  whereas, when anchored in ports, ships usually use their auxiliary engines to generate electrical power for communications, lighting, ventilation and other on-board equipment; whereas this fuel burning is associated with emissions of a range of pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), black carbon and particulate matter (PM);

Z.  whereas shore side electricity (SSE) involves connecting ships to the port electricity network while they are at berth; whereas in the vast majority of locations, the energy mix used to produce SSE results in fewer emissions than burning fuel on the ships themselves(21); whereas current legislation such as the Sulphur Directive (Directive (EU) 2016/802) clearly recognises the use of SSE as an alternative to the requirement of using low-sulphur marine fuel, while the Directive 2014/94/EU on the Deployment of an Alternative Fuel Infrastructure requires Member States to ensure that SSE supply is installed as a matter of priority in ports belonging to the TEN-T Core Network, and in other ports, by 31 December 2025;

AA.  whereas, according to the scientific evidence presented in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), for 2014, of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the warming of the climate system is unequivocal, climate change is occurring and human activities have been the predominant cause of the warming observed since the middle of the 20th century, the widespread and substantial climate change impacts of which have already become evident in natural and human systems, on all continents and across the oceans;

AB.  whereas almost 90 % of global wind energy is contained in the turbulence above the world’s oceans, and winds, waves and currents together contain 300 times more energy than humans are currently consuming; whereas according to the 2010 report of the European Ocean Energy Association (EU-OEA) installed ocean energy could reach 3.6 GW by 2030, rising to nearly 188 GW by mid-century, while in 2050 a world-leading ocean energy industry in Europe could prevent 136,3 million tonnes of CO2 per year from being emitted into the atmosphere and create 470 000 new green jobs;

AC.  whereas in 2015 the IPCC stated that in order to limit climate change to 2 °C in the period until the end of this century, one third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and more than 80 % of coal reserves must remain unexploited;

AD.  whereas the Paris Agreement aims at a ‘global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible’, in order to limit the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and the pursuit of efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1,5 °C, while the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) recently reported that global warming rose to a remarkable 1,1 °C above pre-industrial levels in 2016;

AE.  whereas failing to meet the Paris Agreement’s objective of an average temperature increase of well below 2 ºC would have enormous environmental impacts and economic costs, including among other things, increasing the likelihood of reaching tipping points at which temperature levels would begin to limit nature’s ability to absorb carbon into the oceans;

AF.  whereas the potential in terms of clean energy possessed by marine wind power and ocean energy (wave power, tidal power and the thermal energy of the seas) should be noted, on condition that the environment and existing ecosystems are respected; whereas this clean energy gives the EU the opportunity not only to generate economic growth and to create skilled jobs, but also to improve the security of its energy supply and become more competitive thanks to technological innovation;

AG.  whereas improving ocean governance will help create a global level playing field for business, including the European ocean energy sector;

AH.  whereas marine pollution – for example the direct or indirect dumping of waste, substances or energy, including the introduction of submarine noise sources of human origin – has, or may have, a harmful impact on living resources and marine ecosystems, impoverishing biodiversity, endangering human health, creating obstacles to maritime activities and altering water quality;

AI.  whereas the EU should play a leading role in discussions and negotiations in international fora with a view to ensuring that all parties concerned accept their responsibilities, in terms of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases or pollutants, and face up to the growing challenges of sustainable resource management;

AJ.  whereas the exploitation of marine renewable energy could contribute to the objective of energy autonomy on small islands in the EU;

AK.  whereas transparency in international organisations is a key feature to ensure democratic accountability and inclusiveness;

AL.  whereas the seas and oceans have the potential to become major sources of clean energy; whereas such renewable marine energy gives the EU the opportunity not only to generate economic growth and to create skilled jobs, but also to improve the security of its energy supply and become more competitive thanks to technological innovation; whereas the exploitation of this local resource has a particularly important dimension for island states and regions, particularly the outermost regions, where ocean energy could contribute towards energy self-sufficiency and replace energy produced at high cost by diesel power stations;

Improving the international ocean governance framework

1.  Recalls the essential role of oceans and seas in supporting life on earth, sustainable development, employment and innovation, as well as in providing recreational uses and amenities; shares the growing concern over the need for a more effective and integrated governance and protection of the oceans;

2.  Welcomes the joint communication on international ocean governance and the actions proposed, which highlight the EU’s commitment to achieving the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and seas and marine resources as identified in SDG 14 of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; recognises the cross-cutting nature of the subject and the need for a coordinated and integrated approach to ensure better ocean governance; calls for the EU to take a leading role as global actor to strengthen international ocean governance and fill the gaps, thanks to its expertise acquired in developing a sustainable approach to oceans’ management;

3.  Recalls the integrated and indivisible character of all the Sustainable Development Goals, as well as the interlinkages and synergies between them, and reiterates the critical importance of all EU actions being guided by the 2030 Agenda, including the principles reaffirmed therein;

4.  Calls on the Commission to set clear deadlines, put forward legislative proposals where appropriate, and work with Member States in order to improve cooperation in areas such as ocean research, capacity-building and technology transfer, and to set up mechanisms to support coordination, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation at EU level, in order to successfully implement the actions listed in the joint communication; highlights the Treaty provisions on the precautionary and polluter pays principles, and stresses the importance of the ecosystem-based approach in all EU actions on ocean governance;

5.  Reiterates the strong maritime dimension of the Sustainable Development Goals, particularly for, but not limited to, Goal 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources);

6.  Welcomes and fully endorses the document ‘Our ocean, our future: Call for Action’ adopted by the UN Ocean Conference in June 2017, in support of the implementation of SDG 14 to conserve and sustainably use oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development; notes with great satisfaction the 1 328 voluntary commitments by governments, other intergovernmental and civil society organisations, the private sector, academic and research institutions and the scientific community towards ocean conservation and raising awareness about the importance of the oceans to human survival;

7.  Recalls that the European Union has a comprehensive assemblage of legislation and management tools focused on distinct elements of ocean governance, but that nonetheless EU regional seas remain in a critical state, with overexploitation of resources, organic and inorganic pollutants impacting ocean health and productivity, biodiversity loss, degraded habitats, invasive species, declining coastal communities, and conflict between marine sectors;

8.  Calls on the Commission to follow up the joint communication on ocean governance by publishing a progress report on the measures reviewed and a precise timetable for future measures, establishing links between these measures and existing European initiatives, as well as existing international instruments;

9.  Encourages the Commission to propose, where appropriate, initiatives to the Council on developing ocean partnerships with key international partners, in order to foster the goal of improved global governance and policy coherence, and to build on existing bilateral cooperation frameworks such as the High Level Dialogues on Fisheries and Maritime Affairs;

10.  Recognises the key role of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in providing a basic legal framework by which to coordinate efforts and achieve coherence in addressing global ocean-related issues; urges coastal Member States to respect their duty under UNCLOS to protect and conserve the marine environment and its living resources and their duty to prevent and control marine pollution; notes that Member States are liable for damage caused by violation of their international obligations to combat such pollution;

11.  Calls on states to improve their legal systems for the preservation of our oceans; calls for international recognition of the concept of ecological harm where marine pollution occurs, so that compensation can be claimed when an infringement is found to have been committed; calls for the introduction of the chain-of-responsibilities principle, which is designed to determine those responsible for the environmental damage caused along the entire chain of command;

12.  Stresses that the EU should seek to ensure that provisions on fishery play an important part in the future legally binding instrument under UNCLOS as regards the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction;

13.  Urges all states to become party to the relevant fisheries instruments, in particular the FAO Compliance Agreement, the UN Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing (PSMA), as well as to fully implement the provisions of these instruments and other FAO international plans of action;

14.  Welcomes the progress made by the EU with regard to the external dimension of the CFP; stresses that this dimension, including international and partnership agreements, is an important instrument by means of which to promote the EU’s environmental and social standards and its provisions for combating IUU fishing at international level;

15.  Notes that the Fisheries Transparency Initiative (FITI) has recently adopted its global standard; encourages states to apply for FITI membership; calls on the EU and its Member States to support this initiative;

16.  Is of the opinion that securing a level playing field for the EU fishing fleet is of the utmost importance, especially considering the EU’s high environmental standards and the sustainability standards that its vessels have to apply;

17.  Insists that the EU promote the same environmental standards for fishing in international fora, and in all bilateral cooperation, as those that must be upheld by EU vessels, so as not to put its own fleet at a disadvantage in terms of environmental sustainability;

18.  Recalls UN Resolution 2749 (XXV) of 17 December 1970, which recognises that ‘the sea-bed and ocean floor, and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, as well as the resources of the area, are the common heritage of mankind’, and Article 136 of the Montego Bay Convention, which stipulates that ‘the sea-bed and ocean floor beyond the limits of international jurisdiction, and its resources, form part of the common heritage of mankind’;

19.  Calls on the Commission to encourage Member States to cease subsidising licences for mining prospecting and extraction in areas beyond national jurisdiction and issuing permits for mining of their continental shelves;

20.  Notes, furthermore, with regard to the international law on air pollution that, under UNCLOS, Member States are not permitted to inspect ships, even in cases of solid evidence of infringement; calls, therefore, on the UN parties to enhance the legal framework of UNCLOS with the aim of addressing any existing governance gaps and of establishing robust enforcement mechanisms for international environmental law;

21.  Calls for the international regulation of measures against nuclear waste and pollution in the oceans and the seabed, with a view to the implementation of practical measures to limit their environmental and health impact and to eliminate pollution of the seabed;

22.  Stresses that ensuring transparency, including public access to information, stakeholder involvement, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters as required under the Aarhus Convention, as well as the legitimacy of UN organisations, including public accountability of country representatives on international bodies, such as the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) and the International Seabed Authority (ISA), is a matter of priority in addressing existing governance shortcomings; calls on the Member States and the Commission to work through the ISA in order to ensure transparency in its working methods and its effective capacity to assess environmental impacts, as well as ensuring the effective protection of the marine environment from harmful effects and the protection and preservation of the marine environment, as required under Parts XI and XII of the UN Convention of the Law of the Sea;

23.  Calls on the Member States to assume a proactive and progressive role within international bodies in order to put forward transparency reforms and increase the overall environmental ambition of actions undertaken;

24.  Stresses that improving the ocean governance framework will entail strengthening regional and global efforts by promoting multilateral instruments which have already been agreed on, as well as strategies and their improved implementation; encourages the Commission to foster greater international maritime cooperation, in particular in maritime science and technology, as suggested by the OECD;

25.  Stresses the need for strengthened cooperation, policy coherence and coordination among all governments and institutions at all levels, including between and among international organisations, regional and subregional organisations and institutions, arrangements and programmes; notes in this respect the important role of effective and transparent multi-stakeholder partnerships, and the active engagement of governments with global, regional and subregional bodies, the scientific community, the private sector, the donor community, NGOs, community groups, academic institutions and other relevant actors;

26.  Calls for regional arrangements for governance of marine environments to be tightened up, particularly with a view to the attainment of SDG 14; calls on the EU and on international organisations, particularly by means of official development aid, to increase support for regional organisations and for the attainment by third countries of SDG 14;

27.  Emphasises the importance of including coastal local authorities and outermost regions in the process of bringing international ocean governance closer to EU citizens;

28.  Underlines the need to develop comprehensive strategies to raise awareness of the natural and cultural significance of the oceans;

29.  Underlines the need for a specific and tangible action plan on the EU’s engagement in the Arctic, in which the starting-point should be the objectives of preserving the Arctic’s vulnerable ecosystems and increasing their capacity for resilience to the effects of climate change;

30.  Points out that the central Arctic Ocean is not covered by international conservation or management systems; stresses the need for a coordinated approach on the part of the EU and its Member States to preventing unregulated fishing in the Arctic Ocean;

31.  Reiterates the call made in its resolution of 16 March 2017 on an integrated European Union policy for the Arcticfor the Commission and the Member States to take all necessary measures to play an active role in facilitating an internationally agreed ban on the on-board use and carriage in fuel tanks of HFO in vessels navigating the Arctic seas, by means of the provisions of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) currently applying for regulating the waters surrounding the Antarctic; invites the Commission to include the environmental, social, health and climate risks of the use of HFO in its position on International Ocean Governance; calls on the Commission, in the absence of adequate international measures, to put forward proposals on rules for vessels calling at EU ports prior to journeys through Arctic waters, with a view to prohibiting the use and carriage of HFO;

32.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to work actively towards the rapid finalisation of the protracted IMO work plan on reducing black carbon (BC) emissions from ships sailing in the Arctic, with a view to slowing down rapid temperature increases and the accelerated melting of polar ice in the region;

33.  Calls on the Commission to promote equal conditions on the labour market in the field of the sea and to ensure fair treatment, applying in an effective fashion the relevant international conventions, such as the ILO’s Work in Fishing Convention and Maritime Labour Convention, and establishing a harmonised social framework for maritime activities in Community waters;

34.  Calls for the introduction of a new international agreement on working conditions linked to the maritime sector; recalls the need to put an end to all forms of slavery that still exist on board vessels, and highlights the impact that substandard working conditions can have on individuals, economic operators and the marine environment;

35.  Calls on the Commission to develop ocean partnerships with key players in the form of multicultural cooperation mechanisms or bilateral dialogues aimed at ensuring better coordination and cooperation for the successful implementation of the ocean-relevant SDGs, the promotion of sustainable blue growth as well as the preservation, conservation and restoration of marine ecosystems and biodiversity, while also reducing pressure on the oceans and seas and creating the conditions for a sustainable blue economy;

36.  Urges the Commission to strengthen maritime cooperation and capacity-building in the context of its external policy framework, in relation to areas such as development cooperation and trade agreements, in particular Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements, so as to build capacities to tackle the impacts of climate change and marine litter and promote better ocean governance and sustainable blue growth;

37.  Calls on the EU to pursue the principle that the allocation of fisheries resources must take account of the environmental and social impact on and the food security needs of developing countries, as well as of those countries’ aspirations to develop their own fisheries, while at the same time ensuring a sustainable level of fishing that does not lead to an excess of fishing capacity, in line with the targets set out in SDG 14;

38.  Calls on the EU, in line with the CFP, to minimise the impacts of aquaculture on the environment by ensuring sustainable sourcing of feed and promoting research focusing on reducing the pressure on wild fish stocks used for feed production;

39.  Notes that the EU is the world’s largest importer of fisheries products and that some catches are imported from areas where fishing is far less sustainable than in EU waters; encourages the EU to use its position in this regard to promote an increase in sustainability in all sea basins;

40.  Urges the Commission to call on Member States to stop sponsoring deep-sea mining exploration and exploitation licenses in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction and on and not to issue permits for deep-sea mining on Member States’ continental shelf;

41.  Calls on the Commission to support the stepping-up of international initiatives to combat trafficking in human beings by maritime routes;

42.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to support an international moratorium on commercial deep-sea mining exploitation licences until such time as the effects of deep-sea mining on the marine environment, biodiversity and human activities at sea have been studied and researched sufficiently and all possible risks are understood;

43.  Underlines the importance of the European Union Maritime Security Strategy (EUMSS) and calls on the Commission to include maritime security in external policy, bearing in mind that a large proportion of trade is transported by sea, more than 70 % of external borders are sea borders and it is necessary to guarantee the security of passengers transiting through Union ports;

44.  Highlights the importance of continuing to boost cooperation between the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), Frontex and the European Fisheries Control Agency (EFCA), each within its own mandate, to support Member States’ national authorities tasked with coast guard functions, and of promoting maritime safety and security, combating cross-border crime and protecting the environment by preventing and reducing pollution from offshore gas and oil installations; takes the view that these agencies should receive more substantial funding from the EU, if appropriate, in order to be able to carry out these new tasks; stresses the importance of further developing digital solutions – such as facilitating the shipping industry by means of streamlined procedures for reporting formalities, and investing more in a common infrastructure for Europe-wide data sharing to the benefit of all Member State authorities carrying out coast guard functions – and advanced maritime technology, such as the EMSA’s Integrated Maritime services, in order to improve surveillance and monitoring systems for maritime activities and other programmes such as the Common Information Sharing Environment (CISE) for maritime surveillance;

45.  Emphasises that creating a sustainable maritime economy and reducing pressures on the marine environment require action on climate change, land-based pollution reaching the seas and oceans, marine pollution and eutrophication, on the preservation, conservation and restoration of marine ecosystems and biodiversity, and on the sustainable use of marine resources;

46.  Expresses its concern over the fact that, according to a recent Parliament study, while the Blue Economy could have a positive socio-economic impact (in terms of employment, revenues and gross value added), its environmental impacts are generally negative, in terms of alterations of coastal dynamics, marine pollution, eutrophication, seabed morphology and habitat/ecosystem/biodiversity alterations; is concerned that the cumulative burden of environmental effects would be detrimental to fisheries;

47.  Calls for the Blue Economy to be steered towards rebuilding the resilience of coastal communities with a view to restoring the productive potential of fisheries, thereby supporting food security, poverty alleviation and the sustainable management of living aquatic resources; recalls that before any activities in Blue Economy sectors are implemented, an impact assessment and a full information and participation process for all stakeholders must be guaranteed; insists that the Blue Economy must contribute to the achievement of SDG 14, i.e. the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and marine resources;

48.  Believes that investment in the blue economy should not rely on finite resources but should be focused on ‘eco-innovation’, not exceeding natural regeneration rates, nature conservation, and climate change mitigation and adaptation;

49.  Urges the Member States to make further efforts for the timely implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in order to achieve good environmental status for marine waters for 2020, with a particular commitment to avoiding harm to the coastal and marine environment from all marine pollution including nutrient pollution and marine litter, as well as to removing harmful subsidies which encourage unsustainable fishing and strengthening the global fight against marine litter and plastic;

50.  Regards the prevention, recovery and recycling of marine plastic waste as a major international challenge, and calls on the Commission to deploy measures such as boosting support for research and placing the issue on the spectrum of the sustainable ‘blue economy’, so as to make the EU an initiator of innovative solutions, and to assume a leading role on the matter at global level;

51.  Calls on the Member States to swiftly implement the Framework Directive establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning and integrated coastal management, in order to permit the full and harmonious development of the various maritime activities;

52.  Urges the Commission to strongly integrate ocean governance issues in its aid and development policies;

53.  Recalls that the fisheries sector is of tremendous importance, as representing one of the main traditional human activities carried out in the marine environment, making it an essential element of the Integrated Maritime Policy; points out that fisheries is the sector most affected by the many other uses of, and activities taking place on, the seas, such as maritime transport and tourism, urban and coastal development, the exploitation of raw materials and energy sources, and seafloor mining, as well as being affected by environmental phenomena such as marine pollution (plastic debris, discarded fishing nets, oil spills, noise pollution, ballast water discharges, uncontrolled oil and gas extraction and exploration, etc.) and climate change (rising sea levels, increasing sea surface temperatures, coastal flooding, rising ocean acidity, etc.);

54.  Highlights the importance of women in the seafood industry, given that, according to the FAO, they account for half that industry’s total working population; calls on the EU to promote and protect women in fisheries activities and fish-related industries, by encouraging fair prices for fisheries products and promoting better access for women active in fisheries to public support and financial resources, including in negotiations with third countries over the use of sector support in SFPAs, in the process of developing aid instruments, and in the various international fora;

55.  Awaits the forthcoming strategy on plastics from the Commission, as well as any other measures, including the recently announced Action Plan aimed at combating marine litter; calls for high ambition in the Strategy on Plastics in a Circular Economy, in order to adequately tackle the problem of marine litter at source, and urges the Commission to present concrete legislative actions and binding measures in this area, in particular concerning ecological design for plastics and microplastics and action to reduce the amount of used products discarded on land, especially close to rivers and other waterways and to the coast; expresses its deep concern about the scale of the issue; calls on the Commission and Member States to join and support the international coalition to reduce plastic bags pollution launched at the COP 22 in Marrakech in November 2016;

56.  Reiterates the need for a well-thought-out product policy that increases products’ expected lifetime, durability, reusability and recyclability, as stressed in its resolution of 9 July 2015 on ‘Resource efficiency: moving towards a circular economy’(22), and further emphasises that this must urgently be applied to disposable plastic products and packaging in the upcoming Strategy on Plastics, in light of the environmental damage caused by these items as marine litter;

57.  Urges the Commission to assist in developing regional solutions and to promote national actions to address marine litter with the aim of eliminating it; also urges the Commission to help set up pilot projects to collect marine litter through beach clean-ups and fishing for litter campaigns, and to provide financial support to fishermen in Europe for the collection of marine litter;

58.  Requests the Commission to propose new legislation to address microplastic pollution in all its forms, and specifically by banning microplastic ingredients in all personal care products and by ensuring that all businesses that handle plastic production pellets implement proper protocols for minimising pellet leakage;

59.  Takes the view that pollution by non-reusable plastic bottles is a major cause of marine pollution, and urges the Commission to consider introducing a Europe-wide system of deposits on non-reusable drinks containers, on the German model;

60.  Calls for the EU and the Member States to join and support the international coalition for the reduction of pollution by plastic bags;

61.  Welcomes the Commission’s intention to promote an internationally accepted plan to face the consequences of ocean’s warming, sea level raise and acidification;

62.  Calls on the Member States to promote resource efficiency, recycling and awareness- raising with regard to marine litter, through national awareness campaigns, educational programmes and collaboration among schools and universities on these issues;

63.  Recalls its position in favour of an ambitious circular economy package with EU marine litter reduction objectives of 30 % and 50 % in 2025 and 2030 respectively, as well as increased recycling targets for plastic packaging;

64.  Calls on the Member States to uphold the same level of ambition as the EU for marine litter reduction;

65.  Urges the Commission to intensify its efforts to combat marine litter in Europe and globally, by addressing land-based as well as sea-based sources through tackling the problem of illegal dumping of waste such as fishing gear, and giving financial support for the collection of marine litter; urges the Commission to reduce marine litter from shipping, in particular by promoting a harmonised cost recovery system for garbage in all European ports in the revision of Directive 2000/59/EC on port reception facilities for ship-generated waste and cargo residues; calls for more funding of research into the distribution and impact of marine litter and the effectiveness of international, regional and subregional strategies to combat marine litter and other pollutants;

66.  Stresses that the Union’s precautionary principle has to be applied in case of any potential future deep-sea mining exploration; is alarmed by the Commission’s insistence on deep-sea mining being one of the Union’s priority sectors for blue growth, given the scientific evidence that exists of its significant and irreversible environmental risks; is concerned at the possibility that the further promotion of deep-sea mining could adversely affect the actions that are required under SDG 12 (transition to sustainable consumption and production);

67.  Stresses that the precautionary principle must be applied to the emerging deep-sea mining sector, and that given the scientific warnings regarding significant and potentially irreversible environmental harm being implied, considers that the EU should not support the development of this industry but should, rather, invest in sustainable alternatives, and specifically in a transition to sustainable consumption and production, as called for in SDG 12 under Agenda 2030;

68.  Stresses that no oil or gas exploration or drilling should be permitted in or near Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or vulnerable areas of high conservation value;

69.  Welcomes the EU action plan for the circular economy, and calls on the Commission to propose robust measures to prevent the discharge of micro- and macro- particles into the marine environment, including a reduction in waste leakage of 50 % by 2020, legislative measures for industry such as bans on single-use plastics (where natural alternatives are available), and, potentially, an international legal instrument;

70.  Calls on the Member States and on local and regional authorities to support innovative technological and financial initiatives addressing ocean and sea pollution, so as to promote efficient recovery systems for waste from shipping, in particular plastic waste, in ports and harbours, to raise awareness within the shipping sector of the consequences of disposing of plastic waste in the sea, and to overcome the major obstacles existing to the implementation of MARPOL;

71.  Stresses that the EU should be the leader of a global initiative to monitor and significantly reduce marine litter in the oceans; notes that the Member States have committed to the goals of Directive 2008/56/EC (the Marine Strategy Framework Directive), which stipulates that the properties and quantities of marine litter shall not cause harm to the coastal and marine environment (Descriptor 10);

72.  Encourages efforts to combat all sources of pollution of the oceans and the seabed, including noise pollution, and the implementation of practical international measures to eliminate ocean and seabed pollution;

73.  Welcomes the Commission’s determination to arrange for international action to monitor the impact of the warming of the oceans, rising sea levels and acidification of waters; calls for the stepping-up and development of international scientific programmes to monitor the temperature, salinity and heat absorption of the oceans, and for the establishment of a global ocean observation network to improve the monitoring of global changes in the oceans and enable better forecasting of the impact of climate change on the functioning of the oceans, carbon absorption and management of living marine resources;

74.  Stresses the importance of a life-cycle approach to plastics products, including the consideration of the degradation of different polymers and the rate of fragmentation (in the marine environment), to be achieved by internalising the environmental and social costs of products (cost internalisation), enhancing the process of closing the loop in product and process development and manufacturing as well as in life-cycle chains of plastics products, improving the lifespan of products, promoting green public and private procurement, promoting inter alia green engineering principles and frameworks, eco-design and eco-labelling, and strengthening the ability of private actors, including SMEs, to shift to more environment-friendly production processes;

75.  Welcomes the Commission’s commitment made in its action programme on ocean governance to fight illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU fishing); encourages the Commission to continue the fight against IUU fishing in all regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) and other relevant fora; considers that EU-flagged vessels that are engaged in IUU fishing should be publicly listed, as provided for under the IUU regulation; urges the EU to put pressure on third countries to take action to prevent IUU-caught fish from entering their markets;

76.  Calls for greater cooperation among RFMOs, and urges their contracting parties to ensure that they are sufficiently resourced and strengthened;

77.  Calls on the RFMOs to:

   (a) continue to conduct regularly independent performance reviews, as well as to fully implement the recommendations from such performance reviews;
   (b) fully implement the recommendations from the Second Resumed Review Conference of the UN Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks;
   (c) harmonise measures, in particular monitoring, control, surveillance and enforcement measures, including by agreeing on deterrent penalties and sanctions;

78.  Calls on the Member States to adopt the significant package of proposals presented by Parliament and the Commission in the context of the revision of Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, which, taken together, amount to a coherent new EU policy for sharing responsibility among all stakeholders for litter and the prevention of littering, both on land and in the marine environment;

79.  Encourages the Commission to establish an effective policy of adjustment to climate change in coastal and maritime areas, particularly by taking practical measures to protect coastal and marine ecosystems;

80.  Recalls that since January 2016, to improve vessel identification as a tool in the fight against IUU fishing, International Maritime Organisation (IMO) numbers have been required for all EU vessels of more than 24 metres in length overall (LOA) or 100 gross tonnage and above, fishing in EU waters, and for all EU vessels of more than 15 metres LOA fishing outside of European waters; encourages the EU to introduce an IMO number requirement for non-EU vessels in line with those that exist for EU vessels (more than 15 metres LOA), to be reported on an importing catch certificate, in order to ensure a level playing field and assist Member States with import controls;

81.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote cost-effective activities and instruments, as well as cooperation at all levels with regard to risk-based and environmentally sound clean-up activities for marine litter in rivers and coastal and marine areas, according to national circumstances; urges the Commission and the Member States, in this regard, to facilitate financing, public-private partnerships and capacity-building, and to develop and utilise international criteria for collective removal actions, clean-up and restoration, including with regard to quantities, population, ecosystem sensitivity and feasibility;

82.  Stresses the need to integrate at-sea labour and human rights considerations within the framework of global ocean governance; calls on the Commission to undertake targeted efforts to promote standards of decent work in the global fisheries industry, in recognition of the connection between labour and human rights abuses and unsustainable and destructive fishing practices, in particular IUU fishing; calls on the Commission to take measures to prevent fisheries products caught using workers that have been trafficked or subject to other labour and human rights abuses from reaching markets in the EU, and to work with actors in the industry to encourage the use of due diligence mechanisms to enable them to screen such products out of their supply chains; calls on the Member States to ensure the transposition into national law and implementation of ILO Convention C188 (the Work in Fishing Convention);

83.  Stresses that the key solution to marine litter lies in better solid waste collection and recycling on land, given that most marine litter is generated on land; believes, furthermore, that the EU should promote a coherent waste management approach wherever possible in all international fora, agreements and institutions; calls on the Member States, therefore, to conclude their work on the Circular Economy Package as soon as possible, and to implement ambitious recycling targets and comply with the EU’s marine litter reduction objectives without delay;

84.  Calls on the Commission to work in international fora to develop a clear sustainability framework for biodegradable plastics in all natural environments, including definitions and standards;

85.  Believes that bolder steps must be taken by both the Member States and the Commission to tackle the illegal export and dumping of plastic waste, including stricter enforcement of EU shipment regulations, as well as stricter monitoring and inspection schemes at ports and at all waste treatment facilities, targeting suspected illegal transfers and combating the export of waste for reuse (mainly regarding end-of-life vehicles and WEEE), as well as to ensure that exports go only to facilities that fulfil the requirements of environmentally sound management, as laid down in Article 49 of the Waste Shipment Regulation;

86.  Calls on the Member States to strengthen education and awareness-raising measures on marine litter, the use of plastics and the impact of individual consumer behaviour on the environment, by introducing elements into educational curricula at all levels, providing educational and outreach materials targeted at specific interest groups and age ranges in order to promote behavioural change, and organising large-scale information campaigns aimed at the citizens;

87.  Underlines the need to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus leakage into the oceans, thus reducing human-induced eutrophication through fundamental changes in the European agricultural model, by means of, inter alia, restrictions on the use of fertilisers, optimising nutrient use to crop requirements, cautious planning in the use of fertilisers and establishing more sustainable agricultural forms, as well as through reductions in atmospheric sources of nitrogen, better cleaning of sewage and waste water, and better control of diffuse urban nutrient sources, such as run-off from streets and storm sewers, while also addressing pressure on marine ecosystems via the mid-term review of the common agricultural policy;

88.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to take all suitable measures to facilitate the adoption of international regulations to limit noise from industrial activities such as shipping and seismic surveys, in particular in biologically sensitive habitats, by, for example, proposing an annex to MARPOL on noise pollution, on similar lines to the newly added annex on air pollution;

89.  Notes that the obligations assumed under the Paris Agreement make it unreasonable and counter-productive to exploit new fossil fuel sources, especially if situated in ecologically vulnerable areas;

90.  Stresses that all waters are vulnerable to the offshore drilling of fossil fuels; emphasises that the use of fossil fuels will further contribute to and accelerate the climate change that is threatening our planet; is of the view that the EU must cooperate with international partners in order to achieve a just transition away from offshore drilling and thus contribute to the goal of a low-carbon economy;

91.  Underlines that any new licence for oil or gas exploration should follow strict precautionary regulatory standards in the field of environmental protection and safety for oil or gas exploration, prospection and production, and should include binding commitments as regards the decommissioning of exploration infrastructure, which in general has a limited life-span;

92.  Highlights the major potential of energy produced from the flow of waves and tides or the thermal and salinity gradients of oceans and seas; notes that in the long term, ocean energy has the potential to become one of the most competitive and cost-effective forms of energy generation;

93.  Welcomes the progress made by the Member States regarding the establishment of maritime spatial planning (MSP); reiterates that further efforts are needed for the coherent implementation of Directive 2014/89/EU in order to set an example for the global introduction of MSP; calls, therefore, on the Member States to draw up their maritime spatial plans by 31 March 2021 at the latest; emphasises the international and transnational dimension, and calls on the Commission to start work on drafting proposals for international guidelines, taking into account the importance of land-sea synergies and interactions, as well as related processes such as integrated coastal management, and to lead an international forum on MSP, involving the relevant stakeholders and third countries, to promote MSP globally and deliver best practices with a view to boosting international cooperation, improving the management, preservation and use of the oceans, raising transparency, and enhancing education and training;

94.  Notes that intensified activities in coastal and marine waters increasingly require the implementation of maritime spatial planning (MSP); calls on the Commission to work towards international guidelines on MSP and to help expand marine protected areas worldwide, with funding under the Horizon 2020 and LIFE programmes;

95.  Urges the Commission to support international efforts to protect marine biodiversity, in particular in the framework of the ongoing negotiations for a new legally binding instrument for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction; calls on the Commission to propose more stringent legislation in order to preserve and ensure sustainable uses of marine biodiversity in areas under the jurisdiction of the Member States;

96.  Welcomes the Commission’s commitment to support the CBD and CITES, and stresses the need for a coordinated approach in implementing the decisions taken in the framework of these conventions for the protection of marine species and biodiversity, and for greater consistency of international work with that undertaken at European level; stresses the importance of doing more to protect marine species under CITES, and, for the marine species already protected by the convention, to strictly comply with it;

97.  Notes the significance of biodiversity as the cornerstone of our oceans, in which it plays a vital role in maintaining the productivity and functionality of marine ecosystems;

98.  Notes that the CFP should ensure that fishing mortality rates are set at levels allowing fish stocks to recover and to remain above levels capable of sustaining the maximum sustainable yield (MSY); stresses the need for sustainable fisheries management practices through the implementation of management measures and monitoring, control and enforcement, based on the best available scientific advice; believes that further measures could entail supporting the consumption of fish sourced from sustainably managed fisheries and through precautionary and ecosystem-oriented approaches; welcomes sustainable innovations by the fisheries sector as well as investment in and development and introduction of selective catch techniques;

99.  Recalls that in order to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (IUU fishing) effectively, it is crucial to ensure that no type of fisheries products resulting from such activities reaches the markets; encourages the EU to promote, through all its partnerships and in all international fora, a ban on IUU fisheries products from as many markets as possible, thus reducing the profitability of those activities;

100.  Underlines the importance of continuing and expanding the bilateral partnerships if the fight against IUU fishing and overexploitation of fish stocks is to be effective, since otherwise EU actions could have only a limited impact on the current situation;

101.  Suggests that Member States and third countries should be more consistent and effective in their checks on catch documentation (catch certificates) and consignments, with a view to ensuring that the fish have been caught legally; encourages states to take measures to ensure better coordination between the fight against IUU fishing and trade and market policy; stresses that the EU should promote, support and implement in all international spheres the necessary action to eradicate IUU fishing;

102.  Commends the EU’s international leadership for the concrete progress achieved in the fight against IUU fishing, as well as its strong commitment in implementing effective measures against the phenomenon; recalls the EU’s efforts to reinforce its international actions against IUU fishing at bilateral, regional and multilateral level, including by continuing bilateral dialogues with third-country partners, using vessel tracking instruments and securing a greater role for key international agencies such as Interpol; calls on the Member States’ authorities to actively support the Commission’s work in establishing an electronic tool for management of catch certificates;

103.  Notes that the EU regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing (the IUU Regulation) has made advances, but that implementation in all Member States should be improved, and that more coordination with third countries is needed to ensure that no fish enter the EU market illegally; also urges the EU to put pressure on third countries to take action to prevent IUU-caught fish from entering their markets;

104.  Stresses the importance of early responses to counter invasive species, considering their increasing impact on, and the risk they pose to, fisheries, ocean productivity and biodiversity, and the role they play in disrupting natural ecosystems; calls on the Member States to strengthen their cooperation among themselves and with third countries, including through synchronised and cooperative actions and exchanges of information, data and best practices;

105.  States that the exchange of ballast water is a possible method for avoiding the introduction of invasive alien species; stresses that while the IMO Ballast Water Convention, which is intended to control and manage this problem, will soon enter into force, its successful implementation will depend on more widespread ratification;

106.  Encourages the Commission to provide leadership and promote ecosystem-based marine spatial planning at a global level in order to reduce pressure on the marine environment and facilitate the development of sustainable blue economies;

107.  Urges the Commission to step up work and strengthen cooperation and coordination on the development of interoperable catch documentation schemes and traceability of fisheries products;

108.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to act decisively to prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, to eliminate subsidies that contribute to IUU fishing, and to refrain from newly introducing any such subsidies, including through accelerating work to complete negotiations in the WTO on this issue, while also recognising that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of those negotiations;

109.  Welcomes the Commission’s commitment to provide funding opportunities for the establishment of marine protected areas and the exchange of best practices as a contribution to the achievement of the global target of 10 % of marine and coastal areas to be designated as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by 2020 as set out in SDG 14.5; notes that MPAs have ecological and socio-economic benefits and represent an important tool for the management of fishing activities and for ensuring the protection of spawning grounds; recalls, in particular, the importance of ecologically and biologically significant areas (EBSAs) as defined by the Biodiversity Convention, and the need to preserve these for the support of healthy, functioning oceans and the many services they provide; welcomes the Commission’s intention to promote and step up measures to manage MPAs, particularly by developing coherent and connected networks of such areas;

110.  Calls for the EU and the Member States to commit to investing in social capital so as to ensure better stewardship of ocean and coastal resources; strongly encourages, in particular, the involvement of women and young people in ocean literacy programmes and ocean stakeholder consultations;

111.  Stresses the need for the Commission to propose measures to further strengthen marine and maritime research and innovation activities, under Horizon 2020 and its successor programme;

112.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to step up their efforts to implement and ensure a holistic approach to guarantee the ecological coherence and connectivity of networks of MPAs and their effective design, management and evaluation, as part of an effective spatial planning process, so that they can reach their full potential for protecting marine and coastal biodiversity; regrets that currently less than 3 % of the world’s oceans are designated as fully protected marine reserves; calls on the Member States to increase the number of designated MPAs, in accordance with SDG 14, with the aim of ensuring the preservation of at least 10 % of marine and coastal areas; encourages the Member States to develop coherent and connected networks of MPAs; calls on the Commission and the Council to use the results of scientific research into biodiversity with reference to the criteria for establishing MPAs in the negotiations on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction; lastly, encourages the Member States to ensure that tools are complementary and to develop marine spatial planning in order to combine MPAs more effectively with other effective conservation measures;

113.  Stresses the importance of protecting biodiversity by ensuring an effectively managed and ecologically coherent network of MPAs, conservation zones and Natura 2000 marine sites, covering at least 10 % of all European seas and marine areas by 2020, to be in line with SDG 14.5; encourages progress where possible towards fulfilling the IUCN and World Parks Congress guideline of 30 % MPAs by 2030;

114.  Calls for more to be done to establish the Natura 2000 network in the marine environment, by identifying and managing such sites, particularly on the high seas; reiterates its call for specific and lasting arrangements to protect biodiversity on an equivalent basis in the French outermost regions;

115.  Calls for the stepping-up of efforts to increase ocean literacy in Europe through closer cooperation and exchange between researchers, stakeholders, decision-makers and the public, with a strong focus on educational programmes on the importance of oceans and seas, as well as information on careers in the blue economy;

116.  Encourages the Member States to increase protection and resilience of marine and coastal ecosystems, particularly coral barrier reefs and mangroves, and, in this context, to commit themselves to the International Coral Reef Initiative;

117.  Calls on the Member States to support least developed countries, and particularly small island development states, in better implementing the MARPOL convention and thereby protecting the environment and livelihood of people in harbour areas;

118.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States, by means of the various Community funds, to undertake the investment necessary to create an environment favourable to the development of marine renewable energy, in order to fully unlock the potential of Europe’s seas;

119.  Calls on the Commission to increase efforts at international level for the establishment of a coherent regulatory framework for the exploration and exploitation of deep-sea minerals, to be grounded in the precautionary principle;

120.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to implement the priority measures adopted by the conference of the parties to the Biodiversity Convention regarding marine and coastal biodiversity;

121.  Believes that an ‘Erika IV’ package on maritime safety should be launched to prevent further major maritime disasters, and that recognition of the ecological damage caused to marine waters by existing EU legislation should be taken into account under this package;

122.  Calls on the Commission to ensure recognition in EU law of the existence of ecological damage distinct from economic, material and non-material damage, and to contribute towards such recognition at international level;

123.  Calls on the Commission to increase consistency between its internal and external policies on the management and protection of resources, biodiversity and the oceans;

124.  Stresses that the development of marine renewable energy in island territories constitutes a genuine opportunity for sustainable development of the territories concerned, but also a source of considerable potential for the EU and the rest of the world; calls on the Commission to take the initiative to launch a global strategy for the island territories with a view to developing a new economic model that will be appropriate to their specific nature and based on energy autonomy and the development of marine renewable energy;

125.  Calls on the Member States and the Commission, by means of the various Community funds, to support the necessary investment in island and outermost regions to facilitate the development of marine renewable energy and thus contribute to the energy autonomy of those territories;

126.  Calls on the Commission to support training and skills in the new occupations linked to the sustainable blue economy, and to promote them particularly in regions with strong potential such as maritime, island and outermost regions;

127.  Calls for the introduction of an overarching integrated European policy on the oceans, with both an internal and an external section, covering all policies which affect the oceans (research, environment, energy, transport, fisheries, cohesion policy, neighbourhood policy, international trade, etc.), based on the fundamental aims of preserving the marine environment and ensuring sustainable development;

Addressing increasing shipping emissions from maritime transport

128.  Notes that even the Third IMO Greenhouse Gas Study of 2014 states that, depending on future economic and energy developments, maritime CO2 emissions are projected to increase by 50 % to 250 % in the period up to 2050, while Parliament’s 2015 study entitled ‘Emission Reduction Targets for International Aviation and Shipping’ states that if an IMO action plan to combat climate change were further postponed, the share of maritime CO2 emissions within global GHG emissions might rise substantially (to 17 %) for maritime transport by 2050; stresses, therefore, that shipping alone would consume a large share of the remaining greenhouse budget for limiting the temperature increase to well below 2 degrees Celsius;

129.  Stresses the need for urgent global action to mitigate the adverse impacts of rising levels of atmospheric carbon on ocean ecosystems and health, particularly in the context of the Paris Agreement adopted under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change; points out that these adverse impacts include rising ocean temperatures, coastal and ocean acidification, sea-level rise, changes in ocean circulation and coastal erosion, as well as extreme weather events, decreasing polar ice coverage, salinity changes, nutrient availability and deoxygenation, and may be cumulative in nature; stresses the importance of well-functioning ecosystems in enhancing ocean resilience; reiterates the urgent need to address these impacts, which impair the crucial role of the ocean as a climate regulator, a carbon sink, a source of biodiversity, and a key provider of nutrition, livelihoods, energy and ecosystem services;

130.  Reiterates that in accordance with the Paris Agreement all sectors of the economy are required to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions; urges the adoption by the IMO of a clear emissions target and near-term immediate abatement measures by 2018 in order to reduce international maritime CO2 emissions at global level in line with the goals set by the Paris Agreement; notes, furthermore, that in the absence of a comparable system operating under the IMO, CO2 emissions emitted in Union ports and during voyages to and from Union ports of call are to be accounted for through the EU Emissions Trading Scheme or a comparable robust pricing mechanism, to be operational as soon as possible and no later than 2023;

131.  Reiterates that BioLNG use should be promoted as a means to decarbonise the shipping sector, and that the use of biogas in transport should be primarily reserved for the shipping sector, where BioLNG constitutes an existing advanced renewable fuel; considers that the infrastructure developments set out in Directive 2014/94/EU should accommodate to the use of BioLNG in the maritime sector, where currently few other renewable options exist;

132.  Underlines the role that natural gas, in particular liquefied natural gas (LNG), could play in the transition towards the decarbonisation of the transport sector, especially with regard to shipping, by helping to reduce CO2 emissions and air pollutants;

133.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to assess and promote the application of speed restrictions to ships at IMO level in order to reduce emissions, taking into account the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP), and the fact that in the road and rail sectors speed limits are commonplace; underlines that the internal and external economic benefit of lower ship speeds outweigh the costs; notes that slow steaming is comparatively easy to monitor and enforce, resulting in a low administrative burden on stakeholders;

134.  Stresses that shore-side power has a key role to play in greener shipping, as it allows ships to turn off their engines and plug into an electrical grid to produce electricity for hoteling, unloading and loading activities while in port and at berth; calls on the Commission and the Member States to step up their efforts to encourage and support the use of shore-side electricity to all ships visiting European ports, thus eliminating ship engine emissions in port waters, reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions, and also reducing noise, vibration and engine wear-and-tear;

135.  Calls for the establishment of a global market-based mechanism, such as an emissions pricing mechanism within the IMO, to address international maritime emissions, taking into special consideration the regions fully dependent on maritime transport, and particularly the outermost and island regions and states;

136.  Requests, in the light of the rapidly developing scientific understanding of the CO2 and non-CO2 impact of maritime transport on the global climate, that the IPCC, together with the IMO, carry out an assessment of the impacts of maritime transport, along similar lines to the IPCC special report ‘Aviation and the Global Atmosphere’ for the air transport sector;

137.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to work actively towards rapid finalisation of the protracted IMO work plan on reducing black carbon (BC) emissions from ships sailing in the Arctic with a view to slowing down rapid temperature increases in the polar regions;

138.  Calls on the Commission to come up, by 2020 at the latest, with a proposal addressing the use and installation of land-generated electricity by ships at berth in EU ports, with a view to reducing emissions within harbour areas;

139.  Stresses the importance of revising the Port Reception Facilities Directive (2000/59/EC), and invites the Member States and the Commission to adopt a strategy in partnership with the IMO, third countries and industry, for the decarbonisation of the maritime sector, geared to the Paris Agreement targets and the need to establish an international system for the monitoring, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions;

140.  Urges the Commission to promote the necessary fiscal conditions to incentivise the use of shore-side power supply by ships in EU ports and the uptake of renewable technologies, notably sails, batteries and fuel cells, in the maritime sector, especially for short-sea shipping;

141.  Calls on the respective bodies to level the playing field EU-wide with regards to sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides emissions, by adapting the respective limit values to the lowest existing levels;

142.  Calls on the Commission to explore and propose measures to significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide emissions from the existing fleet, including an impact assessment of the possible introduction of a nitrogen oxide levy and fund system, with a view to achieving substantial reductions fast and effectively;

143.  Calls on the Member States and the Commission to propose legal and technical measures to further reduce particulate matter and black carbon emissions;

144.  Emphasises the importance of the outermost regions in a maritime context, in particular given their location in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, providing laboratories for studying and combating the effects of climate change on biodiversity and marine ecosystems, and offering great potential for the development of renewables and blue biotechnology; stresses the need to create innovative programmes and provide adequate funding for the establishment of R&D centres in the outermost regions; calls, to this end, for the creation of a maritime cluster of outermost regions;

Strengthening international ocean research and data

145.  Stresses the importance of developing innovative services for public and private actors, such as knowledge hubs and networks, in order to obtain a good knowledge of the environmental status of marine waters, to enhance the sharing of scientific data, best practices and know-how, and to fully implement the actions of the Marine Knowledge 2020 roadmap (SWD(2014)0149); welcomes, in this context, the full operability of the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service and the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO); urges the Commission to establish Copernicus-based capacities to monitor greenhouse gas emissions, including CO2 emissions, since this would offer substantial added value for the fight against climate change;

146.  Looks forward to the Commission’s proposals for coordinating EU research and observation activities with international partners, and for exploring ways to improve research quality, inter alia through extending existing EU research and observation tools and activities, including the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet), in order to establish a shared database, the European Earth Observation Programme (Copernicus), the European Global Ocean Observing System (EuroGOOS), and the Joint Programming Initiative ‘Healthy and Productive Seas and Oceans’ (JPI Oceans), all with the aim of creating an international marine and maritime data network;

147.  Calls for the full legal authorisation and integration at European level of innovative, proven and selective fishing techniques, to be monitored in close cooperation with scientific establishments and without national protectionism;

148.  Calls for greater investment in scientific research in order to gain a better understanding of our oceans; notes that 95 % of this realm still remains unexplored;

149.  Underlines the importance of sharing the research and data obtained via marine science and technology with scientific communities from third countries; stresses that both promoting further investments in marine science in third countries and establishing international networks through which results and information can be shared are highly important for the development of more sustainable fishing, for better marine management and for tackling common ocean problems;

150.  Notes with concern that small islands are highly vulnerable to coastal erosion, since their coastal environments might be heavily impacted by sea-level rise, water cycle and marine ecosystem trends arising from climate change; emphasises that the existing large European data assembly centres do not contain sediment mass balance data sets, which are required to understand coastal changes and erosion on a small island scale; stresses, therefore, the urgent need to develop and use innovative, state-of-the-art technologies to collect, evaluate and monitor coastal erosion, coastal and marine conditions and the environmental parameters of small EU islands; calls on the Commission and the Member States to support such projects;

151.  Stresses the importance of facilitating knowledge of the seabed, marine species and habitats, and of gathering geological, bathymetric, seismic, volcanic, chemical, hydrological, atmospheric and meteorological data on the oceans, particularly in order to develop marine renewable energy and establish marine protected areas; encourages, in this context, scientific observation and exploration of the oceans, with due regard for the environment and marine ecosystems and with the objective of sustainable development;

152.  Notes the crucial importance of ensuring accurate data in the fisheries sector, this being an essential prerequisite for the achievement of good ocean governance; stresses that appropriate and realistic financial resources must be provided to guarantee this objective; considers it necessary to improve cooperation and coordination with international partners on the basis of the example of EMODnet and in line with the G7’s Tsukuba communiqué;

153.  Encourages dedicating greater resources to increasing marine knowledge and understanding of the oceans, with particular regard to marine scientific research, collection of new data and knowledge and data-sharing platforms, as well as to promoting policy development and decision-making based upon the best available scientific evidence; reiterates the importance of the precautionary approach where adequate scientific evidence is unavailable;

154.  Calls on the Member States and the Commission to promote scientific knowledge, exchanges of data and technology transfer with the aim of contributing to the protection and sustainable use of the oceans; calls for the pursuit and intensification at global level of initiatives, cooperation and investment to promote marine research and innovation;

155.  Stresses that ocean governance should build on the best available knowledge, and therefore calls for increased research and innovation with the aim of governing the oceans and their resources in a way that ensures the conservation and restoration of marine ecosystems, including the sustainability of the exploitation of its resources;

156.  Stresses the need to continue to research the threat posed by catastrophic oil spills and the cumulative effects of more frequent spills on the ocean environments, in order to ensure that decisions to undertake offshore exploration and exploitation activities are based on accurate and up-to-date scientific knowledge;

157.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to step up research and to encourage multidisciplinary approaches and partnerships between economic and public operators, in order to develop scientific knowledge of the oceans;

158.  Stresses the need to dedicate greater resources to marine scientific research, such as interdisciplinary research and sustained ocean and coastal observation, as well as the collection and sharing of data and knowledge, including traditional forms, in order to increase our knowledge of the oceans, better understand the relationship between climate and the health and productivity of the oceans, strengthen the development of coordinated early warning systems on extreme weather events and phenomena, promote decision-making based on the best available science, encourage scientific and technological innovation, and enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing states and least developed countries;

159.  Calls on the Commission to establish, at European level, and to promote at international level, research, observation, and collection and exchange of data concerning the activity of volcanic islands and oceanic volcanoes and their links with the oceans; stresses the driving role that the outermost regions could play in this field;

160.  Points out that renewable energy from the seas and oceans has significant potential for meeting climate and energy targets and diversifying energy sources; stresses that further research on waves, currents and salinity is necessary, as well as development of adequate environmental sustainability criteria;

161.  Recalls that one of the aims of the ‘blue growth’ strategy is to improve oceanographic knowledge; calls on the Commission and the Member States to propose marine research and science partnerships with international actors and to step up those which already exist, such as BlueMed;

162.  Welcomes the EU’s support via the programmes for marine and maritime research and innovation funded through the framework programme; calls on the Commission to maintain that support;

163.  Calls for sufficient funding to support marine and maritime research and innovation actions, notably those which cross sectors in a dedicated mission for ocean research and innovation;

164.  Supports the continuation of the provisions of the 2013 Galway Statement, and encourages the establishment of similar forms of cooperation with third countries;

165.  Stresses that promoting further investments in marine science together with third countries, as pursuant to the Galway Statement of 2013, as well as investments in common research projects in developing countries and the establishment of international networks through which results and information can be shared, is of utmost importance for the development of better and more sustainable fishing and marine ecosystem management and for tackling common challenges with regard to the oceans;

166.  Reiterates the importance of working together with international partners to strengthen mapping, observations and research in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and the Atlantic, in line with the BLUEMED initiative and the Belém and Galway Statements and with global or regional alliances such as the Belmont Forum;

167.  Welcomes the Commission’s commitment to propose an alignment of EMODnet with other international marine data collection efforts by 2018; recalls the importance of the Union’s commitment to the UN’s SDGs, and particularly SDGs 14.A and 14.A.1, as well as to the G7 Science and Technology Ministers’ Tsukuba Communiqué, in this context; urges the Commission and the Member States to remind international partners of their commitments to promote accessible, interoperable and open science; calls on the Commission to report regularly to Parliament on the progress made towards truly global ocean observation platforms;

168.  Calls, in line with the UN’s call for action ‘Our Ocean, Our Future’, for thorough assessments to be carried out on the state of the oceans, based on both science and traditional knowledge systems;

169.  Stresses the need to move forward towards fit-for-purpose ocean observation systems, access to marine data and handling of large quantities of data (including the blue cloud), in line with the Tsukuba Communiqué;

170.  Encourages dedicating greater resources to increasing marine knowledge and understanding of the oceans, with particular regard to marine scientific research, collection of new data and knowledge- and data-sharing platforms, as well as to promoting policy development and decision-making based upon the best available scientific evidence; reiterates the importance of the precautionary approach in cases where adequate scientific evidence is unavailable;

171.  Calls on the Member States and on regional and local authorities and private bodies to focus primarily on innovation projects, blue biotechnologies and the use of clean energy in order to promote and better adapt ecological infrastructure and maritime transport, and to protect the oceans’ ecosystem and biodiversity through the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), the Horizon 2020 programme and the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF); calls, furthermore, on the Member States to focus on alternative and non-conventional fuels for vessels, such as LNG, and on the LNG ‘blue corridors’ project linking islands in order to promote and adapt infrastructures – such as LNG terminals – as bridging technologies, using the existing funding mentioned above; calls on the Commission to develop ocean partnerships with key ocean players as a means of boosting cooperation, policy coherence and coordination on matters of common interest in areas central to ocean governance, such as Blue Growth and the exchange of best practices;

172.  Notes that the automation and digitisation of the maritime sector entail improved digital skills and qualifications, and emphasises that this represents an opportunity to attract young people; calls on the Commission to put forward initiatives in this area, developing joint initiatives for the recognition of qualifications and promoting various marine and maritime activities;

173.  Regrets the lack of any reference in the joint communication on international ocean governance to coastal and maritime tourism, bearing in mind its impact on coastal, island and outermost regions, and on the local tourism sector, involving mainly SMEs; calls for the implementation of a European tourism strategy within the framework of the International Ocean Forum, involving the regions and including coastal local authorities, in the pan-European dialogue for an exchange of best practices regarding the smart governance of coastal and maritime tourism; insists that the Commission’s strategy on plastic and other marine waste should not lose sight of coastal areas, given that disturbances in the marine environment have an extremely negative impact on tourism attractiveness, as well as an unavoidable economic and climate impact on all activities in the outermost regions;

174.  Calls for efforts to be stepped up to enhance research and innovation enabling improved ocean governance in a way that ensures the conservation and restoration of marine ecosystems, including the sustainability of those resources, as well as ocean literacy, both in Europe and globally, through closer cooperation and exchange between researchers, stakeholders, decision-makers and the public, with a view to improving education on the oceans and careers in the blue economy; calls for a thorough assessment of the state of the ocean, based on both science and traditional knowledge systems, in accordance with the UN document ‘Our Ocean, Our Future: Call for Action’;

175.  Emphasises the importance of including the local authorities of coastal and outermost regions in the process of bringing international ocean governance closer to EU citizens;

o
o   o

176.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ C 209, 30.6.2017, p. 60.
(2) See Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0069, P8_TA(2017)0070, P8_TA(2017)0071 and P8_TA(2017)0072.
(3) OJ L 312, 22.11.2008, p. 3.
(4) OJ L 365, 31.12.1994, p. 10.
(5) OJ L 182, 16.7.1999, p. 1.
(6) OJ L 269, 21.10.2000, p. 34.
(7) OJ L 266, 26.9.2006, p. 1.
(8) OJ L 197, 24.7.2012, p. 38.
(9) OJ L 321, 5.12.2011, p. 1.
(10) OJ L 251, 16.9.2016, p. 77.
(11) OJ L 257, 28.8.2014, p. 135.
(12) OJ L 123, 19.5.2015, p. 55.
(13) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0035.
(14) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0093.
(15) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0478.
(16) OJ C 70 E, 8.3.2012, p. 70.
(17) OJ C 75, 26.2.2016, p. 24.
(18) ‘Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean’, Jenna R. Jambeck, Roland Geyer, Chris Wilcox, Theodore R. Siegler, Miriam Perryman, Anthony Andrady, Ramani Narayan, Kara Lavender Law, Science, Vol. 347, Issue 6223, 13 February 2015, pp. 768-771.
(19) Marine Plastic Debris and Microplastics, UNEP: https://wedocs.unep.org/rest/bitstreams/11700/retrieve.
(20) European Environment Agency, ‘The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing’, 2013.
(21) Winkel, R., Weddige, U., Johnson, D., Hoen, V., and Papaefthimiou, S. (2015), ‘Shore Side Electricity in Europe: Potential and environmental benefits’, Energy Policy, DOI: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421515300240.
(22) OJ C 265, 11.8.2017, p. 65.


Women, gender equality and climate justice
PDF 203kWORD 56k
European Parliament resolution of 16 January 2018 on women, gender equality and climate justice (2017/2086(INI))
P8_TA(2018)0005A8-0403/2017

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted on 10 December 1948 and to the UN human rights conventions and optional protocols thereto,

–  having regard to the United Nations Convention of 18 December 1979 on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW),

–  having regard to the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action from the Fourth World Conference, in particular its critical area of concern K (Women and the Environment),

–   having regard to the Demographic Exploration for Climate Adaptation (DECA) developed by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), which combines population data with the geography of climate hazards, providing a policy tool for reducing disaster risks,

–   having regard to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), which came into force in December 1996, and in particular Article 5 of its General Provisions,

–  having regard to the 18th Conference of the Parties (COP 18) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Doha, Qatar, from 26 November to 8 December 2012 (decision 23/CP.18),

–  having regard to the 20th Conference of the Parties (COP 20) to the UNFCCC held in Lima, Peru, from 1 to 12 December 2014, and in particular to the Lima Work Programme on Gender (decision 18/CP.20),

–  having regard to the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP 21) to the UNFCCC held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 11 December 2015,

–   having regard to Article 8 of the Paris Agreement,

–  having regard to the 22nd Conference of the Parties (COP 22) to the UNFCCC held in Marrakech, Morocco, from 7 to 18 November 2016, and its decision on gender and climate change extending the 2014 Lima Work Programme on Gender (decision 21/CP.22),

–  having regard to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted in September 2015 and in force as from 1 January 2016, and in particular to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1, 4, 5 and 13,

–  having regard to the United Nations Human Rights Council resolution 35/20 of 22 June 2017 on human rights and climate change,

–  having regard to Articles 2, 3(2) and 3(5) of the Treaty on European Union (TEU),

–  having regard to Article 8 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU),

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 25 June 2012 on ‘Gender Equality and the environment: enhanced decision-making, qualifications and competitiveness in the field of climate change mitigation policy in the EU’,

–  having regard to the EU Gender Action Plan 2016-2020, adopted by the Council on 26 October 2015,

–  having regard to its resolution of 26 November 2014 on the 2014 UN Climate Change Conference – COP 20 in Lima, Peru (1-12 December 2014)(1),

–  having regard to its resolution of 14 October 2015 on ‘Towards a new international climate agreement in Paris’(2),

–   having regard to its resolution of 20 April 2012 on women and climate change(3),

–  having regard to the ‘Position Paper on the 2015 New Climate Agreement’ published on 1 June 2015 by the organisation Women and Gender Constituency(4),

–  having regard to the report published by the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) on 26 January 2017 entitled ‘Gender in environment and climate change’(5),

–  having regard to the Geneva Pledge for Human Rights in Climate Action,

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality and the opinions of the Committee on Foreign Affairs and of the Committee on Development (A8-0403/2017),

A.  whereas climate change occurs globally, but has a greater destructive impact on the countries and communities least responsible for global warming; whereas the impacts are greater on those populations most reliant on natural resources for their livelihoods and/or which have the least capacity to respond to natural hazards, such as droughts, landslides, floods and hurricanes; whereas those with fewer financial resources to adapt will be hardest hit and suffer the impacts of climate change the most;

B.  whereas the impacts of climate change are experienced differently by women and men; whereas women are more vulnerable and face higher risks and burdens for various reasons, ranging from unequal access to resources, education, job opportunities and land rights, to social and cultural norms and their diverse intersectional experiences;

C.  whereas women are particularly vulnerable to climate change and experience its effects disproportionately because of their social roles, such as providing water, food and combustible materials to the family and caring for others; whereas women are responsible for more than 70 % of water chores and management worldwide; whereas in regions most affected by climate change, 70 % of all women work in the agricultural sector, yet seldom participate in developing climate policies;

D.  whereas the UN estimates that 781 million people aged 15 and over, nearly two thirds of them women, remain illiterate(6) while access to information and education through appropriate communication channels is vital for ensuring women’s autonomy, especially during disasters;

E.  whereas in the agricultural sector in Africa, women produce over 90 % of basic foods and at the same time own only about 1 % of the arable land;

F.  whereas disasters have a major impact on education, health, structural poverty and population displacement;

G.  whereas the UN estimates that 70 % of the 1,3 billion people living in poverty worldwide are women; whereas the poor more frequently live in marginal areas vulnerable to floods, rising sea levels and storms; whereas women and children are 14 times more likely than men to die during natural disasters;

H.  whereas climate change impacts exacerbate gender inequalities in relation to discrimination, threats to health, loss of livelihood, displacement, migration, poverty, human trafficking, violence, sexual exploitation, food insecurity, and access to infrastructure and essential services; whereas there is a need for a gender-responsive approach that links the analysis of climate impacts to a critical reflection on consumption patterns and their impact on climate change;

I.  whereas women’s unequal participation in decision-making processes and labour markets compounds inequalities and often prevents women from fully contributing to and participating in climate policy-making, planning and implementation; whereas women are not only victims but effective agents of change in developing mitigation and adaptation strategies within their communities and in decision-making positions and must be empowered to do so;

J.  whereas the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA) clearly defined the link between gender, the environment and sustainable development, and asserted that women have an strategic role to play in the development of sustainable and ecologically sound consumption and production patterns, including the need for women to participate on an equal basis in making decisions about the environment at all levels;

K.  whereas Article 5 of the General Provisions of the UNCCD recognises the role of women in rural communities and in the regions most affected by desertification and drought, encouraging equal participation by both men and women in combating desertification and the effects of drought;

L.  whereas achieving gender balance and the meaningful participation of women in any process ultimately depends on correcting the structural foundations of gender-based inequality;

M.  whereas the Parties to the UNFCCC decided at COP 18 (decision 23/CP.18) to adopt the goal of achieving gender balance in the bodies established pursuant to the Convention and the Kyoto Protocol in order to improve women’s participation, ensure a more effective climate change policy that addresses the needs of women and men equitably, and keep track of progress made towards the goal of gender balance in advancing gender-responsive climate policy;

N.  whereas women are still under-represented in climate change decision-making bodies at the national level in EU Member States, but not in the relevant Commission DGs, such as DG Climate Action and DG Energy, in both of which 40 % of positions are held by women;

O.  whereas the Lima Work Programme on Gender, adopted at COP 20 (decision 18/CP.20), calls on Parties to advance gender balance in their representation and promote gender sensitivity in developing and implementing climate change policy; whereas Parties are encouraged to support training and awareness-raising for female and male delegates on issues related to gender balance and climate change;

P.  whereas the Paris Agreement (COP 21) establishes that Parties should consider their respective obligations with regard to, among other issues, human rights and gender equality when taking action to address climate change in their implementation of the Agreement;

Q.  whereas mechanisms for funding adaptation and mitigation measures to address loss and damage or climate-induced displacement will be more effective if they incorporate women’s full participation in design processes, decision-making and implementation, including the participation of grassroots women; whereas taking women’s knowledge, including local and indigenous knowledge, into account can lead to advances in disaster management, boost biodiversity, improve water management, enhance food security, prevent desertification, protect forests, ensure a swift transition to renewable energy technologies and support public health;

R.  whereas the Parties to the Paris Agreement have acknowledged that climate change is a common concern of humankind; whereas the Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations regarding human rights, the right to health, the rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations, and the right to development, as well as gender equality, empowerment of women and intergenerational equity;

S.  whereas climate justice links human rights and development, safeguarding the rights of the most vulnerable and ensuring equitable sharing of the burdens and benefits of climate change and its impacts;

T.  whereas the SDGs acknowledge the link between achieving gender equality and the achievement of all SDGs, including goal 13 on climate change, providing for the possibility of tackling the root causes of the weaker socio-economic position of women and thus strengthening their resilience to climate change;

U.  whereas the impacts of climate change in regions such as sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia could force more than 100 million people into extreme poverty by 2030, fuelling conflicts and driving displacement; whereas the UNCCD estimates that 135 million people could be displaced by 2045 as a result of desertification; whereas the UN’s International Organisation for Migration notes in its assessment of evidence that by 2050 the number of climate-displaced people could vary between 25 million to 1 billion, with 200 million being the most widely cited estimate;

V.  whereas gender equality, social justice and the right to development are inherent in the concept of climate justice; whereas, although the brunt of climate change is borne by society as a whole, it is women in particular who are the most severely affected by climate-induced displacement;

W.  whereas climate change increases the magnitude and frequency of natural disasters, which can result in loss of property, loss of economic income-generating activities, loss of access to vital health services, and a heightened risk of gender-based violence; whereas women’s capacity to cope with the effects of natural disasters is often impaired by prevailing inequalities; whereas climate change is likely to exacerbate such inequalities, creating further vulnerabilities and displacement;

X.  whereas many of these impacts can still be prevented by implementing a rapid, inclusive and gender-responsive development agenda focused on mitigation and adapting to changing climate conditions;

Y.  whereas the impacts of climate change are projected to give rise to an increased displacement of people that does not fit within the parameters of current international frameworks; whereas responding to climate-induced displacement will be a challenge of paramount importance requiring a complex and comprehensive global strategy grounded in respect for human rights;

Z.  whereas the adoption in 2017 by the UN Human Rights Council of the document ‘Key Messages on Human Rights and Climate Change’ is a significant step forward in addressing the adverse impact on the full and effective enjoyment of human rights; whereas the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement give global leaders a cross-cutting normative foundation for developing a framework which can address climate displacement effectively by building on existing UN instruments;

AA.  whereas the EU has a clear legal framework that requires it to respect and promote gender equality and human rights in its internal and external policies; whereas EU climate policy can have a significant impact on the protection of human rights and the promotion of gender‑responsive climate policies globally;

AB.  whereas the EU, in line with the powers accorded under the Treaties, can effectively improve legal and policy settings to support climate justice and actively participate in the development of an international framework safeguarding the human rights of climate-induced displaced persons; notes that the EU and Member States have committed to mainstreaming a gender perspective in the future Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration;

AC.  whereas the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees does not include the category of ‘climate refugees’;

1.  Recognises that gender equality is a prerequisite for sustainable development and the efficient management of climate challenges; stresses that women are not only victims, but also powerful agents of change who, on the basis of full participation, can formulate and execute efficient climate strategies and/or solutions in relation to adaptation and mitigation and can build climate resilience as a product of their diverse areas of experience and practical knowledge across sectors ranging from agriculture, forestry and fisheries to energy infrastructures and sustainable cities;

2.  Notes that women’s participation in the labour market in rural areas includes a wide spectrum of jobs that goes beyond conventional agriculture, and stresses in this regard that women in rural areas can be agents of change in moving towards sustainable and ecologically sound agriculture and can play an important role in the creation of green jobs;

3.  Calls on the Commission to implement programmes through which the transfer of modern technologies and know-how can help developing communities and regions to adapt to climate change while working with women, who represent 70 % of the agricultural workforce in disaster-prone countries;

4.  Is convinced that the empowerment of women in rural areas is critical as regards access to land, credits and sustainable farming methods for building climate resilience, including the protection of ecosystems, water resources and soil fertility; calls on the Commission and the Member States to safeguard these aspects in their development policies, including through public investment plans and by endorsing responsible private investments using frameworks such as the UN Global Compact's Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights and UNCTAD's Action Plan for Investing in the SDGs;

5.  Recognises that women and girls are the best sources of knowledge of their own circumstances and needs and therefore should be consulted in all issues related to them; recognises that according to the EIGE, statistically women are more concerned about climate change); recognises that women as innovators, leaders, organisers, educators and caregivers have throughout centuries found ways in difficult situations to provide and meet the needs of their families, and have huge potential to be innovators for the future as well;

6.  Calls on the Commission to consider the social and environmental impacts of its trade and foreign development policies, including the impact of its actions regarding women; further calls on the Commission to insist on binding status for the social and environmental norms in the chapters on sustainable development in the trade agreements that it is negotiating;

7.  Recognises that development policies in the areas of health, education and empowerment, in addition to environmental policy, are fundamental to sustainable development and to ultimately solving climate change; recognises that the ways in which these policies are incorporated in addressing growing trends such as urbanisation will greatly impact climate change;

8.  Points out that SDG 13 (‘Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts’) addresses women’s participation in climate actions with a target (13b) that states: ‘Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change related planning and management in least developed countries, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalised communities’;

9.  Regrets that all the contributions to gender work by the Parties to the UNFCCC are voluntary; urges the Commission, together with the Member States, to reiterate support for the development, adoption and financing of the UNFCCC’s Gender Action Plan (GAP), to be complemented by a comprehensive and multiannual work programme that includes financing, priority action areas, timelines, key indicators of achievements, a definition of the responsible actors, and monitoring and review mechanisms;

10.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to lead by example and adopt targets and timelines for achieving the goal of gender balance in delegations to the UNFCCC;

11.  Underlines the need to take temporary special measures in order to advance the goal of gender balance in formal and informal bodies established pursuant to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol;

12.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure, in line with the EU’s commitments to gender equality and human rights, that subsequent EU Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) include consistent reporting on the gender equality and human rights dimensions;

13.  Calls on the Member States to adhere to decision 21/CP.22 on gender and climate change, which ‘invites Parties to appoint and provide support for a national gender focal point for climate negotiations, implementation and monitoring’ and to provide support for gender focal points in third countries and/or partner countries;

14.  Recognises that women not only perform the bulk of unpaid household and care work but also make the majority of everyday consumer decisions, and therefore, if provided with accurate information and options, can impact on sustainability through their choices; notes that, for example, research has shown that by choosing local food products consumers could reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by up to 5 %;

15.  Recalls its resolution of 16 November 2011 on the climate change conference in Durban (COP 17)(7) and the commitment made therein to ‘strive for female representation of at least 40 % in all relevant bodies’ for climate financing;

16.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States, to adopt a gender-responsive, human-rights-based approach in the work of the Warsaw Task Force on Displacement, mandated by UNFCCC (COP 22) to develop recommendations for integrated approaches to avert, minimise and address displacement related to the adverse impacts of climate change, which acknowledges that women and girls belong to the most vulnerable groups displaced by climate change and are therefore particularly vulnerable to trafficking and gender-based violence;

17.  Calls on the Commission to integrate climate change into all development programmes at all levels; further calls for the increased participation of rural and indigenous women in decision-making processes, planning and implementation, and in the formulation of policies and development programmes concerning climate change;

18.  Calls on the Commission, together with the Member States, to secure a gender‑sensitive approach within its work on the Platform on Disaster Displacement (the Nansen Initiative) and its ‘Agenda for the protection of cross-border displaced persons in the context of disaster and climate change’;

19.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to develop indicators and collect gender-disaggregated data when planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating climate change policies, programmes and projects, using tools such as gender analysis, gender impact assessments, gender budgeting and the Environment and Gender Index (EGI), including through a strengthened EIGE;

20.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to contribute to the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, with a view to safeguarding climate justice by acknowledging climate change as a driver of migration, providing human rights-based input, and mainstreaming gender equality throughout the compact, consistently with the needs of climate-displaced people;

21.  Recalls Core Commitment 4 of the EU’s commitments for the World Humanitarian Summit, namely to ensure that humanitarian programming is gender-responsive; calls on the Commission to ensure that this commitment is reflected in the implementation of the Disaster Preparedness ECHO programme (DIPECHO) and of the Action Plan for Resilience in Crisis Prone Countries (2013-2020) and the Resilience Marker;

22.  Strongly condemns the use of sexual violence against displaced and migrant women; considers that special attention should be given to migrant women and girls who have been victims of violence throughout their journey, ensuring that they have access to psychological and medical services;

23.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to target the relevant programmes on the areas affected by disasters, to step up their efforts to deliver aid to those regions, and to act to resolve the problems induced by disasters there, paying particular attention to the situation of women and children, who suffer the most from the consequences of disasters;

24.  Calls on all stakeholders to encourage women’s empowerment and awareness by improving their knowledge concerning protection before, during and after climate-related disasters, along with actively involving them in disaster anticipation, early warning systems and risk prevention, since this is an important part of their role in resilience-building in the event of a disaster;

25.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States, working together with civil society organisations on the ground, to support, strengthen and implement monitoring mechanisms in reception centres for the displaced and migrants which do not have the necessary minimum conditions to prevent gender-based violence, with a view to stopping all types of harassment of women and girls;

26.  Calls on the Commission to work together with civil society and human rights organisations to ensure that the human rights of refugees and displaced persons in reception centres are upheld, particularly in respect of vulnerable women and girls;

27.  Recognises the possibilities for integration of climate change mitigation and adaptation and women’s economic empowerment goals, particularly in developing countries; calls on the Commission and the Member States to explore in relevant projects and mechanisms, such as the UN’s Reducing Emissions from Deforestation (UN-REDD) programme, how women could be offered paid employment opportunities to carry out the environmental services that they currently provide on a voluntary basis, for example reforestation, afforestation of cleared land and the conservation of natural resources;

28.  Calls for the EU and the Member States, with a view to further advancing the representation of women in the UNFCCC negotiations, to provide funding for women delegates’ training and participation; calls on the Commission to facilitate and support the networking of women’s organisations and civil society activities as regards the development and implementation of climate change policies; calls on the Commission to ensure that women are equal participants in, and beneficiaries of, all climate change consultations, programmes and funding organised with EU support at national and local levels;

29.  Calls on the Commission and the DGs responsible for gender equality, development and energy and climate respectively to include gender equality in a structured and systematic manner in their climate change and energy policies for the EU, and not to focus exclusively on the external dimension; urges, in particular, the DG for Justice and Consumers and the DG for International Cooperation and Development (DEVCO) to step up their awareness of and work on gender equality and women’s empowerment (GEWE) as it relates to climate justice; stresses the need for the DG for Climate Action (CLIMA) to allocate resources to staff the position for a gender focal point (GFP); calls for the EU and its Member States to develop the principle of climate justice; insists that the greatest injustice of our failure to tackle climate change effectively would be the detrimental effects on poor countries and populations, and on women in particular;

30.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to report on gender and human rights impacts and climate action in their Universal Periodic Review reports to the UN Human Rights Council;

31.  Notes that the EU’s financial commitments to GEWE have increased, but the human resources capacity to manage the increasing volume of work has not; stresses that the EU has to show a strong institutional commitment to GEWE in relation to climate change, notably as set out in the overarching policies governing development cooperation, namely the SDGs and the EU Gender Action Plan (GAP);

32.  Regrets that gender equality and climate change is not a priority area in the EU GAP II on gender equality and women’s empowerment; notes that the gender-sensitive indicators have not been adequately developed or integrated into results reporting and that internal accountability and funding for GEWE results remain weak; notes that the least progress has been made on objective 20 of EU GAP II, on equal rights enjoyed by women to participate in and influence decision-making processes on climate and environmental issues, and calls on the Commission to increase efforts to implement this objective; recalls that the EU GAP II has put forward an EU foreign policy agenda with four thematic pillars, including the horizontal pillar on shifting the Commission services and the EEAS institutional culture to more effective delivery of EU commitments, in full respect of the principle of equality between men and women;

33.  Recognises that improvements to technical guidance will not be sufficient on their own to transform the EU’s effectiveness on GEWE;

34.  Calls on the Commission to take the initiative to produce a comprehensive communication with the title ‘Gender equality and climate change – building resilience and promoting climate justice in mitigation and adaptation strategies’, with a view to addressing its strong institutional commitment to GEWE and the current weaknesses in institutional coordination;

35.  Calls on its parliamentary committees to enhance gender mainstreaming when working within their areas of competence on the cross-cutting issues of climate change, sustainable development and human rights;

36.  Stresses the need to make the financing of both adaptation to climate change and mitigation of its effects gender-responsive; welcomes the recent progress made with regard to gender policy in the field of multilateral finance mechanisms; welcomes, in addition, private-sector initiatives that aim to enhance corporate social responsibility by introducing a premium for projects that fulfil sustainability criteria, including promoting livelihoods and educational opportunities for women; notes, however, that according to the UN Development Programme (UNDP), only 0,01 % of all funding worldwide supports projects that address both climate change and women’s rights; calls for the EU and its Member States to ensure that their climate change programmes comply with the highest international standards on human rights and do not undermine gender equality;

37.  Considers that the three financial mechanisms under the UNFCCC – the Green Climate Fund (GCF), the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Adaptation Fund (AF) – should unlock additional finance for more gender-responsive climate investment policy;

38.  Urges the EU, in particular, to make development aid conditional on the inclusion of human rights-based criteria, and to establish new gender-sensitive climate change policy criteria;

39.  Calls for gender-sensitive action to ensure that women are seen not only as beneficiaries of climate action, but also as clean energy technology entrepreneurs; welcomes the Commission’s call for proposals on women and sustainable energy, making EUR 20 million available for the implementation of activities promoting women’s entrepreneurship in the sustainable energy sector in developing countries, and encourages the Commission to increase this amount in future;

40.  Calls for gender equality-focused training for EU officials, especially for those dealing with development and climate policies;

41.  Requests that climate‑induced displacement be taken seriously; is open to a debate on establishing a provision on ‘climate migration’; calls for the establishment of a panel of experts to explore this matter at international level, and urges that the issue of climate migration be placed on the international agenda; calls for strengthened international cooperation in order to ensure climate resilience;

42.  Welcomes the UN Women’s Flagship Programming Initiatives and the Global Climate Change Alliance’s projects and programmes, which create a cross-cutting link between gender and climate change;

43.  Welcomes the work of the UN Special Representative on Human Rights and the Environment and of the UN Human Rights Council in this area, and calls on the Commission and the Member States to support these efforts, including through financial assistance;

44.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ C 289, 9.8.2016, p. 27.
(2) OJ C 349, 17.10.2017, p. 67.
(3) OJ C 258 E, 7.9.2013, p. 91.
(4) http://womengenderclimate.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/WGC_FINAL_1June.pdf
(5) http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/eige-publications/gender-environment-and-climate-change
(6) United Nations, ‘The World’s Women 2015’, https://unstats.un.org/unsd/gender/chapter3/chapter3.html.
(7) OJ C 153 E, 31.5.2013, p. 83.

Legal notice - Privacy policy