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Procedure : 2017/2210(INI)
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Tuesday, 17 April 2018 - Strasbourg Final edition
Gender equality in the media sector in the EU

European Parliament resolution of 17 April 2018 on gender equality in the media sector in the EU (2017/2210(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to Articles 11 and 23 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

–  having regard to Articles 2 and 3(3), second subparagraph, of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and Article 8 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU),

–  having regard to Directive 2006/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2006 on the implementation of the principle of equal opportunities and equal treatment of men and women in matters of employment and occupation(1),

–  having regard to Directive 2010/13/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 March 2010 on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by law, regulation or administrative action in Member States concerning the provision of audiovisual media services (Audiovisual Media Services Directive)(2),

–  having regard to the Commission proposal of 26 April 2017 for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on work-life balance for parents and carers and repealing Council Directive 2010/18/EU (COM(2017)0253),

–  having regard to the Commission proposal on the third medium-term Community action programme on equal opportunities for women and men 1991-1995 (COM(90)0449),

–  having regard to the resolution of the Council and the representatives of the Governments of the Member States, meeting within the Council of 5 October 1995 on the image of women and men portrayed in advertising and the media(3),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 7 June 2000 entitled ‘Towards a Community framework strategy on gender equality (2001-2005)’ (COM(2000)0335),

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 9 June 2008 on eliminating gender stereotypes in society,

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 24 June 2013 on advancing women’s roles as decision-makers in the media,

–  having regard to the European Pact for Gender Equality (2011-2020), adopted by the Council in March 2011,

–  having regard to the Roadmap for equality between women and men 2006-2010 of 1 March 2006 (COM(2006)0092),

–  having regard to the Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015 of 21 September 2010 (COM(2010)0491),

–  having regard to the Commission staff working document of 3 December 2015 on Strategic engagement for gender equality 2016-2019 (SWD(2015)0278),

–  having regard to its resolution of 25 July 1997 on discrimination against women in advertising(4),

–  having regard to its resolution of 3 September 2008 on how marketing and advertising affect equality between women and men(5),

–  having regard to its resolution of 12 March 2013 on eliminating gender stereotypes in the EU(6),

–  having regard to its resolution of 28 April 2016 on gender equality and empowering women in the digital age(7),

–  having regard to its resolution of 13 September 2016 on creating labour market conditions favourable for work-life balance(8),

–  having regard to its resolution of 15 September 2016 on application of Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation (‘Employment Equality Directive’)(9),

–  having regard to its resolution of 14 June 2017 on the need for an EU strategy to end and prevent the gender pension gap(10),

–  having regard to its resolution of 4 July 2017 on working conditions and precarious employment(11),

–  having regard to its resolution of 3 October 2017 on women’s economic empowerment in the private and public sectors in the EU(12),

–  having regard to its resolution of 26 October 2017 on combating sexual harassment and abuse in the EU(13),

–  having regard to the Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe of 10 July 2013 on gender equality and media,

–  having regard to Recommendation 1555 of 24 April 2002 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on Image of women in the media,

–  having regard to Recommendation 1799 of 26 June 2007 of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on The image of women in advertising,

–  having regard to the Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe of 27 September 2017 to member States on gender equality in the audiovisual sector,

–  having regard to the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) study of 2013 entitled ‘Review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action in the EU Member States: Women and the Media – Advancing gender equality in decision-making in media organisations’,

–  having regard to the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action and its annexes thereto, adopted at the Fourth World Conference on Women in September 1995,

–  having regard to the Council of Europe report of 2013 entitled ‘Media and the image of women’,

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality and the opinion of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (A8-0031/2018),

A.  whereas equality between women and men is a core principle of the European Union, as enshrined in the Treaties in Article 8 of TFEU stating that, in all its activities, the Union shall aim to eliminate inequalities, and to promote equality between women and men; whereas EU policies to promote gender equality have helped to make life better for many European citizens;

B.  whereas the media act as a fourth power, have the capacity to influence and, ultimately, shape public opinion; whereas the media are one of the cornerstones of democratic societies and, as such, have a duty to ensure freedom of information, diversity of opinion and media pluralism, to promote respect for human dignity and to combat all forms of discrimination and inequality by, among other things, portraying diversified social role models; whereas, therefore, media organisations have to be sensitised;

C.  whereas the fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, recognised the importance of the relationship between women and the media in achieving equality between women and men, and incorporated two strategic aims into the Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA):

   (a) to increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through media and new technologies of communication;
   (b) to promote a balanced and non-stereotyped portrayal of women by the media;

D.  whereas the portrayal of women and men in the media may convey unequal representation in various contexts, including political, economic, social, academic, religious, cultural, and sports contexts – with men appearing mainly in active social roles and women being confined to more passive roles; whereas of all the stereotypes affecting the image of women and men, the prime example is the sexualisation of the female body, which can be seen most clearly in the tabloid press and in advertising; whereas the eroticisation of violence and objectification of women in the media have a negative effect on the fight for the eradication of violence against women; whereas gender stereotypes are often combined with other stereotypes involving discrimination on any grounds;

E.  whereas the media have a significant impact on cultural gender norms and on how social representations associated with both women and men are formed and evolve, and influence the audience with stereotyped body images and ideas of masculinity and femininity, for example, the representation of women in advertising and the way products target potential consumers tend to perpetuate traditional gender norms; whereas in cases where the media continue to present stereotyped representations of women and men, including those of LGBTI individuals, people very often view these depictions as legitimate, thus making it difficult or impossible to call them into question;

F.  whereas in modern-day societies the advertising industry plays a major role within the media landscape, as it communicates by using images and ideas that appeal to our emotions and can hence shape our values, attitudes, and perceptions of the world; whereas, by conveying a distorted gender image, advertising may resort to sexism and replicate discriminatory practices; whereas an advertisement may be considered discriminatory or sexist if a gender is portrayed in a degrading and insulting way or as less capable, intelligent or as inferior;

G.  whereas new technologies are transforming traditional media business models; whereas the audiovisual sector is a highly important industry of economic value which alone directly employs over one million people in the EU; whereas, in order to cope with the new online communication and multimedia systems, the necessary adjustments have to be made to the oversight of the arrangements at national level, as well as to self-regulation schemes without prejudice to the outcome of the negotiations on the Audiovisual Media Services Directive;

H.  whereas the perspective of both women and men should be taken into account equally in order to achieve a complete and diversified picture of every facet of social reality; whereas it is important not to lose out on women’s potential and skills in communicating information, facts and opinions about the challenges faced by women in the media, while acknowledging that women cannot be treated as a homogenous group;

I.  whereas the continued projection of negative and degrading images of women in media communications – electronic, print, visual and audio – must be changed; whereas gender inequalities are also created and replicated through the language and images disseminated by the media; whereas children are confronted with gender inequalities at a very young age through role models promoted by television series and programmes, discussions, games, video games and advertisements; whereas gender roles are shaped mostly during childhood and adolescence with an impact throughout life; whereas the education and training of media professionals are powerful tools for combating and eradicating stereotypes, raising awareness and promoting equality;

J.  whereas women constituted 68 % of journalism and information graduates in the EU-28 in 2015(14), while employment data for the EU-28 over 2008-2015 show that the percentage of women employed in the media sector on average is continuously languishing at around 40 %;

K.  whereas, moreover, the share of women in decision-making in media in the EU-28 in 2015 was still below the gender balance zone (40-60 %) at just 32 %, while the share of women as board presidents was a mere 22 %(15);

L.  whereas gender pay and pension gaps are a persistent problem in the EU, and are evident in different economic sectors, including in the media, where the gender pay gap is 17 %;

M.  whereas women continue to face a glass ceiling in the media and might not have equal opportunities for promotion or career advancement owing to a variety of factors, including the procedures of an organisational culture which is often unfavourable to a work-life balance with a competitive environment characterised by stress, inflexible deadlines and long working hours; whereas women have less decision‑making power in setting the news agenda due to their underrepresentation in senior management positions;

N.  whereas media organisations in the Member States can establish their own equality policies, which leads to a wide spectrum of practices in the EU: from very comprehensive policy frameworks covering media content and providing for a balanced representation of men and women in decision-making bodies, to there being no such policy in place;

O.  whereas research has shown that only 4 % of news coverage is against stereotypical portrayal; whereas women account for just 24 % of the people we hear or read about in the news(16); whereas around 37 % of stories from both online and offline news sources are reported by women, a situation which has demonstrated no prospect of improvement in the past 10 years(17); whereas women are mostly asked to provide a popular opinion (41 %) or personal experience (38 %) and are seldom quoted as experts (just 17 % of stories); whereas research has also shown that less than one in five experts or commentators are women (18 %)(18);

P.  whereas women are disproportionately under-represented in the news and information media and are even less visible in the domains of sport, politics, the economy and finances, notwithstanding the variety of media outlets across the Member States; whereas the women of history are almost entirely absent from related media content, such as biographical documentaries;

Q.  whereas female participation on an equal level with men in reporting content and serving as information sources is crucial not only for reasons of representation, but also for reasons of equal opportunities and the full recognition of their expertise and knowledge; whereas, within the European media landscape, there are obstacles to engaging in a responsible approach to gender equality given the financial constraints and working conditions, including job insecurity and the levels of professional experience, combined with the growing speed of information and commercial considerations;

R.  whereas there are women in the media working at a top professional level, including renowned film makers, journalists and reporters, who, although performing equally well as men, are more exposed to gender-based violence and workplace discrimination and may not be given the same level of appreciation as their male counterparts;

S.  whereas women engaging in social media are encountering increasing levels of harassment; whereas this harassment has the potential to silence women’s voice and weakens their participation in society; whereas data collected globally shows that half of the women employed in the media have experienced sexual abuse, one quarter of them have experienced acts of physical violence and three quarters have experienced intimidation, threats or abuse(19); whereas there is increasing concern about cyber violence against women and girls and it is estimated that one in ten women in the EU have experienced some form of cyber violence since reaching the age of 15; whereas there is a lack of data and research on cyber violence against women and girls at EU level; whereas psychological and sexual harassment are human rights violations; whereas the media and national and international regulators should lay down rules, including sanctions to be applied by media organisations, to deal with these matters;

T.  whereas female investigative journalists in particular are often subjected to violence and the target of deadly attacks, as evidenced by the cases of Veronica Guerin or Daphne Caruana Galizia;

U.  whereas according to a study by the European Women’s Audiovisual Network (EWA)(20), only one in five films in the seven European countries examined is directed by a woman, and the vast majority of funding resources go into films that are not directed by women, even though approximately half of all film school graduates are women;

V.  whereas media companies should adopt self-regulation systems and codes of conduct setting out procedural rules and criteria on careers and media coverage to safeguard and promote gender equality; whereas self-regulation and conduct codes of this kind should be drawn up in collaboration with the industry’s trade unions, pursuing a clear policy on gender equality;

Women’s presence in the media

1.  Highlights the fact that although women in this field at graduate level constitute a substantial workforce, they are underrepresented in management and top-level positions; considers that both public and private media services have a responsibility to ensure equality between women and men and prevent any discrimination; calls on the Member States to develop policy incentives to reduce barriers to women’s access to management posts and leadership in media organisations;

2.  Regrets the fact that the representation of women in public service media in the EU is low on average, in both strategic and operational high-level posts and on boards (in 2017: 35,8 % for executive posts, 37,7 % for non-executive posts and 33,3 % as board members)(21);

3.  Recalls that, with a view to monitoring the critical areas of the BPfA relating to women in media, the EIGE developed the following indicators:

   the proportion of women and men in decision-making posts in media organisations and on the boards of media organisations in the EU,
   the proportion of women and men on the boards of media organisations in the EU,
   policies to promote gender equality in media organisations;

4.  Recalls that while the Audiovisual Media Services Directive states that its objectives ‘cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States and can be better achieved at Union level’, it contains no reference to equal representation in media organisations;

5.  Notes that despite being insufficiently represented in them at present, women are still more likely to be recruited or promoted to high-level positions in public service media than in private media organisations(22);

6.  Calls on the Member States and media organisations to support and develop incentive measures, including quotas, for the equal representation of women and men in decision-making posts, and for the effective monitoring of such efforts to be given greater prominence in these organisations; calls on the Commission to step up its efforts to unblock the Directive on Women on Boards, which has been on hold in the Council since 2013;

7.  Takes note of the long tradition of employing both freelance and permanent staff which exists in the media sector and of its continued digitisation which has led to reductions in traditional circulation and advertising revenue, which has an impact on the type of employment contracts offered in the sector; points out, furthermore, that women are over-represented in many atypical forms of work across the labour market; notes that the increasing pressures on the media sector to maintain its economic viability is likely to lead to a growing number of these forms of contracts;

8.  Considers that stereotypes can lead to a negative social environment for women and can contribute to gender discrimination in the workplace; notes the importance of a positive social environment in helping workers to deal with high levels of work intensity;

9.  Recalls that media organisations are at liberty to determine roles for their employees, both men and women, but urges them to do so with the utmost respect for personal dignity and professional quality; observes, in this context, worrying instances of female reporters deemed more suitable for television journalism for their perceived attractiveness to the audience, and being subsequently replaced by younger colleagues as they get older;

10.  Condemns, furthermore, the widespread occurrence of sexual harassment and other types of abuse, especially in online gaming and social media, and encourages media companies to create safe environments that are responsive to any instances of harassment; calls, therefore, for different measures, including awareness‑raising, internal rules on disciplinary sanctions for offenders, and psychological and/or legal support for victims of these practices, to prevent and combat bullying and sexual harassment at work as well as in online environments;

11.  Strongly condemns attacks against female journalists fearlessly reporting on major political and criminal issues, and calls for the greatest possible efforts be made to ensure the protection and safety of all journalists;

12.  Urges public and private media organisations to adopt internal polices such as equal opportunities and diversity policies which include anti-harassment measures, maternity or parental leave schemes, flexible working arrangements that support work-life balance allowing women and men to benefit equally from parental leave and encouraging men to take up paternity leave, ensuring the fair distribution of childcare, as well as mentorship and management training programmes, the use of teleworking and flexible working arrangements for both women and men on a voluntary basis and without prejudice to career advancement;

13.  Calls on the media to respect the right of women and men to benefit from maternity, paternity, or parental leave; points out that no pregnant woman should be discriminated against on account of her condition and no woman should be refused employment because she might decide to become pregnant; encourages media organisations and regulatory authorities to disclose the gender pay gap, to establish pay transparency obligations and to implement the equal pay for equal work principle through binding measures;

14.  Suggests that media organisations establish databases of women experts in a number of areas, particularly those in which women are underrepresented, with a view to utilising them, when appropriate; encourages furthermore, the collection of sex-disaggregated data on all possible media content;

15.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to increase the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making through media and new technologies of communication;

16.  Considers that all media workers could benefit from the general advancement of conditions for women in the workplace; considers, however, that such improvement has not been sufficient and that inequalities remain; stresses the need for Member States and the Commission to promote and ensure the principle of equal pay in accordance with Article 157 TFEU, including by combatting the gender pay and pension gap, reducing precarious work(23), ensuring accessibility to affordable and quality childcare and better work-life balance policies, and ensuring collective bargaining rights;

17.  Reiterates that the media must, as a matter of urgency, implement the policy of equal pay for equal work, including pay transparency obligations, while enabling women to enjoy the same promotion and training opportunities and any other additional benefits on equal terms with men;

18.  Notes the positive role of women’s councils and women’s equality officers in workplaces; calls for gender equality to be promoted as a cross-cutting human resources policy within the media; considers that achieving equality for women at all levels, and particularly decision-making levels, in the media requires an employee-centred culture and a gender-sensitive senior management team; recommends that national regulatory bodies and media organisations follow the Commission Recommendation 2014/124/EU on strengthening the principle of equal pay between men and women through transparency(24), draw up guidance on fair selection procedures, establish comprehensive equality policies, covering media content and providing for women’s advancement in decision-making bodies, and set up internal procedures dealing with harassment in the workplace; calls on the Commission to continue to monitor the proper application and enforcement of Directive 2006/54/EC which reverses the burden of proof for cases of discrimination on grounds of sex;

Media content and women

19.  Stresses the role of the media as an agent of social change and its influence in the shaping of public opinion and calls on the Member States to promote content on gender equality in public media; points out that until now any regulatory action on sexism and stereotypical gender portrayals in media content has been a competence of the Member States; recalls the prohibition of sex-based discrimination in media under the Audiovisual Media Services Directive; stresses, furthermore, that while regulatory action is subject to due considerations of the principle of freedom of expression, editorial freedom should not, under any circumstances, serve to encourage or legitimise degrading portrayals of women and LGBTI people; urges the Member States, in safeguarding the aforementioned freedoms, to regulate access to video games with harmful online content, and to pornography on the internet;

20.  Stresses that economic arguments cannot be an excuse for the perpetuation of gender stereotyping in media content;

21.  Stresses that violent and sexist media content is negatively affecting women and their participation in society; expresses concern about certain commercial audiovisual communications that are causing psychological or physical damage to children and young people; urges the relevant stakeholders and authorities to address the issue of advertising that indirectly encourages eating disorders such as anorexia, and to take other steps to protect particularly vulnerable persons, including girls and young women, against such content;

22.  Urges that media content, including advertising, related to family planning, sexual and reproductive rights, maternal and child health, and education be aimed at both men and women;

23.  Stresses the importance of fostering media literacy and providing all relevant stakeholders with gender-sensitive media education initiatives so as to encourage young people to develop critical thinking skills, and to help them to identify and speak out against sexist portrayals and discrimination, gender‑based violence, cyber-bullying, hate speech and violence motivated by a person’s gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation or sex characteristics.; underlines the need for preventive measures including encryption and parental control with a view to ensuring safer internet usage and digital and media literacy; draws attention to the fact that stereotypes in advertising and in other media products have a potential impact on children’s socialisation and, subsequently, the way they view themselves, their family members and the outside world; points out that advertising can be an effective tool in challenging stereotypes, such as gender stereotypes and stereotypes against LGBTI people; calls therefore, for a greater focus on professional training and education activities as a way to combat discrimination and promote gender and LGBTI equality;

24.  Recommends that soft measures such as gender equality plans or guidelines should be given even more prominence in media organisations and advises that these protocols set the standards for the positive portrayal of women in advertising, news, reporting, production or broadcasting and cover all sensitive content areas such as the depiction of power and authority, expertise, decision-making, sexuality, violence, diversity of roles and the use of non-sexist language; encourages, furthermore, public and private media to mainstream gender equality in all their content and to adopt equality plans in order to reflect social diversity;

25.  Recommends that regulations issued by authorities competent for media and communication set out the criteria guaranteeing stereotype-free portrayals of women and girls and that they include the possibility of removing or suspending offensive content; further recommends that specialist organisations such as national equality bodies and women’s NGOs are involved in the monitoring of the implementation of these regulations;

26.  Points out that Member States must ensure, by all appropriate means, that the media, including online and social media, as well as advertising, is free from any incitement to violence or hatred directed against any person or group of persons; underlines the need to collect gender-segregated data and to conduct research, in cooperation with the EIGE, to address cyber violence, online sexual harassment, threats, sexist remarks and hate speech against women and girls, including those who are LGBTI; stresses that special attention needs to be paid to training on how the media report on cases of gender-based violence, including violence against LGBTI people; suggests that continuous training on gender depictions in media content be made available for media professionals, including those in leadership positions; recommends that gender equality be reflected in the teaching modules in undergraduate and postgraduate journalism and communication courses;

27.  Calls on the Member States and the Commission to promote self-regulation and co-regulation in the media through codes of conduct;

Examples of good practice

28.  Notes with enthusiasm the various examples of good practice that can be observed in all Member States, including: media campaigns, specific legislation, awards or anti-awards for stereotypical and sexist advertising, databases of women experts, training courses for industry professionals, and media organisations’ equality plans, codes of conduct and equal opportunity and diversity policies, and the minimum thresholds set for representation of the sexes in the governing bodies of media regulators;

29.  Encourages the Member States to support campaigns such as the Belgian Expertalia tool, the Czech ‘Sexist Piggy’ awards or the Swedish #TackaNej (‘No, thanks’) initiative, among others; invites the Member States to hold regular information and awareness‑raising campaigns about gender-based discriminatory content in the media, and to report regularly on gender equality trends in the media; calls on the Commission to earmark special funding for sub-programmes focusing on the advancement of women in the media industry and to support media associations and networks in putting in place public and sectoral awareness‑raising campaigns; further calls on the Commission to establish an EU award for students in the media field for work related to gender equality;

30.  Invites civil society organisations to draw up communication strategies, not just for traditional media, but also for online media, in order to widen the scope for influencing and monitoring the media agenda;

Further recommendations

31.  Calls on the Member States, in conjunction with equality bodies, to fully implement the existing legislation addressing gender equality, and to encourage regulatory bodies to pay attention to the presence and advancement of women and to non-stereotypical media content; encourages the Member States to carry out regular evaluations of the above‑mentioned areas and to develop, if this has not yet been done, legislation focusing on non-stereotypical media content; emphasises the role of Member States in making better use of existing resources in the media within their remit to perform their public service role while reflecting a more gender‑balanced and democratic society;

32.  Calls on the Commission to conduct further research into the participation of women in senior positions in the media; commends the EIGE for its work in the field and calls on it to continue to develop and monitor the relevant set of indicators, including but not limited to women’s presence in decision-making, their working conditions and gender equality in media content, while extending its attention to the new social media technologies in order to develop methodologies to prevent gender-based violence and harassment in social media;

33.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to support and promote women’s organisations which are active in the sphere of promoting gender equality in the media, including organisations which support women and girls who are victims of gender-based violence, intersectional discrimination or sexual harassment;

34.  Calls on the Member States to implement action programmes which ensure women’s involvement in the design and implementation of effective and efficient gender-sensitive policies and programmes within media organisations;

35.  Calls on the Member States to develop programmes to improve women’s skills in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects that are important for careers in the media sector with a more technical focus, such as sound and audiovisual technicians; stresses the importance of vocational education and training in diversifying career choices and introducing women and men to non-traditional career opportunities to overcome horizontal and vertical exclusion;

o   o

36.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ L 204, 26.7.2006, p. 23.
(2) OJ L 95, 15.4.2010, p. 1.
(3) OJ C 296, 10.11.1995, p. 15.
(4) OJ C 304, 6.10.1997, p. 60.
(5) OJ C 295 E, 4.12.2009, p. 43.
(6) OJ C 36, 29.1.2016, p. 18.
(7) OJ C 66, 21.2.2018, p. 44.
(8) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0338.
(9) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2016)0360.
(10) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0260.
(11) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0290.
(12) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0364.
(13) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2017)0417.
(14) UNESCO OECD Eurostat (UOE) joint data collection, available from:
(15) EIGE, Gender Equality Index 2017.
(17) Lenka Vochocová, FEMM public hearing ‘Gender equality in the media sector in the EU’, 26 June 2017, recording available at
(18) Global Media Monitoring project, regional report for Europe (2015), available at
(19) International Federation of Journalists’(IFJ) campaign on gender-based violence at work,
(20) ‘Where are the women directors in European films? Gender equality report on female directors (2006-2013) with best practice and policy recommendations’,
(21) Gender Equality in Power and Decision-Making. Review of the Implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action in the EU Member States, 2017 (Source: EIGE Gender Statistics Database – Women and Men in Decision-Making).
(22) European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE): Review of the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action in the EU Member States: Women and the Media – Advancing gender equality in decision-making in media organisations (2013).
(23) See European Parliament resolution of 4 July 2017 on working conditions and precarious employment.
(24) OJ L 69, 8.3.2014, p. 112.

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