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Procedure : 2017/2257(INI)
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PV 12/09/2018 - 18
CRE 12/09/2018 - 18

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PV 13/09/2018 - 10.13
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Thursday, 13 September 2018 - Strasbourg
Europe on the Move: an agenda for the future of mobility in the EU

European Parliament resolution of 13 September 2018 on Europe on the Move: an agenda for the future of mobility in the EU (2017/2257(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Commission communication entitled ‘Europe on the Move: an agenda for a socially fair transition towards clean, competitive and connected mobility for all’ (COM(2017)0283),

–  having regard to the Paris climate agreement, ratified by the by the European Parliament and the Council on 4 October 2016(1)

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation)(2),

–  having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee of 18 October 2017 on clean, competitive and connected mobility for all(3),

–  having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee of 5 July 2017 on implications of the digitalisation and robotisation of transport for EU policy-making(4),

–  having regard to its resolution of 23 April 2009 on the Intelligent Transport Systems Action Plan(5),

–   having regard to its resolution of 10 December 2013 on CARS 2020: towards a strong, competitive and sustainable European car industry(6),

–   having regard to its resolution of 7 July 2015 on delivering multimodal integrated ticketing in Europe(7),

–  having regard to its resolution of 9 September 2015 on the implementation of the 2011 White Paper on Transport: taking stock and the way forward towards sustainable mobility(8),

–   having regard to the Valletta Declaration on Road Safety of 29 March 2017,

–  having regard to the Commission White Paper entitled ‘Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area – Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system’ (COM(2011)0144),

–  having regard to the its study from 2016 entitled ‘Self-piloted cars: the future of road transport?’,

–  having regard to the its study from 2017 entitled ‘Infrastructure funding challenges in the sharing economy’,

–  having regard to the European Economic and Social Committee study from 2017 entitled ‘Impact of digitalisation and the on-demand economy on labour markets and the consequences for employment and industrial relations’,

–  having regard to Rule 52 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Transport and Tourism and the opinion of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (A8-0241/2018),

A.  whereas structural changes are under way in the transport sector and the future of transport in the EU is at the intersection of the overarching priorities of the 2030 climate and energy framework, the Clean Air Programme for Europe and the EU road safety guidelines 2011-2020;

B.  whereas decarbonisation of transport and the use of low-emission technologies offer opportunities for the future of mobility and sustainable economic growth;

C.  whereas the collaborative and sharing economy is transforming the transport industry worldwide; whereas the value of collaborative economy transactions in the transport sector in Europe in 2015 has been estimated at EUR 5.1 billion, an increase of 77 % compared to the previous year, while non-monetary sharing economy interactions widely exceed this scenario, highlighting the importance of this phenomenon;

D.  whereas it is estimated that passenger transport will grow by about 42 % between 2010 and 2050 and that freight transport will grow by 60 % during the same period;

E.  whereas the 2011 White Paper on Transport called for 30 % of freight along major corridors to be shifted from the road to more sustainable modes of transport such as rail by 2030, and 50 % by 2050, while requiring appropriate green infrastructure to be developed;

F.  whereas applying the user and polluter pays principle in all modes of transport, including road, rail, maritime and aviation, will contribute to the creation of a level playing field between all modes of transport;

G.  whereas new mobility services aim to significantly improve urban transport and have the potential to do so by reducing congestion and emissions and providing an alternative to private car ownership, as the private car is still the principal means of transport in terms of journeys made; whereas they can enable a shift towards multimodal and shared transport, which is thus also more sustainable, and can complement public and active forms of transport;

H.  whereas the transport sector plays a key role in the functioning of the EU economy, accounting for roughly 4 % of EU GDP and more than 5 % of total EU employment(9); whereas women make up only 22 % of the sector’s workforce and a third of all the sector’s workers are aged over 50;

I.  whereas connected and autonomous vehicles are expected to make future road transport more efficient, safer and more secure, as human error is the main cause of all traffic accidents on Europe’s roads;

J.  whereas great progress has been achieved in the past decades, making the EU the world’s safest road transport region; whereas the high number of victims of accidents, with 25 500 fatalities and 135 000 people seriously injured on European roads last year, still causes great human suffering and unacceptable economic costs, estimated at EUR 100 billion annually, and whereas the 2020 targets to reduce the number of victims of road accidents by half compared to 2010 are not being met and the share of serious injuries and fatalities of vulnerable road users like pedestrians, cyclists or drivers of smaller two-wheeled motor vehicles is sharply increasing;

K.  whereas transport is the main cause of air pollution in urban areas and is responsible for over 25 % of greenhouse gas emissions in the EU, of which road transport accounts for over 70 %, a share which continues to rise;

L.  whereas recent research and estimates reveal a stronger link between exposure to air pollution and higher public health risks, including cardiovascular diseases such as strokes and ischaemic heart disease, and cancer, and whereas in the EU particulate matter is estimated to cause 399 000 premature deaths per year, the corresponding figure being 75 000 for nitrogen oxides and 13 600 for ozone; whereas people living in urban environments are particularly exposed to this danger;

M.  whereas major efforts towards a more inclusive, safer and fairer transport sector are currently being made worldwide, including the introduction of ambitious targets and binding standards, and whereas the EU should not lose its opportunity to be at the forefront of these social innovations;

The impact of transport transition on skills and ways of working

1.  Welcomes the Commission communication entitled ‘Europe on the Move: an agenda for a socially fair transition towards clean, competitive and connected mobility for all’, which recognises that the mobility sector is undergoing profound changes and stresses that the digital mobility revolution should lead to a safer, more innovative, more integrated, sustainable, fairer, more competitive and cleaner road transport sector, interconnected with other more sustainable modes of transport; welcomes the communication’s strategic approach towards achieving a coherent regulatory framework for the increasingly complex field of road transport;

2.  Points out that the EU’s mobility sector needs to take advantage of the opportunities created by digital technologies; believes that new business models that give rise to innovative shared mobility services, including new on-line platforms for freight operations, car-pooling, car or bicycle sharing services, or smartphone applications offering real-time analytics and data on traffic conditions, should be developed and promoted;

3.  Encourages the Commission and the Member States to propose and apply C-ITS measures in coherence with the goals and initiatives as declared in the 2011 White Paper on Transport as well as the Paris Agreement on climate change of December 2015;

4.  Highlights the fact that the EU’s automotive sector provides jobs for 8 million people and accounts for 4 % of the EU’s gross value added, bringing a trade surplus of EUR 120 billion;

5.  Underlines that the changes in the automotive industry linked to digitalisation, automation or cleaner cars will require new expertise and modes of working; stresses that these changes should give rise to new opportunities to make the transport sector more attractive and end labour shortages in the sector; highlights that the production of cleaner, better connected and more automated vehicles will have an impact on manufacturing, development, maintenance, and servicing, and will require new skills, such as for the assembly of electric motors or manufacturing of second-generation batteries, fuel cells, computing or sensing equipment; highlights that already today the industry faces tremendous challenges in recruiting staff with appropriate skills and that while growth in engineering jobs is expected to continue, software skills are a new requirement that companies have to look for; calls on the Commission and the Member States to tailor EU transport workers’ in-service training and skills development to these new challenges;

6.  Stresses that equality of opportunity between men and women should be a priority on the agenda for the future of the transport sector; stresses that the transport sector is dominated by men, who make up three quarters of the total workforce, and gender balance needs to be encouraged; welcomes the launch of the ‘Women in Transport EU Platform for Change’, which is intended to foster women’s employment and equality of opportunity in the transport sector; calls on the Commission and the Member States to work together on that platform so that job creation for women and the digitalisation of the sector go hand in hand;

7.  Points out that the digital revolution will reshape the automotive industry value chain, research and investment priorities and technological opportunities, which must be transparent, coherent and in line with legal standards, with implications for its global competitive position;

8.  Recalls that automated driving will have a significant impact on the workforce of the transport sector and require new qualifications in the case of affected professions; calls on the Member States to take appropriate measures in anticipation of this shift in the job market, which should be accompanied by a stronger social dialogue; calls on the Commission to develop an EU strategy which embraces the new employment opportunities that the digitalisation of the transport sector will create and to take account of the Member States’ best practices, with the  aim of fostering job creation in the transport sector, including as a priority fair transitional arrangements for employees whose jobs become obsolete as the transport sector is digitalised;

9.  Stresses that automated driving would ultimately raise questions on the interpretation of existing EU legislation on driving time and rest periods; calls on the Commission to continuously monitor if legislative action is needed;

10.  Draws attention to the positive impact of digitalisation in transport as it will help to cut red tape and simplify procedures both for the authorities and companies, and will make it easier to check compliance with legislation on driving and rest times and with cabotage rules with the introduction of digital tachographs, thus improving conditions for professional drivers and helping to create a level playing field for all transport operators;

11.  Welcomes the Commission’s New Skills Agenda for Europe and initiatives such as the Blueprint for Sectoral Cooperation on Skills and the Digital Skills and Jobs Coalition, which promote cooperation between trade unions, training institutions and private sector actors to anticipate, identify and address skills mismatch;

12.  Welcomes the fact that automotive is one of the six pilot ‘blueprint’ sectors for which funding has been made available through the Sector Skills Alliance action within the Erasmus+ programme;

13.  Calls on the Commission to present a mid-term evaluation of the projects launched on skills in the automotive sector, including the three-year SKILLFULL research project and the recommendations established by the GEAR 2030 high-level group; believes that, based on the outcome of the SKILLFUL project, it will be possible to assess the adequacy of the training and qualification requirements in place for road transport drivers, in particular in light of new professions/skills;

14.  Calls on the Member States, rather than reacting to specific challenges, to be proactive in responding to digitalisation and to take comprehensive and strategic decisions on the basis of technological neutrality, aimed at maximising potential benefits, and to work towards agreeing on an EU approach on key issues;

15.  Highlights the fundamental role that users and consumers can play in fostering the transport transition and calls on the Commission and Member States to enhance transparency and public availability of relevant data in order to boost public awareness and allow consumers to make well-informed choices;

Transition through progress in research and innovation

16.  Highlights that Europe is a world leader in both manufacturing and transport operations and stresses that it is of crucial importance that the European transport sector continues to develop, invest, innovate and renew itself in a sustainable manner, in order to maintain its technological leadership and competitive position;

17.  Recalls the key objective of establishing a single European transport area without barriers in which, with efficient co-modality, each mode of transport has its place and there is increased modal interaction, and therefore calls on Member States to establish a suitable incentive-based environment in order to make transport modes more efficient and do away with existing barriers such as needless red tape;

18.  Recalls that sustainable and innovative transport technologies and mobility solutions will be needed to enhance road safety, limit climate change and carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution and congestion, and that a European regulatory framework which stimulates innovation is needed; calls, in this context, for more funding for interlinked cross-sectoral research and development regarding connected and driverless cars, electrification of rail and road infrastructures, alternative fuels, vehicle design and manufacturing, network and traffic management as well as smart mobility services and infrastructure, without neglecting existing systems in other sectors; notes that these key innovations will necessitate the application of many forms of industrial know-how if they are to be developed effectively; points out, in that context, that cooperative, automated and connected vehicles may make the European industry more competitive and reduce energy consumption and transport emissions as well as contribute to reducing deaths from road accidents; emphasises, therefore, that infrastructure requirements should be determined with a view to ensuring that those systems can function safely;

19.  Points out that, to keep up with the technological developments and provide European citizens with the best possible transport and mobility solutions and at the same time ensure that European enterprises can keep and expand their competitive edge, Europe needs a better framework for joint action on transport research and innovation; believes that ambitious goals for our future transport system can only be achieved if new ideas and concepts can be developed, tested and implemented in close interaction with policy and regulatory agendas;

20.  Calls for the provision of further transparent financial support for research, innovation and training, as has happened within the framework of the Smart Specialisation Strategies, in which European Regional Development Fund co-financing provided support in areas such as power trains or intelligent transport systems;

21.  Recalls that European funding during the next Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) for 2021-2027 will be vital to completing cross-border infrastructures and to removing bottlenecks along the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) core corridors, and observes that funding for infrastructure fosters private and public investment in high-quality and sustainable transport services and technologies; therefore calls for funding to be made available under the next MFF to foster the rapid development and deployment of systems, services and digital solutions for transport in the future;

22.  Underlines that financial barriers should be lowered and access to funding should be simplified, since bureaucracy and administration costs take a higher proportional toll on SMEs due to their lack of skills and capacity; calls on the Commission to monitor whether the Member States’ public calls for tender for smart transport infrastructure comply with the provisions on improved access for SMEs set out in Directive 2014/24/EU on public procurement;

23.  Points out that Europe needs to improve the innovation ecosystem ranging from basic technology research to research on new services and business models leading to social innovation (once widely deployed on the market); highlights that public support for the innovation ecosystem should focus on market failures in research and innovation as well as innovation-friendly policies, enabling European standardisation and regulation and financial instruments to boost private sector investment in innovation;

24.  Notes that research at EU level, notably through Horizon 2020, will be key to delivering results, as demonstrated by public–private partnerships such as the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking and the European Green Vehicles Initiative and calls for a specific public–private partnership for connected and automated driving; supports the Commission’s work for the creation of the European battery alliance and calls for further financial support for the development of sustainable batteries and battery cell production and recycling in the EU for future low- and zero-emission vehicles and for a global fair trade approach in importing materials such as lithium and cobalt, as the advancement of these technologies will play a key role in the future of clean and sustainable mobility;

25.  Stresses the importance of coming up with consistent economic and industrial development strategies, in which aims such as the further boosting of production and use of low-emission vehicles are matched by the deployment of resources for achieving them, in terms of infrastructure and usage-related components such as batteries, an aspect on which the Commission and Member States should also focus their attention with a view to drafting an EU battery production strategy; underlines the importance of incentivising manufacturers and market uptake in order to reduce costs;

26.  Welcomes the fact that the Commission has also made a link with the circular economy with a particular emphasis on scarce materials and batteries; encourages the Commission, in this context, to further assess the environmental footprint of battery manufacturing and recycling to obtain a full picture of the environmental impacts of battery-powered electric vehicles in order to facilitate the comparison of life-cycle sustainability of different drive systems;

27.  Stresses the potential benefits of second-use applications for vehicle batteries, for example in smart grid and smart home storage solutions, and calls on the Commission and Member States to support research and pilot projects in this field through funding schemes;

28.  Supports the increased use of digital technologies in the implementation of the ‘polluter pays’ principle, such as eTolling and eTicketing based on the environmental performance of vehicles; welcomes the Commission’s guidelines for cities on urban vehicle access regulations (UVARs); stresses, however, that more needs to be done at European level to avoid the fragmentation of the Single Transport Area; points, in this context, to the importance of funding for transport infrastructure projects and significant investment in the most environmentally responsible low-carbon fuels in order to promote the transformation of the transport system and to ensure the integration of energy and transport assets as a means to accelerate the transition to a more sustainable fuel mix; believes, as regards EU funding for transport, that fitness for the purpose of achieving climate goals should be one of the eligibility criteria for projects;

29.  Reiterates the EU’s commitments on the fight against climate change under the Paris Agreement, the UN 2030 Agenda and the 2030 Climate and Energy Framework; welcomes the measures already adopted, such as the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) test cycle as well as the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) packages, which aim to reduce the gap between the stated decarbonisation targets and real on-road emissions; asks the Commission to monitor the effectiveness of these measures and, if needed, to suggest further improvements; considers the WLTP to be a step in the right direction regarding the measurement of passenger car fuel consumption and CO2 emissions;

30.  Notes that the provision of information to consumers on passenger vehicles is imperative to accelerate decarbonisation in transport, and calls, therefore, for improved, reliable and more accessible information on emissions and fuel consumption of vehicles, including standardised, visible and clear vehicle labelling, in order to allow consumers to make informed choices and to promote changes in the behaviour of businesses and private individuals, and cleaner mobility; stresses that more accurate information will also facilitate and allow the public authorities of Member States, regions and cities to make use of ‘green’ public procurement; welcomes Commission Recommendation (EU) 2017/948(10), while also calling on the Commission to consider revising the Car Labelling Directive 1999/94/EC(11);

31.  Notes both the current financial and non-financial barriers that consumers face in purchasing a low-emission vehicle; recalls that end-user acceptance of low-emission vehicles strongly depends on the availability and accessibility of comprehensive and cross-border infrastructure; welcomes, in this regard, existing private and public initiatives to enable roaming between charging infrastructure operators; calls on the Commission and Member States to take all necessary steps to facilitate roaming and the accessibility of charging infrastructure within Europe; calls on the Commission to give greater support to Member States’ efforts in expanding their alternative fuel infrastructure in order to achieve EU-wide core coverage as soon as possible;

32.  Takes the view that, in order to speed up the market penetration of low-emission fuels and to fully exploit their climate benefits, it is necessary to create incentives for their use and the development of compatible vehicles; reiterates, however, that to abide by the Paris Agreement, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport will need to be firmly on the path towards zero by mid-century; underlines that the European road transport sector cannot be transformed to move towards ecological and economic sustainability by the continuation of a technological ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach and that, therefore, a shift to a truly technology-neutral assessment of drive systems is needed in relation to the development of future vehicles that will correspond to diverse mobility needs; stresses that a cross-sectoral effort is required to accelerate investment in low-emission fuel infrastructure, which is a precondition for the wider uptake and deployment of alternatively powered vehicles;

33.  Stresses that the Clean Vehicles Directive(12) must consider the needs of and the resources available to municipalities and regional authorities in order to achieve its full potential, particularly with regard to the issues of complexity and administrative burdens;

34.  Welcomes the Commission’s commitment to present, by 2 May 2018, a legislative proposal for CO2 emissions and fuel consumption standards for heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) that should be ambitious, realistic and based on data collected using the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation Tool (VECTO) in order to ensure coherent HDV legislation; stresses that VECTO must be updated swiftly and regularly in order to permit the accurate accounting of new technologies to improve vehicle efficiency in good time;

35.  Underlines that the level of ambition of CO2 targets for HDVs must be coherent with future ambitions to reduce pollutant emissions, for example under Euro 7, as well as with requirements under Directive (EU) 2015/719 on weights and dimensions(13);

36.  Recalls the appalling fume exposure experiments conducted on humans and monkeys by the European Research Group on Environment and Health in the Transport Sector (EUGT), a body funded by major car companies; recalls that this is not the first car industry scandal of this kind; calls for all research that informs EU policy to be completely independent from the car industry, including by way of funding and subcontracting;

Transport transition that works for all users

37.  Underlines that connectivity among autonomous vehicles, between vehicles and infrastructure, between vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians and in the network itself must be a key long-term goal in order to ensure an unobstructed traffic flow; calls, therefore, on the Commission to address issues of data use and management, with emphasis on data protection, and to assess all the likely computer-aided design (CAD) technology applications which incorporate high levels of autonomy and provide added-value services; emphasises the need to develop telecommunication and satellite infrastructure for better positioning and communication services between vehicles and infrastructure and calls on the Commission to stipulate where and by when existing transport infrastructure must be brought into line with smart transport infrastructure standards;

38.  Points out that autonomous driving and clean vehicles will call for integrated infrastructure planning and investment to equip roads with the necessary telecommunications and charging infrastructure, for example for electric cars, as well as to provide high quality road data, for example for high definition digital maps, and fully interoperable on-board equipment; calls on the Commission and Member States to boost investment to fund innovative, sustainable upgrades to transport infrastructure;

39.  Reminds the Commission that, in order to accomplish adequate connectivity of transport and the proper management of safety, signalling, automation, digital features for consumers and a secure management of data, full 5G coverage of TEN-T corridors for rail, road and inland waterways must be ensured as soon as possible; calls for smart highway projects to be developed and intelligent transport corridors set up; believes that main roads should have fibre, wireless and 5G base station installations;

40.  Recalls that zero casualties on European roads should be the overarching goal and highlights the need to ensure the safe coexistence of old and new modes of transport, that change being made easier by the mandatory fitting of certain driver assistance systems and the assurance of appropriate infrastructure; calls on the Commission to make a thorough and technologically neutral assessment of the safety implications of the use of automated systems with a holistic focus on the safety repercussions of all intermodal transport systems;

41.  Stresses that targets for the reduction of fatalities and serious injuries in road accidents have still not been met and that European transport policy should therefore focus on meeting them; underlines the importance of adequate safety legislation in achieving a safer road transport sector; reminds the Commission and Member States that in order to reduce the number of accidents and victims on Europe’s roads, suitable parking and rest conditions must be guaranteed throughout the EU;

42.  Points out that the development of connected and automated cars has largely been driven by technology; calls, therefore, for its social impact to be investigated and recognised, and believes that the full compatibility of the introduction of connected and automated cars with social, human and environmental values and aims must be ensured; stresses that, in the event of an accident involving one or more automated vehicles, it should be clear who is liable, whether it is the software company(ies), the vehicle manufacturer(s), the driver(s) or the insurance company(ies);

43.  Underlines that those upcoming changes should not come at the expense of social inclusion and connectivity in the Member States and areas where there are mobility gaps; notes the need to upgrade network capacity, taking advantage of existing network infrastructure and significant future innovations to enable deeper integration of digital technologies and to address the major disparities of connectivity between Member States and also between urban and rural, central and remote areas, for which a series of tailored solutions should be developed supported by and on the basis of coordination between the public and private sectors; stresses that conventional modes of transport such as busses still have a key role to play in remote and mountainous areas and should not be disregarded in this process; recalls that experience in several EU countries shows that structuring the collective and public road transport under public service obligation (PSO) contracts that combine profitable and unprofitable lines can deliver optimal results for citizens, public finances and market competition;

44.  Recalls the need to favour collective and safer means of transport for freight and passengers on major cross-border corridors and in metropolitan areas, in order to reduce pollution, traffic jams and casualties and protect the health of citizens and road users;

45.  Calls on the Commission and Member States to promote sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMPs) and sustainable rural mobility plans (SRMPs) that are justified by the public interest and integrate all new modes of transport, supporting the deployment of a multimodal transport system for passengers, improving mobility and the quality of services for citizens, including for the elderly and citizens with disabilities, providing them with alternatives and internalising or reducing health and external environmental costs for cities, in addition to encouraging tourism; notes that such plans should foster the inclusion, participation and employment of citizens who live in more remote areas, in order to combat the threat of depopulation of rural areas, to improve accessibility and communication with outlying areas and cross-border regions; stresses that rural mobility differs substantially from urban mobility in terms not only of distances and the availability of public transport, but also with regard to environmental and economic factors such as lower environmental pressure from pollutant emissions, lower average income and higher barriers to investment in infrastructure;

46.  Notes that the lessons of the previous and ongoing projects such as the Transport Work Programme, the Connecting Europe Facility and sustainable shared mobility interconnected with public transport in European rural areas (SMARTA), deliver elements for creating smart villages, including more efficient and smarter door-to-door logistics, innovative concepts of mobility as a service (MaaS), smart next generation transport infrastructure, connected and automated transport and smart urban mobility (transport to and from cities);

47.  Stresses that mobility is increasingly regarded as a service and therefore expanded seamless multimodal door-to-door transport should be made possible on a cross-border basis, and accordingly calls on Member States to make multimodal travel information and booking services available, with real-time information, and calls on the Commission to submit a legislative proposal on multimodal passenger rights by the end of 2018; maintains that such new transport services should be treated, for instance in the context of road charging, as modes of travel that are at least as good as, if not preferable to, private motoring and that their deployment should not be slowed down by legislative obstacles;

48.  Calls on the Commission to promote existing national and local regulatory best practices that integrate new and traditional forms of mobility, that support consumer choice, making multimodal information and ticketing services available for consumers, and encouraging the use of public, rather than private, transport or supporting offers from the collaborative transport economy which give momentum and the necessary support to the promotion of sustainable tourism and of environmental and cultural heritage, in particular favouring SMEs and focusing on Members States and areas where there are mobility gaps;

49.  Reiterates that travel is one of the sectors most affected by digitalisation and that this new and more influential digital environment is empowering consumers to play a more active role when they research, shop for, book and pay for their trips; stresses that it is necessary to enforce the existing rules that safeguard transparency and neutrality, so that consumers can make informed choices based on reliable information.

50.  Points to the importance of guiding mobility; considers it important that people be encouraged to adopt sustainable mobility habits through economic incentives as well as through awareness-raising about the environmental impacts of individual modes of transport, and through the coordination and development of low-carbon transport services such as public transport and the creation or improvement of infrastructure for soft mobility (walking, cycling, etc.) in order to give people an alternative to road transport; points to the need to fund projects to facilitate local and regional low-carbon mobility such as, for example, city bike schemes;

51.  Calls on the Commission to promote efficient and green logistics to better cope with the foreseen increase in freight demand through better optimisation of the loading capacity of trucks and to reduce the number of empty or partially loaded trucks; further calls on the Commission to reinforce efforts to increase multi-modal shift and to promote multimodal platforms for coordinating transport demand, and calls on Member States to use electronic transport documents across Europe as standard practice in order to reduce red tape and administrative burden and to increase efficiency;

52.  Stresses the important contribution that platooning and the use of longliners can make to increasing efficiency and saving fuel in road haulage, and therefore calls on the Commission and Member States to realise the objectives of the Declaration of Amsterdam and establish incentives for the increased use of longliners;

53.  Encourages the Commission to support initiatives that contribute to the reduction and avoidance of road congestion without transferring transport volumes towards alternative road sections, such as best practise examples on congestion charging as well as successful modal shift measures;

54.  Calls on the Commission to undertake an in-depth assessment of issues related to data privacy and liability that could arise with the development of automated cars;

55.  Notes the potential of collaborative economic models to improve the efficiency of the transport system and reduce unwanted externalities, such as congestion and emissions; calls on the authorities, in keeping with the subsidiarity principle, to consider fully integrating truly collaborative transport services into the conventional transport system, with a view to fostering the creation of full and fluid travel chains and the provision of new forms of sustainable mobility;

56.  Stresses that, in the context of the collaborative economy, the most urgent issues are those concerning consumer protection, liability allocation, taxation, insurance schemes, social protection of workers (whether they are employed or self-employed) and data protection, and expects regulatory measures to be taken in these areas; calls on the Commission and the Member States to ensure that the collaborative economy does not give rise to unfair competition, cause social and fiscal dumping and supplant regulated public transport;

57.  Takes the view in light of the CJEU judgment of 20 December 2017 in Case C-434/15(14) that a clear distinction should be drawn between simple intermediation through online platforms and the provision of a transport service; considers a service not to be part of the information society when the activity mostly involves the provision of professional services, and in all cases when the technological platform directly or indirectly determines the cost, quantity or quality of the service being provided;

58.  Calls on the Member States to take measures to reduce the risk and likelihood of tax avoidance by companies providing services as part of the collaborative economy and to insist that they pay taxes where they generate profits and provide services;

o   o

59.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ L 282, 19.10.2016, p. 1.
(2) OJ L 119, 4.5.2016, p. 1.
(3) OJ C 81, 2.3.2018, p. 195.
(4) OJ C 345, 13.10.2017, p. 52.
(5) OJ C 184 E, 8.7.2010, p. 50.
(6) OJ C 468, 15.12.2016, p. 57.
(7) OJ C 265, 11.8.2017, p. 2.
(8) OJ C 316, 22.9.2017, p. 155.
(9) EU Transport in Figures: Statistical Pocketbook 2015, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2015.
(10) OJ L 142, 2.6.2017, p. 100.
(11) OJ L 12, 18.1.2000, p. 16.
(12) OJ L 120, 15.5.2009, p. 5.
(13) OJ L 115, 6.5.2015, p. 1.
(14) Judgment of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 20 December 2017, Asociación Profesional Elite Taxi v Uber Systems Spain, SL, C-434/15, ECLI:EU:C:2017:981.

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