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Procedure : 2018/2792(RSP)
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PV 13/03/2019 - 11.22
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Wednesday, 13 March 2019 - Strasbourg
A Europe that protects: Clean air for all

European Parliament resolution of 13 March 2019 on a Europe that protects: Clean air for all (2018/2792(RSP))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to Article 37 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

–  having regard to Directive (EU) 2016/2284 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2016 on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants, amending Directive 2003/35/EC and repealing Directive 2001/81/EC(1),

–  having regard to Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe(2),

–  having regard to Directive (EU) 2018/844 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency(3) and its requirements regarding the achievement of a healthy indoor environment,

–  having regard to its recommendation of 4 April 2017 to the Council and the Commission following the inquiry into emission measurements in the automotive sector(4),

–  having regard to its resolution of 6 July 2017 on EU action for sustainability(5),

–  having regard to its resolution of 14 December 2017 on a European Strategy for Low Emission Mobility(6),

–  having regard to its resolution of 2 December 2015 on sustainable urban mobility(7),

–  having regard to its resolution of 17 April 2018 on the implementation of the 7th Environment Action Programme(8),

–  having regard to the 2017 report of the European Environment Agency entitled ‘Air quality in Europe’,

–  having regard to the special report of the European Court of Auditors entitled ‘Air Pollution: Our Health still insufficiently protected’(9), published on 11 September 2018,

–  having regard to the 2018 update to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Ambient Air Quality Database,

–  having regard to the WHO guidelines for indoor air quality,

–  having regard to its study of September 2018 entitled ‘Air Quality and urban traffic in the EU: best practices, and possible solutions’(10),

–  having regard to the judgement of the General Court of the European Union of 13 December 2018 in Cases T-339/16 (Ville de Paris v Commission), T-352/16 (Ville de Bruxelles v Commission) and T-391/16 (Ville de Madrid v Commission);

–  having regard to the briefing paper of the European Court of Auditors of 7 February 2019 on the EU’s response to the ‘dieselgate’ scandal(11);

–  having regard to the motion for a resolution of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety,

–  having regard to the question to the Commission on a Europe that protects: Clean air for all (O-000138/2018 – B8‑0009/2019),

–  having regard to Rules 128(5) and 123(2) of its Rules of Procedure,

A.  whereas the EU’s legal emissions limits are still above what has been recommended by the WHO, and whereas the European Environment Agency (EEA) estimates that more than 400 000 premature deaths attributable to air pollution are reported in the EU every year; whereas 98 % of the EU’s urban population is exposed to ozone levels that exceed WHO guidelines;

B.  whereas air quality in Europe has seen a slow but steady improvement over the past decades and European legislation has been the main driver for this beneficial development;

C.  whereas the most recent EEA estimates of the health impacts attributable to exposure to air pollution indicate that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) concentrations in 2014 were responsible for about 399 000 premature deaths originating from long-term exposure in the EU-28; whereas the estimated impacts in the EU of exposure to NO2 and O3 concentrations in 2014 were around 75 000 and 13 600 premature deaths per year respectively;

D.  whereas poor air quality has an enormous impact on health, and whereas pregnant women, children and the elderly are particularly exposed;

E.  whereas around 90 % of Europeans living in cities are exposed to levels of air pollution deemed damaging to human health;

F.  whereas road traffic is responsible for around 40 % of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the EU and whereas around 80 % of the total NOx from road traffic is generated by diesel-powered vehicles; whereas emissions produced by diesel-powered passenger cars that exceeded the EU pollution limits on the road were responsible for the premature deaths of 6 800 Europeans in 2015;

G.  whereas the economic consequences of the health impacts of poor air quality are estimated to be a loss of 3-9 % of EU GDP;

H.  whereas the failure to implement air quality legislation in urban areas and to tackle indoor air pollution is particularly worrying and hinders the achievement of Priority Objective 3 under the 7th Environmental Action Plan, according to which the Union’s citizens should be safeguarded from environment-related pressures and risks to health and well-being;

I.  whereas current food and farming systems are responsible for excessive ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions; whereas 94 % of ammonia emissions and 40 % of methane emissions come from agricultural activities; whereas on a global scale, intensive livestock farming produces more greenhouse gas emissions than transport;

J.  whereas poor air quality poses a growing challenge in the context of sustainable development, and whereas tackling air pollution is of critical importance in ensuring the implementation of the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Europe and beyond;

K.  whereas the WHO adopted, in 2000, a set of principles establishing the right to healthy indoor air, wherein it noted that ‘under the principles of the human right to health, everyone has the right to breathe healthy indoor air’;

L.  whereas the Union should strive to promote action at global level to curb air pollution;

M.  whereas black carbon (BC), a product of incomplete combustion of organic carbon as emitted from traffic, fossil fuels and biomass burning and industry, is one of the constituents of fine PM and has a global warming effect;

General remarks

1.  Notes that in 2018, six Member States were referred to the Court of Justice of the European Union for failing to comply with EU air quality standards; recalls in addition that 29 infringement cases are currently underway in 20 Member States for failure to comply with EU air quality limit values, that approximately two thirds of Member States are currently in non-compliance with PM10 and NO2 limit values and that one in five exceed the PM2.5 target value;

2.  Urges the Commission to act without delay on PM2.5 by proposing the introduction of more stringent compliance values for these particles in EU air quality legislation, as recommended by the WHO;

3.  Urges the Commission and the Member States to assess and review air quality policies only on the basis of robust, up-to-date, independent and peer-reviewed scientific evidence;

4.  Urges the Member States to prioritise the implementation of coordinated actions and policies at all levels and in all sectors aimed at improving air quality in cities and urban areas, in order to reach EU air quality goals, taking into consideration the impacts of pollutants on the climate and ecosystems; recalls that air pollution and the associated illnesses and deaths cause considerable social and health costs and impose a significant burden on public budgets throughout the Union; urges the Member States to ensure that measures to improve air quality in urban areas do not have a negative impact on the air quality in surrounding areas, such as suburban areas and wider agglomerations;

5.  Underlines once again that air pollution has a local, regional, national and cross-border dimension and requires action at all levels of governance; asks, therefore, for a strengthening of the multi-level governance approach where all actors take responsibility for measures that can and should be taken at their level; similarly, considers that policymaking in the Commission should be more joined up, with the involvement of all Directorates-General concerned; regrets that, despite being competent for air pollution, DG Environment’s objectives are often undermined by policies and interests coming out of other departments;

6.  Calls on the competent authorities in the Member States to take a comprehensive and all-inclusive approach to air pollution, including indoor air pollution, taking into account the various areas involved and affected, such as farming and food production systems, nature conservation, climate change, energy efficiency, mobility and urban planning, and to prioritise pollution mitigation approaches which have co-benefits in other domains; urges the competent authorities to develop clean air action plans comprising credible measures that address all sources of air pollution and all sectors of the economy; encourages cities and competent authorities to start working at all levels on a covenant for clean air for all;

7.  Supports the continuation of the so-called ‘Clean Air Dialogues’ between the Commission and Member States, which should address all implementation gaps on the basis of a holistic approach;

8.  Considers that air quality plans for zones and agglomerations where air quality is poor owing to levels of pollutants persistently above the limit values set at EU level should eliminate the exceedances as soon as possible, as legally required by Directive 2008/50/EC and clearly confirmed in case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union(12),(13);

9.  Points out the need for a holistic approach to air pollution in European cities that takes into account the various sources of air pollution; calls on the Commission to carry out an ambitious update of the Ambient Air Quality Directive, matching the latest WHO limit and target values for PM, SO2 and O3 and setting a short-term value for PM2.5, to put forward effective measures that enable the Member States to comply with Directive 2008/50/EC, to prioritise the assessment of the measures adopted by the Member States with a view to improving air quality in the context of infringement procedures, and to step up its efforts to check compliance at Member State level, including with the standards of the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure under Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 on type approval of vehicles(14);

10.  Regrets the flexibility mechanism introduced under Article 5 of Directive (EU) 2016/2284; highlights that in 2018, 11 Member States requested adjustments to their national emission ceilings; calls on the Commission to limit the use of emission inventory adjustment to the strict minimum and to consider whether Member States have taken action to compensate for possible unforeseen emissions from certain sectors before applying for an adjustment of emission inventories;

11.  Regrets that the criteria for locating sampling points to measure pollutants in accordance with Directive 2008/50/EC leave Member States a certain amount of leeway and risk not achieving the aim of representativeness; calls on the Commission to analyse the impact this leeway has on the comparability of samples and its direct consequences;

12.  Calls on the Commission to take into account, in its policies and programmes of cooperation with third countries at its external borders, the cross-border air pollution that originates in those countries and the fact that the EU’s policies and programmes of cooperation with those countries can have an impact on improving air quality, and to focus its aid programmes, as a matter of priority, with the aim of tackling the causes of such pollution;

13.  Underlines that, according to the WHO, poor air quality affects social and environmental determinants of health such as drinking water and sufficient food;

14.  Recalls the link between air pollution and inequality, as exposure is usually higher for more vulnerable segments of society; encourages Member States to make efforts to prevent the accumulation of environmental, socio-demographic and economic disadvantages, including by taking measures to limit pollution at hotspots of vulnerability, which include healthcare, educational and social facilities, and inner cities and towns;

15.  Is concerned by the growing body of scientific evidence on the impact of traffic-related air pollution on cognitive development and performance in children as well as in other segments of the population;

16.  Recalls that the uniform application and the update of the best available techniques (BAT) for containing the release into the air of atmospheric pollutants are of critical importance for ensuring the maintenance of an adequate level of environmental protection across the EU;

17.  Stresses the importance of ensuring a high and uniform level of consumer protection in the single market vis-à-vis any future emissions scandal, and calls on the co-legislators to develop collective redress procedures on the basis of the ‘New Deal for Consumers’ proposed by the Commission in April 2018;


18.  Recalls that cutting air pollution and reducing CO2 emissions from the transport sector are twin challenges in urban areas, that zero-emission and low-emission cars, vans and buses are essential to provide clean, energy-efficient and affordable mobility for all citizens and that accelerating the development of a mass market for these vehicles by scaling up their offer in the Union is crucial for bringing down prices to the benefit of consumers, fleet operators, public procurement authorities and European society as a whole;

19.  Underlines that it is crucial to incentivise the market for electric vehicles and to issue Member States with guiding recommendations to encourage them to implement fiscal incentives for zero- and low-emission vehicles; stresses that the availability and accessibility of charging infrastructure, including in private and public buildings in accordance with the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD)(15), and the competitiveness of electric vehicles are essential for increasing consumer acceptance; highlights the importance of ensuring that electricity generated for electric vehicles comes from sustainable energy sources; calls in this connection for a long-term European initiative on next-generation batteries;

20.  Recalls the reported positive results of various measures implemented in Member States to reduce access of private cars to urban centres and of investing in public transportation and facilitating access for other forms of transportation such as bicycles;

21.  Underlines that the promotion of active transport modes, such as cycling and walking, is of critical importance for improving air quality by reducing the heavy reliance on private motor vehicles in cities and urban areas; considers that active transport modes should therefore be supported by an extensive and high-quality infrastructure, complemented by reliable public transport at city and regional level, and encouraged by spatial planning;

22.  Observes, moreover, that, as daily journeys are generally made over very short distances, it is essential to create infrastructure for soft mobility (walking, cycling, etc.) in order to give people an alternative to road transport;

23.  Recalls that, if air pollution is to be reduced, it is crucial to incentivise low- and zero- emission trucks and to stimulate the market and their use;

24.  Underlines once again the importance of long-term Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMPs) and encourages Member States to draw up SUMPs which give priority to zero- and low-emission public transport modes, in order to reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption; supports the establishment of traffic zones and intermodal platforms where priority is given to use by public transport; stresses that clear and easily accessible information on urban and regional vehicle access regulation schemes is needed and calls on the Commission to support the development of a European digital information tool;

25.  Calls on the Commission to strengthen the ongoing multi-level cooperation with Member States and European cities in the context of the Urban Agenda for the EU, to finalise its 2018 Urban Mobility Action Plan(16), which should clearly identify solutions for tackling air pollution at municipal level, and to continue supporting the Urban Mobility Observatory (ELTIS)(17), which disseminates useful information on funding opportunities, case studies and best practices on how to improve air quality through the adoption of better urban mobility solutions;

26.  Supports the increased use of digital technologies in the implementation of the ‘polluter pays’ principle, such as e-tolling and e-ticketing based on the environmental performance of vehicles; stresses that a harmonised framework for toll systems should consider both greenhouse gas emissions and pollutant emissions in relation to environmental performance in order to send clear and balanced signals for the development of new vehicles; stresses, however, that these rules must be clear and transparent for road users; underlines the beneficial environmental and safety effects of connected mobility and automated transport solutions in urban areas, such as optimised traffic flows and the reduction of traffic resulting from cars looking for parking spaces; calls on the Commission and the Member States therefore to support cities in adopting the necessary technology;

27.  Stresses that green public procurement through the purchasing of zero- and low-emission vehicles by public authorities for their own fleets or for (semi) public car-sharing programmes is a key element for the decarbonisation of road transport, as well as for the improvement of air quality across Europe;

28.  Welcomes the pledges made by several cities across Europe on cleaning up their public transport fleets by setting requirements for the procurement of electric buses, and invites more cities to follow the example set by some European members(18) of the C40 Cities network which have signed the ‘Fossil Fuel Free Streets Declaration’(19) agreeing to only procure e-buses from 2025 and to ensure the creation of major urban zero-emission areas by 2030;

29.  Stresses that discrepancies between the official type-approval emission figures and the real-world level of NOx emissions from Euro 3-6 cars are the main cause of the delays in improving air quality in cities and urban areas, seriously undermining local schemes and measures designed to restrict the most polluting vehicles;

30.  Notes that technology currently exists to meet the Euro 6 NOx standards for diesel vehicles, including with regard to real driving conditions and without having a negative impact on CO2 emissions;

31.  Calls on Member States and car manufacturers to coordinate mandatory hardware retrofits for non-compliant diesel vehicles, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR) hardware refits to cut nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions and clean up the existing fleet, in order to avoid diesel car bans; considers that the cost of these retrofits should be borne by the responsible car manufacturer;

32.  Calls on the Commission to continue reducing the NOx emissions of the EU’s car fleet by reviewing the conformity factor, as provided for by the second RDE package, annually and in line with technological developments, so as to bring it down to 1 as soon as possible, and by 2021 at the latest;

33.  Calls on the Commission to make use of its delegated powers under Directive 2014/45/EU on periodic roadworthiness tests for motor vehicles and their trailers(20) to update the test procedure so that all Member States have to test the in-service conformity of cars with NOx emission standards during periodic technical inspections;

34.  Calls on the Commission to propose a post-Euro 6 standard for cars that is fuel, technology and application neutral and aligns, as a minimum, with California/US (Tier 3 and LEV III) NOx standards and in-service conformity and durability requirements;

35.  Calls on the Commission to continue its work on improving the performance of Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) in order to improve their accuracy and reduce their margin of error; considers that for particulate matter PEMS technology should be able to account for particles whose size is smaller than 23 nanometres and that are the most dangerous to public health;

36.  Strongly condemns the experiments that were commissioned by the European Research Group on Environment and Health in the Transport Sector (EUGT) and carried out between 2014 and 2015 on humans and monkeys in an attempt to show that exhaust fumes from diesel engines of new vehicles do not pose a threat to health;

37.  Asks the Commission and the Member States to ensure that experiments of this kind, which are ethically abominable and unjustifiable in every respect, will never be repeated in the territory of the Union;

38.  Calls on the Commission to consider introducing standards to tackle non-exhaust emissions of vehicles;

39.  Calls on the Commission to address emissions from construction site machinery beyond the NRMM Regulation(21) by conducting an impact assessment on the potential of zero-emission construction machinery in cutting air- and noise-pollution levels, and moreover its possible inclusion in future revisions of relevant EU legislation;

40.  Believes that emission control areas (ECAs) can help improve air quality in coastal cities and towns hit by high levels of sulphur and nitrogen oxides pollution from shipping; therefore encourages the relevant Member States to engage in the context of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) with a view to promoting the implementation of ECAs in EU waters, and invites the Commission to support any effort in this regard;


41.  Recognises that current food and farming systems are responsible for excessive ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions, and that 94 % of ammonia emissions and 40 % of methane emissions come from agricultural activities;

42.  Highlights that agriculture is the third biggest source of primary PM10 emissions in the EU, as stressed by the European Environment Agency;

43.  Recalls the findings of the European Environment Agency which stated in 2017 that NH3 emissions from agriculture contribute to episodes of high PM concentrations experienced across Europe each spring, and concludes that NH3 emissions contribute to both short- and long-term negative health impacts;

44.  Highlights that in urban areas ammonia emissions account for around 50 % of the health impacts of air pollution, as ammonia is a key precursor to particulate matter; calls on the Commission and the Member States to use the reform of the EU common agricultural policy (CAP) as an opportunity to fight air pollution from the agricultural sector;

45.  Underlines the fact that technical measures to limit ammonia emissions exist, but are so far only used by a few Member States; recalls that these include: nitrogen management, taking into account the full nitrogen cycle; livestock feeding strategies to reduce nitrogen excretion from cattle, pigs and poultry; low-emission application of manure and fertiliser to land; low-emission manure storage systems; low-emission manure processing and composting systems; low-emission animal housing systems; and low-emission approaches for mineral fertiliser application;

46.  Calls on the co-legislators to include in the future CAP, measures to enable farmers to reduce the overall air pollutant emissions of the agricultural sector to the benefit of all citizens in the Union;

47.  Underlines that scientific evidence is mounting about the detrimental health and environmental impacts caused by intensive livestock farming, both in Europe and worldwide;

48.  Recalls that methane emissions from agriculture are an important precursor to ground-level ozone, which has adverse effects on human health, and that 98 % of the EU’s urban population is exposed to ozone levels exceeding WHO guidelines;

49.  Highlights that methane emissions are not regulated under EU air pollution legislation and not specifically regulated under EU climate policy;

50.  Highlights the various cost-effective ways of addressing methane emissions without affecting meat and milk consumption; considers that manure management offers emissions reduction potential, through the adoption of simple and cost-efficient measures from storage to spreading techniques; further considers that changing feeding strategies (e.g. adding leguminous elements such as alfalfa and flax) would significantly reduce enteric methane emissions; recalls that the material remaining after anaerobic digestion, whereby organic waste material is broken down by micro-organisms and converted into biogas, is rich in nutrients and can be used as a natural fertiliser;

51.  Highlights that the costs of air pollution control in Europe are significantly lower in the agricultural sector than in other sectors where more stringent emission controls have already been implemented;

52.  Considers that future CAP funding should be linked to mandatory measures to curb air pollution;


53.  Recalls that the energy production and distribution sector is responsible for more than half of sulphur oxide (SOx) emissions and one fifth of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in the 33 member countries of the European Environment Agency;

54.  Highlights the significant contribution from coal and lignite plants to mercury emissions in the EU and that 62 % of mercury emissions from EU industry come from coal-fired power plants;

55.  Recalls that mercury is a dangerous neurotoxin which is damaging to the nervous system at even relatively low levels of exposure;

56.  Welcomes the commitments made by at least ten EU Member States to phase out coal; calls on the other Member States to phase out coal as an energy source by 2030 at the latest;

57.  Recognises the important role of district heating in reducing emissions and stresses that well-developed district heating installations are one of the key factors that can limit air pollution; encourages Member States without district heating to consider the benefits of introducing such a system;

58.  Invites the Commission and the Member States to encourage the uptake of efficient domestic heating solutions based on renewable energy in order to contribute to curbing the release of air pollutants from households across the Union;

Indoor air pollution

59.  Underlines the fact that people spend close to 90 % of their time indoors, where the air can be significantly more polluted than outdoors;

60.  Recalls that poor indoor air quality is responsible for 10 % of non-communicable diseases globally and that poor indoor air quality in offices is also linked to reduced productivity; urges the Commission to define harmonised testing standards to measure air pollution in indoor environments;

61.  Considers that the compulsory provision of an indoor air quality certificate should apply to all new and renovated buildings in the Union and should take into account existing performance indicators and test methods based on the EN 16798-1 standard as well as WHO indoor air quality guidelines;

62.  Urges Member States and the Commission to adopt and implement measures to combat air pollution at the source, taking into account the differences between the sources of indoor and outdoor air pollution;

Air pollution science, monitoring and research

63.  Recognises the complexity of and uncertainties inherent to air pollution science, and therefore promotes the use of different forms of knowledge, including citizen science(22), in air quality monitoring and policy evaluation; stresses the importance of improving public awareness and information by involving citizens in air quality matters;

64.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to support research, development and certification at EU level for innovative smart multi-sensor systems for both indoor and outdoor air quality monitoring; stresses that smart air quality monitoring systems can be a viable tool for citizen science, and also of special benefit for people suffering from asthma and cardiovascular diseases;

65.  Calls on the Member States to ensure adequate, representative, accurate and continuous measuring and monitoring of air quality; recalls the importance of the siting of stations used in the main urban agglomerations with air quality problems, bearing in mind that poor siting does not allow for appropriate follow-up to public health risks;

66.  Invites Member States to set up independent air quality boards in charge of conducting analyses on air quality performance and assessing the adequacy of the measures adopted; considers that these analyses should be produced at local level on a monthly basis and should be published;

67.  Considers that more research is needed on the health effects of smaller particles, including PM1 and ultrafine particles;

Financial considerations

68.  Urges Member States to remove any fiscal incentive, tax preference or budgetary transfer that directly or indirectly favours high-emission means of transport in line with the principle of a level-playing field;

69.  Recalls the ‘use of revenues’ principle with regard to road charging, and calls, where appropriate, for a proportion of revenue from the use of road infrastructure to be dedicated to measures that support improving air quality in cities;

70.  Draws attention to the need to support regions affected by the energy transformation, especially mining regions, as these tend to be poor regions often characterised by high levels of harmful substances in the air;

71.  Calls for the phasing-out of fossil fuel subsidies;

72.  Invites Member States to scale up funding for research on the impact of air quality on public health, society and the economy, including an estimate of related externalities, and for research on more comprehensive measurement strategies which could capture air pollution exposure taking into account individuals’ time and space trajectories; calls on the Commission and the Member States to provide cities and municipalities with sufficient means to combat air pollution;

o   o

73.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ L 344, 17.12.2016, p. 1.
(2) OJ L 152, 11.6.2008, p. 1.
(3) OJ L 156, 19.6.2018, p. 75.
(4) OJ C 298, 23.8.2018, p. 140.
(5) OJ C 334, 19.9.2018, p. 151.
(6) OJ C 369, 11.10.2018, p. 114.
(7) OJ C 399, 24.11.2017, p. 10.
(8) Texts adopted, P8_TA(2018)0100.
(9) Special Report No. 23/2018 of the European Court of Auditors,
(12) Judgment of 5 April 2017, Commission v. Bulgaria, C-488/15, ECLI:EU:C:2017:267.
(13) Judgment of 22 February 2018, Commission v. Poland, C-336/16, ECLI:EU:C:2018:94.
(14) Commission Regulation (EU) 2017/1151 of 1 June 2017 supplementing Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on type-approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, OJ L 175, 7.7.2017, p. 1.
(15) Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, OJ L 153, 18.6.2010, p. 13.
(18) Paris, London, Barcelona, Heidelberg, Milan, Rome, Rotterdam, Warsaw, Birmingham, Oxford and Manchester (as of 8 October 2018).
(20) OJ L 127, 29.4.2014, p. 51.
(21) Regulation (EU) 2016/1628 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 September 2016 on requirements relating to gaseous and particulate pollutant emission limits and type-approval for internal combustion engines for non-road mobile machinery, OJ L 252, 16.9.2016, p. 53.

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