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Thursday, 11 November 2021 - Brussels
The European Education Area: a shared holistic approach

European Parliament resolution of 11 November 2021 on the European Education Area: a shared holistic approach (2020/2243(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to Articles 165 and 166 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union,

–  having regard to Article 5(3) of the Treaty on European Union and the Protocol (No 2) on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality,

–  having regard to Article 14 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union,

–  having regard to the first principle of the European Pillar of Social Rights,

–  having regard to the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and in particular UN Sustainable Development Goal 4,

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 30 September 2020 on achieving the European Education Area by 2025 (COM(2020)0625),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 30 September 2020 entitled ‘Digital Education Action Plan 2021-2027: Resetting education and training for the digital age’ (COM(2020)0624),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 1 July 2020 on a European Skills Agenda for sustainable competitiveness, social fairness and resilience (COM(2020)0274),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 22 May 2018 entitled ‘Building a stronger Europe: the role of youth, education and culture policies’ (COM(2018)0268),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 14 November 2017 entitled ‘Strengthening European Identity through Education and Culture’ (COM(2017)0673),

–  having regard to the Council resolution of 26 February 2021 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training towards the European Education Area and beyond (2021-2030)(1),

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 17 May 2021 on equity and inclusion in education and training in order to promote educational success for all(2) and on the European Universities initiative – Bridging higher education, research, innovation and society: Paving the way for a new dimension in European higher education(3),

–  having regard to the Council conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020)(4),

–  having regard to the Council recommendations of 22 May 2018 on promoting common values, inclusive education, and the European dimension of teaching(5) and on key competences for lifelong learning(6), of 26 November 2018 on promoting automatic mutual recognition of higher education and upper secondary education and training qualifications and the outcomes of learning periods abroad(7), of 22 May 2019 on High-Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Systems(8) and on a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages(9), and of 20 December 2012 on the validation of non-formal and informal learning(10),

–  having regard to the Paris Declaration of 17 March 2015 on promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education,

–  having regard to the Eurydice report of 24 March 2021 on teachers in Europe: careers, development and well-being, and the studies published by the Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies of its Directorate-General for Internal Policies in October 2020 entitled ‘Towards a European Education – Critical perspectives on challenges ahead’ and May 2021 entitled ‘Education and youth in post-COVID-19 Europe – crisis effects and policy recommendations’,

–  having regard to the study published by the Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies of its Directorate-General for Internal Policies in February 2021 entitled ‘Making the European Education Area a reality: state of affairs, challenges and prospects’,

–  having regard to the study published by the Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies of its Directorate-General for Internal Policies in May 2018 entitled ‘European Identity’,

–  having regard to its resolution of 25 March 2021 on shaping digital education policy(11),

–  having regard to its resolution of 11 December 2018 on education in the digital era: challenges, opportunities and lessons for EU policy design(12),

–  having regard to its resolution of 12 June 2018 on modernisation of education in the EU(13),

–  having regard to the opinion of the European Committee of the Regions of 19 March 2021 on achieving the European Education Area by 2025(14),

–  having regard to Rule 57 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the opinion of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Culture and Education (A9-0291/2021),

A.  whereas everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training;

B.  whereas the European integration process, the EU single market and other EU policies have contributed – albeit in a fragmented manner – to the natural development of a European educational space, which is historically underpinned by the traditions of European humanism and fundamental rights and values;

C.  whereas the ultimate goal is to establish a bottom-up European Education Area (EEA) with common European policy objectives that guarantee quality, inclusive and accessible education, reinforce the exchange of good practices and ensure an effective framework for European mobility, requiring the removal of existing obstacles, the use of European tools, and the support of policy developments at national and European levels to make education systems fit to address the climate crisis and enable a successful green and digital transformation;

D.  whereas education needs to be conceptualised broadly as ‘lifelong learning’, ranging from pre-primary to tertiary education, including vocational education and training (VET) as well as non-formal and informal education, and aimed at the acquisition of transversal skills to enable everyone to develop their potential personally and professionally, to participate fully in society and to successfully manage the transition into the labour market;

E.  whereas the challenges the EU and its Member States are faced with today, including a lack of competitiveness, climate change, the digital transformation of society, various forms of extremism and populism, disinformation, the undermining of evidence-based education and the exacerbation of existing inequalities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, may necessitate appropriate and concerted European action;

F.  whereas the entire education sector has been negatively impacted by the pandemic, with the existing differences in educational infrastructure, expertise and access to resources within and across Member States and between different levels and types of education having become even more pronounced during the COVID-19 pandemic, primarily as a result of increased inequality, including lack of access to IT infrastructure for people from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, which has had negative repercussions on access to education;

G.  whereas in-person education remains essential in both the intellectual and personal development of the student;

H.  whereas Parliament has called on the Member States to prioritise investments in education and training, for instance by allocating at least 10 % of their national recovery and resilience budgets to corresponding policies, and has requested a considerably higher budget for the Erasmus+ programme, considering education spending an investment in our common future(15) rather than an expense, in order to deliver a more sustainable, digital and socially cohesive society; whereas Parliament has called for investment in education and training to be a substantial part of the Commission’s NextGenerationEU instrument;

I.  whereas quality investment in education has a high return, although increased spending alone does not necessarily deliver the desired results; whereas the private average global rate of return for education remains high and stable over the decades(16);

J.  whereas there is a need for better recognition of the teaching profession, which is going through a crisis, for motivated and competent teachers and trainers, and for more continuous training; whereas there is considerable variation between Member States in teachers’ initial education and induction, working conditions, remuneration, appraisal, careers, and continuing professional development; whereas in 2018, only 40,9 % of teachers in the EU went abroad at least once for professional purposes as a student, teacher or both(17);

K.  whereas progress has been made in building a European Higher Education Area as a result of the long-term efforts of the Bologna Process and using it as a reference to learn from experiences with its implementation; whereas there is a need to promote the European Universities, as they contribute to European excellence and the EU’s geopolitical role;

L.  whereas there is a lack of recognition of VET as a path of choice and excellence on an equal footing with other educational pathways; whereas many obstacles remain to the mobility of learners, including the long-term mobility of apprentices, notwithstanding the progress made under the Copenhagen process;

M.  whereas Member States have not fully achieved the objectives and benchmarks of the Education and Training 2020 framework, in particular the aims of enhancing equitable and quality education, reducing the rate of early leavers from education and training, and bringing the share of 15-year-olds who are under-skilled in reading, mathematics and science below 15 %;

N.  whereas high-quality data collection and statistics on education and training are two of the prerequisites to better understand the relevant challenges across the EU and the differences within it and to help to address those differences;

O.  whereas digital education and adequate digital skills should be seen as part of future-oriented education, and not as a subset of or alternative to existing learning and teaching methods, while highlighting the importance of in-person learning; whereas well over a third of Europeans (42 %) lack even basic digital skills, with significant disparities within and between the Member States; whereas the Skills Agenda aims to ensure that 70 % of 16 to 74-year-olds have basic digital skills by 2025, an average increase of two percentage points per year compared to an increase of 0,75 percentage points per year between 2015 and 2019;

P.  whereas the EEA provides an important opportunity for more international cooperation;

The need for a European Education Area (EEA)

1.  Emphasises the importance of quality, affordable and inclusive education that is accessible for everyone throughout life and that the EEA initiative should provide more and better opportunities for learners in the EU to study, train, pursue research and work wherever they are, increase learning mobility, facilitate a sustained and meaningful dialogue with the relevant actors, and cultivate an environment where skills, qualifications, diplomas and degrees are recognised and valued throughout Europe;

2.  Underscores that the rate of return to education remains very high and hence more education and training generally correlates strongly to societal and economic growth, greater equality and better living standards for everyone and more professional and personal opportunities on an individual level; highlights, therefore, the inestimable significance of education, training and learning, which should be accessible to all, as the most vitally important aspects for driving societal progress and sustainable economic growth; believes that the EEA can and must play an unparalleled role in improving access to and the quality of education throughout the EU;

3.  Stresses the role of the EEA in allowing for a greater and better flow of learners, teachers and knowledge, fostering a sense of European belonging and civic awareness, guaranteeing rights and values, and providing fair and equal opportunities; emphasises the potential of Europe to become a real educational power by drawing on the richness of our diversity and exchanging good practices to address existing and future challenges;

4.  Considers that education and culture are key to achieving personal and social advancement and well-being, fostering European citizenship, improving social cohesion, driving job creation and European economic and social prosperity fairly and sustainably, and ensuring that the EU is a globally competitive and resilient player characterised by more entrepreneurship to lead the green and digital transitions;

5.  Calls for the numerous opportunities for ‘European added value’ afforded through education to be seized, especially through mobility and the sharing of best practices, with the Erasmus+ and European Solidarity Corps programmes playing a particularly important role;

6.  Calls for a clearer and stronger geopolitical dimension of the EEA in order to enable the EU to make strategic use of its educational power with its closest neighbours and partners;

Bridging institutional and stakeholder approaches

7.  Takes note of the variety of visions and approaches on the EEA, which express a common wish to provide fresh impetus to the European project; regards education as a cornerstone for the achievement of the European project, with the EU’s role being focused, inter alia, on supporting and coordinating Member States in sharing good practices, encouraging common standards and bridging existing gaps, while educational content and teaching methods remain a national competence; underlines the need for more collaboration on education across Europe and beyond in order to develop common approaches and solutions to common challenges;

8.  Appreciates the Commission’s efforts to foster an EEA, while noting the need for a more holistic approach which requires meaningful cooperation and coordination between all actors and a diverse range of stakeholders, including the education and training community, parents’ associations, social partners, trade unions, youth organisations, youth workers and civil society; calls for more openness towards novel ideas to ensure that the EEA continues to evolve and serves as a stimulus for more and stronger partnerships, including between the public and private sectors, and synergies between stakeholders;

9.  Welcomes the Council’s response to the Commission’s proposals, in particular its focus on the importance of VET and lifelong learning opportunities, which need to be affordable and accessible to everyone, notably in the EU’s outermost regions;

10.  Welcomes the Commission’s commitment to achieving the EEA by 2025; cautions that the Commission’s proposals are still mainly a strategic outline rather than a concrete policy roadmap; suggests, therefore, the establishment of clear mid- and long-term priorities with achievable targets and deadlines for the actions that should be adopted, including clearly defined interim deliverables that will constitute the different building blocks of a genuine EEA without unnecessary delays, while taking account of the Member States’ fiscal capacities;

11.  Emphasises the urgent need to develop a common implementation strategy and roadmap that includes the EU institutions, the Member States and all the relevant stakeholders, including local and regional authorities and civil society, and defines their respective responsibilities and opportunities; insists that the EEA should be clear and accessible and reflect all levels of governance;

Turning vision into reality: common strategic priorities and EU-level targets

12.  Stresses the potential of using European policy coordination tools to achieve the common objectives of the EEA, including the open method of coordination and the European Semester; recalls the role of the European Semester for the successful implementation of EU policies in the field of education, while acknowledging that it was originally conceived as a tool for the coordination of economic policies across the EU in order to ensure that governments observe fiscal responsibility;

13.  Calls for all EU institutions and Member States to agree on the same vision, priorities, targets and benchmarks regarding the EEA, while acknowledging existing diversities in Europe;

14.  Underlines the importance of establishing academic freedom and pedagogical autonomy as core principles of the EEA;

15.  Calls for the use of synergies between the EEA, the European Research Area and the European Higher Education Area, as well as between the various EU programmes; calls for the further strengthening of Erasmus+, Horizon Europe, Creative Europe, the European Solidarity Corps, Digital Europe, and the Citizens, Equality, Rights and Values Programme in order to benefit all teachers, educational workers, education providers, youth workers and all learners;

16.  Highlights that inclusion should be a central dimension of the EEA and a prerequisite for achieving quality education for all; underlines that no one should be left behind, that every learner has a talent, and that individual differences should be appreciated and valued; underlines that progress on common targets can only be achieved through a more comprehensive approach;

17.  Stresses the importance of placing the learner at the centre of the learning process; underlines the need to ensure that a tailored approach is taken towards vulnerable groups, including people with any kind of disabilities or learning differences, such as those on the autism spectrum or those with high potential, and to foster a whole-school approach to the EEA; invites the Commission to consult all the relevant stakeholders such as student associations, pedagogical support experts, caregivers for learners with special needs, and others, especially when it comes to developing the European Universities and Centres of Vocational Excellence;

18.  Warmly welcomes the objectives of the EU’s new strategic framework for lifelong learning and training, which was the subject of the Council resolution of 19 February 2021 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education, as well as the five strategic priorities identified therein, notably the specific proposals to make lifelong apprenticeships and mobility a reality for all;

19.  Stresses the importance of improving working conditions and the need for teachers and educators to be adequately remunerated for their work; urges the Member States, in cooperation with the Commission, to invest in the initial education of teachers and trainers, notably by including a European dimension and transnational mobility in their curricula, to cultivate competences and motivation in the education profession, to enhance the recognition of the value that educators bring to society, and to bolster pedagogical autonomy; points to the importance of professionalising early childhood education and care staff in order to properly recognise and value their work, which is indispensable for the education of children;

20.  Urges the Member States to foster media and information literacy, critical thinking and a culture of tolerance at all stages of the learning process as a priority and a critical tool for empowering responsible European citizens with the skillsets they need to counter the increasing wave of disinformation and face up to the challenges of the 21st century;

21.  Calls for a common framework on the development of digital competences; stresses the need for a common system of recognition, validation and certification of digital skills, qualifications and credentials, to reduce gaps in digital competences across Europe, and for all learners, especially children, to have access to basic digital equipment;

22.  Underlines the need to ensure the digitalisation of universities in the EU and reiterates the call for the creation of a European online university platform; calls for the EU to recognise connectivity and digital infrastructure as a right derived from the fundamental right to education;

23.  Welcomes the recent changes in the Electronic Platform for Adult Learning in Europe and invites the European Education and Culture Executive Agency to assess how to further increase the visibility, continue the development and strengthen the impact of the adult learning community;

24.  Supports the use of quantitative indicators and benchmarks, giving due consideration to the differences between and within the Member States, in order to allow for the continuous comparison and monitoring of Member States’ progress towards common objectives and incentivise further policy actions, while reiterating the need for supplementary qualitative indicators and benchmarks and cautioning against overambitious medium-term targets;

25.  Highlights the need to improve the quality and increase the frequency of the necessary data collection activities, and to ensure the active monitoring of relevant indicators and benchmarks such as the target set by the European Skills Agenda to achieve 50 % of the adult population participating in learning activities; urges the Commission and the Member States to achieve ambitious targets, such as on the proportion of low achievers and early school leavers, by reducing the first benchmark from 15 % to 10 % and the second from 10 % to 5 %;

26.  Calls for closer collaboration between the EU and other organisations and institutions such as UNESCO and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and for the active use of and support for existing and future educational research and studies to assist Member States in identifying effective policy reforms; urges the Commission and the Member States to develop common and participatory educational research with a well-defined mandate and budget within the remit of EU competences;

27.  Calls on the Member States and the Commission to provide the requisite funding for the establishment, implementation and development of the EEA and the establishment of a dedicated financial instrument in the 2028-2034 multiannual financial framework with a view to developing the EEA further and facilitating the mutual recognition of qualifications; reiterates its call to allocate at least 10 % of the funding under the Recovery and Resilience Facility to education, including digital education, and calls for the Member States to substantially increase public spending in education to above the EU average (4,7 % of GDP in 2019);

28.  Encourages the Commission and the Member States to put in place disaster mitigation strategies for the education sector, in partnership and consultation with all stakeholders, and insists on the importance of concerted European action at times of crisis, such as the COVID 19 pandemic;

Sector-specific measures and considerations

29.  Underlines the importance of learning foreign languages, and of English in particular; underscores the need for Member States to take action to support the development of linguistic competences at all levels, especially in primary and secondary education, to embrace the Council of Europe’s goal of ‘plurilingualism’ and to achieve the benchmark of all pupils having a sufficient knowledge of at least two other official languages of the EU and its Member States at the end of lower secondary education at the latest;

30.  Calls on the Commission to develop tools to allow Member States to implement the Council recommendation on a comprehensive approach to the teaching and learning of languages, and to monitor progress accordingly; calls on the Member States to collect comparable data on language learning; calls on the Commission to provide financial support for schools teaching European language skills, especially the native languages of EU citizens living in other EU countries;

31.  Stresses the need for research and innovation to be promoted in education; underlines the importance of an EEA in promoting the understanding, study and research of cutting-edge technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics so as to raise awareness of the associated opportunities and challenges in educational settings, including by means of specific undergraduate study programmes across all Member States; is concerned that the EU as a whole does not have a sufficient supply of specialised AI undergraduate programmes;

32.  Welcomes the initiative of the European Centres of Vocational Excellence, which provides a structure for the sector at European level; calls for the creation of a European vocational and training area as an integral part of the EEA; asks the Commission and the Member States to work towards the creation of a European apprentices statute; highlights the need for some Member States to address the lack of attractiveness and prestige of VET and dual education systems; stresses that VET systems need to become even more learner-centred and adapted to the changing world of work; reiterates the importance of VET recognition and calls on the Member States to implement the corresponding Council recommendation and the European Skills Agenda properly and in full; underlines the importance of creating flexible and modular pathways to learning to enable learners to combine and build on different learning experiences and opportunities;

33.  Stresses the importance of Commission and Member State action in higher education, such as reinforcing the Bologna Process, strengthening the international dimension of the EEA and furthering the European Student Card, including through embracing the synergies offered by existing EU programmes;

34.  Urges that the EEA should be a milestone in the recognition of diplomas and qualifications across the EU and calls on the Commission and the Member States to facilitate the expansion of automatic mutual recognition of learning outcomes and study periods abroad, including in VET and through European micro-credentials;

35.  Highlights the prominent role of non-formal and informal learning as well as volunteering and stresses the need to recognise their results; calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote soft skills across the EU;

36.  Encourages the Member States to implement the 2018 Council recommendation on key competences for lifelong learning in order to advance progress in all eight key areas such as opportunities for young learners to undertake at least one practical entrepreneurial experience during their education and, in so doing, to improve the recognition of competences gained through non-formal and informal learning so as to increase the flexibility of learning pathways for learners of all ages; calls for the creation of a European framework on civic and social competences that values, promotes and recognises the benefits of practices such as mentoring and the supervision of youth activities;

37.  Underlines that following the COVID-19 pandemic, remote learning has become a part of reality for many learners; stresses that in primary and secondary education, remote learning must remain a last resort and be complementary to face-to-face learning, which is key for teaching valuable social skills; underlines that a modern, blended learning approach aimed at school-age students needs to take place predominantly in the classroom and under the guidance of the teacher, who may for pedagogical reasons choose to mix different tools, be they digital (including online) or non-digital, as part of learning tasks(18);

38.  Calls on the Member States to promote education related to climate change and the ecological transition and to raise awareness of the European Green Deal;

39.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to close the gender gap in education, including in education and careers in science, technology, engineering, the arts and mathematics (STEAM), to fight gender stereotypes and discrimination, and to eradicate bullying, cyber-bullying and other forms of harassment, discrimination and violent misconduct so as to improve cultural, ethnic and gender diversity through the creation and exchange of good practices across Europe;

40.  Welcomes the commitment of the Portuguese Presidency of the Council to launch an online platform aimed at facilitating data sharing among the Member States concerning the challenges linked to unemployment faced by young people as a result of the pandemic;

41.  Reiterates the significance of massive open online courses (MOOCs) as a necessary element to promote upskilling and reskilling of the workforce in an interactive and accessible manner; believes that the EEA should promote uptake and development of MOOCs and reflect such objectives in the European approach to micro-credentials;

42.  Notes that there is currently no single, agreed definition covering the term ‘micro-credentials’; considers, therefore, that uniform EU-wide standards need to be defined in order to effectively promote their mutual recognition among the Member States and ensure that employers trust their value;

Governance framework

43.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to establish a concrete European Education Area Strategic Framework 2030 (EEASF 2030) by the end of 2022, including a comprehensive steering, monitoring and evaluation mechanism, in line with UN Sustainable Development Goal 4 to ‘ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all’ and the first principle of the European Pillar of Social Rights; welcomes the proposal for a steering committee for the EEA, laying the groundwork for a structured and systematic governance framework; emphasises the role of the Conference on the Future of Europe to discuss the way forward on the challenges facing European education and on policy development;

44.  Urges the Commission and the Member States to commit to the type of participation required from Member States and other levels of government, including local and regional authorities, as well as the EU institutions, and to devise effective multi-level governance arrangements that respect the principle of subsidiarity, while aiming to generate European added value;

45.  Seeks clarity on the level of involvement expected from stakeholders, education sectors that have been hitherto underrepresented, and the relevant civil society actors; stresses that the governance framework should involve all relevant stakeholders working in all areas of learning, including youth workers and youth organisations as well as parents’ associations;

46.  Calls on the Commission to establish an EEA platform as an interactive public gateway to support Member States and stakeholders in exchanging information and promoting cooperation and the exchange of good practices; believes that such a platform should be adequately funded and available in all official languages of the EU;

47.  Emphasises that European censuses, data collection and research on territorial needs and educational practices across the EU are a key priority for the Member States and their education systems;

Towards a greater European dimension in education

48.  Underlines the need for a European dimension in education by incorporating a greater and distinct European perspective in educational curricula and teacher training programmes, encompassing all teachers, trainers and learners from both formal and non-formal organisations and the VET sector, and including support from Jean Monnet actions and teacher academies; proposes that these teacher academies be called ‘Comenius Teacher Academies’; supports the creation of a common framework for the shaping and development of teacher qualifications across the Member States;

49.  Emphasises the need to provide learners with comprehensive knowledge about European history and cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible, and to foster a critical European memory and historical consciousness based on the fundamental values on which the EU is built; calls on the Commission, the Member States and the Council of Europe to cooperate on European history and cultural heritage education across the EU, and highlights the need for targeted funding and initiatives to increase research on European history, as well as the promotion of public history, taking into account the complex nature of the history of our continent;

50.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to create a common framework on learning about the EU throughout all appropriate levels and areas of education; stresses the need to familiarise learners with the European integration process, the institutions and policies of the EU, the rights stemming from EU citizenship, and how to actively participate in the EU’s democratic processes;

51.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to develop a comprehensive European strategy and a common framework on citizenship education with a European dimension, including learning about European values – such as human dignity, democracy, the rule of law, human rights and equality – to encourage the exchange of good practices and the development of common pedagogical material and approaches; asks the Commission, in this respect, to explore the establishment of a citizenship education task force to coordinate this task and improve access to European citizenship education in order to foster a European civic culture and a sense of European belonging, complementing local, regional, national and global dimensions;

o   o

52.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ C 66, 26.2.2021, p. 1.
(2) OJ C 221, 10.6.2021, p. 3.
(3) OJ C 221, 10.6.2021, p. 14.
(4) OJ C 119, 28.5.2009, p. 2.
(5) OJ C 195, 7.6.2018, p. 1.
(6) OJ C 189, 4.6.2018, p. 1.
(7) OJ C 444, 10.12.2018, p. 1.
(8) OJ C 189, 5.6.2019, p. 4.
(9) OJ C 189, 5.6.2019, p. 15.
(10) OJ C 398, 22.12.2012, p. 1.
(11) Texts adopted, P9_TA(2021)0095.
(12) OJ C 388, 13.11.2020, p. 2.
(13) OJ C 28, 27.1.2020, p. 8.
(14) OJ C 175, 7.5.2021, p. 6.
(15) European Parliament resolution of 25 March 2021 on shaping digital education policy.
(16) Psacharopoulos, G., Patrinos, H. A., Returns to Investment in Education: A Decennial Review of the Global Literature, World Bank Group, April 2018.
(17) Eurydice report of 24 March 2021 on teachers in Europe: careers, development and well-being.
(18) See the Commission proposal of 5 August 2021 for a Council recommendation on blended learning for high quality and inclusive primary and secondary education (COM(2021)0455).

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