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Procedure : 2022/0195(COD)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A9-0220/2023

Texts tabled :

A9-0220/2023

Debates :

PV 11/07/2023 - 3
CRE 11/07/2023 - 3

Votes :

PV 12/07/2023 - 8.6
CRE 12/07/2023 - 8.6
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :

P9_TA(2023)0277

Texts adopted
PDF 543kWORD 216k
Wednesday, 12 July 2023 - Strasbourg
Nature restoration
P9_TA(2023)0277A9-0220/2023
Text
 Consolidated text

Amendments adopted by the European Parliament on 12 July 2023(1) on the proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on nature restoration (COM(2022)0304 – C9-0208/2022 – 2022/0195(COD))(2)
AMENDMENTS BY THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT(3)
to the Commission proposal
---------------------------------------------------------

(Ordinary legislative procedure: first reading)

[Amendment 18, unless otherwise indicated]

(1)* References to ‘cp’ in the adopted amendments shall be understood as the corresponding part of those amendments.
(2) The matter was referred back for interinstitutional negotiations to the committee responsible, pursuant to Rule 59(4), fourth subparagraph (A9-0220/2023).
(3)* Amendments: new or amended text is highlighted in bold italics; deletions are indicated by the symbol ▌.


REGULATION OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL
on nature restoration

(Text with EEA relevance)

THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION,

Having regard to the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 192(1) thereof,

Having regard to the proposal from the European Commission,

After transmission of the draft legislative act to the national parliaments,

Having regard to the opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee(1),

Having regard to the opinion of the Committee of the Regions,

Acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure,

Whereas:

(1)  It is necessary to lay down rules at Union level on the restoration of ecosystems to ensure the recovery to biodiverse and resilient nature across the Union territory. Restoring ecosystems also contributes to the Union climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation objectives.

(2)  The European Green Deal(2) has set out an ambitious roadmap to transform the Union into a fair and prosperous society, with a modern, resource-efficient and competitive economy, aiming to protect, conserve and enhance the Union’s natural capital, and to protect the health and well-being of citizens from environment-related risks and impacts. As part of the European Green Deal, the Commission has adopted an EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030(3).

(3)  The Union and its Member States, as parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, approved by Council Decision 93/626/EEC(4), are committed to the long-term strategic vision adopted by the Conference of the Parties in 2010 by Decision X/2 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020(5) that, by 2050, biodiversity is to be valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.

(4)  The Convention on Biological Diversity agreed at COP 15 in December 2022,(6) the Global Biodiversity Framework that sets out action-oriented global targets for urgent action over the decade to 2030 to ensure that all areas are under participatory, integrated and biodiversity inclusive spatial planning and/or effective management processes addressing land and sea use change; to bring the loss of areas of high biodiversity importance, including ecosystems of high ecological integrity, close to zero by 2030 while respecting the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, as set out in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP); to ensure that by 2030 at least 30 per cent of areas of degraded terrestrial, inland water, and marine and coastal ecosystems are under effective restoration, in order to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, ecological integrity and connectivity; to restore, maintain and enhance nature’s contributions to people, including ecosystem functions and services, such as the regulation of air, water and climate, soil health, pollination and reduction of disease risk, as well as protection from natural hazards and disasters, through nature-based solutions and/or ecosystem-based approaches for the benefit of all people and nature. The Global Biodiversity Framework will enable progress towards the achievement of the outcome-oriented goals for 2050.

(5)  The UN Sustainable Development Goals(7), in particular goals 14.2, 15.1, 15.2 and 15.3, refer to the need to ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands.

(6)  The United Nations General Assembly, in a resolution of 1 March 2019(8), proclaimed 2021–2030 the UN decade on ecosystem restoration, with the aim of supporting and scaling-up efforts to prevent, halt and reverse the degradation of ecosystems worldwide and raise awareness of the importance of ecosystem restoration.

(7)  The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 aims to ensure that Europe’s biodiversity will be put on the path to recovery by 2030 for the benefits of people, the planet, the climate and our economy. It sets out an ambitious EU nature restoration plan with a number of key commitments, including a commitment to put forward a proposal for legally binding EU nature restoration targets to restore degraded ecosystems, in particular those with the most potential to capture and store carbon, and to prevent and reduce the impact of natural disasters.

(8)  In its resolution of 9 June 2021(9), the European Parliament strongly welcomed the commitment to draw up a legislative proposal with binding nature restoration targets, and furthermore considered that in addition to an overall restoration target, ecosystem-, habitat- and species-specific restoration targets should be included, covering forests, grasslands, wetlands, peatlands, pollinators, free-flowing rivers, coastal areas and marine ecosystems.

(9)  In its conclusions of 23 October 2020(10), the Council acknowledged that preventing further decline of the current state of biodiversity and nature will be essential, but not sufficient to bring nature back into our lives. The Council reaffirmed that more ambition on nature restoration is needed as proposed with the new EU Nature Restoration Plan, which includes measures to protect and restore biodiversity beyond protected areas. The Council also stated that it awaited a proposal for legally binding nature restoration targets, subject to an impact assessment.

(10)  The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets out a commitment to legally protect a minimum of 30 % of the land, including inland waters, and 30 % of the sea in the Union, of which at least one third should be under strict protection, including all remaining primary and old-growth forests. The criteria and guidance for the designation of additional protected areas by Member States(11) (the ‘Criteria and guidance’), developed by the Commission in cooperation with Member States and stakeholders, highlight that if the restored areas comply or are expected to comply, once restoration produces its full effect, with the criteria for protected areas, those restored areas should also contribute towards the Union targets on protected areas. The Criteria and guidance also highlight that protected areas can provide an important contribution to the restoration targets in the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, by creating the conditions for restoration efforts to be successful. This is particularly the case for areas which can recover naturally by stopping or limiting some of the pressures from human activities. Placing such areas, including in the marine environment, under strict protection, will, in some cases, be sufficient to lead to the recovery of the natural values they host. Moreover, it is emphasised in the Criteria and guidance that all Member States are expected to contribute towards reaching the Union targets on protected areas set out in the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, to an extent that is proportionate to the natural values they host and to the potential they have for nature restoration.

(11)  The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 sets out a target to ensure that there is no deterioration in conservation trends or in the status of protected habitats and species and that at least 30 % of species and habitats not currently in favourable status will fall into that category or show a strong positive trend towards falling into that category by 2030. The guidance(12) developed by the Commission in cooperation with Member States and stakeholders to support the achievement of these targets highlights that maintenance and restoration efforts are likely to be required for most of those habitats and species, either by halting their current negative trends by 2030 or by maintaining current stable or improving trends, or by preventing the decline of habitats and species with a favourable conservation status. The guidance further emphasises that those restoration efforts primarily need to be planned, implemented and coordinated at national or regional levels and that, in selecting and prioritising the species and habitats to be improved by 2030, synergies with other Union and international targets, in particular environmental or climate policy targets, are to be sought.

(12)  The Commission’s State of Nature Report from 2020(13) noted that the Union has not yet managed to stem the decline of protected habitat types and species whose conservation is of concern to the Union. That decline is caused mostly by abandonment of extensive agriculture, intensifying management practices, the modification of hydrological regimes, urbanisation and pollution as well as unsustainable forestry activities and species exploitation. Furthermore, invasive alien species and climate change represent major and growing threats to native Union flora and fauna.

(12a)   The Commission's Trade Policy Review - An Open, Sustainable and Assertive Trade Policy(14) - states that the European Green Deal is the EU’s new growth strategy that will be the driving force behind our competitiveness and will lead to a progressive but profound transformation of our economies, which in turn will have a strong bearing on trade patterns, while the EU’s vast network of bilateral trade agreements is an essential platform to engage with our partners on climate change and biodiversity and therefore demands the introduction of ‘mirror’ measures, in line with WTO rules. [Oral amendment]

(13)  It is appropriate to set an overarching objective for ecosystem restoration to foster economic and societal transformation, the creation of high-quality jobs and sustainable growth. Biodiverse ecosystems such as wetland, freshwater, forest as well as agricultural, sparsely vegetated, marine, coastal and urban ecosystems deliver, if in good condition, a range of essential ecosystem services, and the benefits of restoring degraded ecosystems to good condition in all land and sea areas far outweigh the costs of restoration. Those services contribute to a broad range of socio-economic benefits, depending on the economic, social, cultural, regional and local characteristics.

(14)  The United Nations Statistical Commission adopted the System of Environmental Economic Accounting - Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA)(15) at its 52nd session in March 2021. SEEA EA constitutes an integrated and comprehensive statistical framework for organising data about habitats and landscapes, measuring the extent, condition and services of ecosystems, tracking changes in ecosystem assets, and linking this information to economic and other human activity.

(15)  Securing biodiverse ecosystems and tackling climate change are intrinsically linked. Nature and nature-based solutions, including natural carbon stocks and sinks, are fundamental for fighting the climate crisis. At the same time, the climate crisis is already a driver of terrestrial and marine ecosystem change, and the Union must prepare for the increasing intensity, frequency and pervasiveness of its effects. The Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)(16) on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C pointed out that some impacts may be long-lasting or irreversible. The Sixth IPCC Assessment Report(17) states that restoring ecosystems will be fundamental in helping to combat climate change and also in reducing risks to food security. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) in its 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services(18) considered climate change a key driver of change in nature, and it expected its impacts to increase over the coming decades, in some cases surpassing the impact of other drivers of ecosystem change such as changed land and sea use.

(16)  Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 of the European Parliament and of the Council(19) sets out a binding objective of climate neutrality in the Union by 2050 and negative emissions thereafter, and to prioritise swift and predictable emission reductions and, at the same time, enhance removals by natural sinks. The restoration of ecosystems can make an important contribution to maintaining, managing and enhancing natural sinks and to increasing biodiversity while fighting climate change. Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 also requires relevant Union institutions and the Member States to ensure continuous progress in enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change. It also requires that Member States integrate adaptation in all policy areas and promote nature-based solutions(20) and ecosystem-based adaptation.

(17)  The Commission’s Communication on adaptation to climate change from 2021(21) emphasises the need to promote nature-based solutions and recognises that cost-effective adaptation to climate change can be achieved by protecting and restoring wetlands and peatlands as well as coastal and marine ecosystems, by developing urban green spaces and installing green roofs and walls and by promoting and sustainably managing forests and farmland. Having a greater number of biodiverse ecosystems leads to a higher resilience to climate change and provides more effective forms of disaster reduction and prevention.

(18)  Union climate policy is being revised in order to follow the pathway proposed in Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 to reduce net emissions by at least 55 % by 2030 compared to 1990. In particular, the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulations (EU) 2018/841 and (EU) 2018/1999(22) aims to strengthen the contribution of the land sector to the overall climate ambition for 2030 and aligns the objectives as regards accounting of emissions and removals from the land use, land use change and forestry (‘LULUCF’) sector with related policy initiatives on biodiversity. That proposal emphasises the need for the protection and enhancement of nature-based carbon removals, for the improvement of the resilience of ecosystems to climate change, for the restoration of degraded land and ecosystems, and for rewetting peatlands. It further aims to improve the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals of land subject to protection and restoration. In this context, it is important that ecosystems in all land categories, including forests, grasslands, croplands and wetlands, are in good condition in order to be able to effectively capture and store carbon.

(19)  Geo-political developments have further underlined the need to safeguard the resilience of food systems.(23) Evidence shows that restoring agro-ecosystems has positive impacts on food productivity in the long-term, and that the restoration of nature acts as an insurance policy to ensure the EU’s long-term sustainability and resilience.

(20)  In the final report of the Conference on the Future of Europe, citizens call on the Union to protect and restore biodiversity, the landscape and oceans, eliminate pollution and to foster knowledge, awareness, education, and dialogues on environment, climate change, energy use, and sustainability.(24)

(21)  The restoration of ecosystems, coupled with efforts to reduce wildlife trade and consumption, will also help prevent and build up resilience to possible future communicable diseases with zoonotic potential, therefore decreasing the risks of outbreaks and pandemics, and contribute to support EU and global efforts to apply the One Health approach, which recognises the intrinsic connection between human health, animal health and healthy resilient nature.

(22)  Soils are an integral part of terrestrial ecosystems. The Commission’s 2021 Communication ‘EU Soil Strategy for 2030’(25) outlines the need to restore degraded soils and enhance soil biodiversity. The Global Mechanism and the secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) have established the Land Degradation Neutrality Target Setting Programme to assist countries to achieve land degradation neutrality by 2030.

(23)  Council Directive 92/43/EEC(26) and Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(27) aim to ensure the long-term protection, conservation and survival of Europe's most valuable and threatened species and habitats as well as the ecosystems of which they are part. Natura 2000, which was established in 1992 and is the largest coordinated network of protected areas in the world, is the key instrument implementing the objectives of those two Directives. This Regulation should, as those two Directives, apply to the European territory of the Member States to which the Treaties apply, and thereby also aligning with Directive 2008/56/EC.

(24)  A framework and guidance(28) already exist to determine good condition of habitat types protected under Directive 92/43/EEC and to determine sufficient quality and quantity of the habitats of species falling within the scope of that Directive. Restoration targets for those habitat types and habitats of species can be set based on that framework and guidance. However, such restoration will not be enough to reverse biodiversity loss and recover all ecosystems. Therefore, additional obligations should be established based on specific indicators in order to enhance biodiversity at the scale of wider ecosystems.

(25)  Building on Directives 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC and in order to support the achievement of the objectives set out in those Directives, Member States should put in place restoration measures to ensure the recovery of protected habitats and species, including wild birds, across Union areas, also in areas that fall outside Natura 2000.

(26)  Directive 92/43/EEC aims to maintain and restore, at favourable conservation status, natural habitats and species of wild fauna and flora of Union interest. However, it does not set a deadline for achieving that goal. Similarly, Directive 2009/147/EC does not establish a deadline for the recovery of bird populations in the Union.

(27)  Deadlines should therefore be established for putting in place restoration measures within and beyond Natura 2000 sites, in order to gradually improve the condition of protected habitat types across the Union as well as to re-establish them until the favourable reference area needed to achieve favourable conservation status of those habitat types in the Union is reached. In order to give the necessary flexibility to Member States to put in place large scale restoration efforts, it is appropriate to group habitat types according to the ecosystem to which they belong and set the time-bound and quantified area-based targets for groups of habitat types. This will allow Member States to choose which habitats to restore first within the group.

(28)  Similar requirements should be set for the habitats of species that fall within the scope of Directive 92/43/EEC and habitats of wild birds that fall within the scope of Directive 2009/147/EC, having special regard to the connectivity needed between both of those habitats in order for the species populations to thrive.

(29)  It is necessary that the restoration measures for habitat types are adequate and suitable to reach good condition and the favourable reference areas as swiftly as possible, with a view to achieving their favourable conservation status. It is important that the restoration measures are those necessary to achieve the time-bound and quantified area-based targets. It is also necessary that the restoration measures for the habitats of the species are adequate and suitable to reach their sufficient quality and quantity as swiftly as possible with a view to achieving the favourable conservation status of the species.

(29a)  Restoration measures under this Regulation to restore or maintain certain habitat types listed in Annex I, such as grasslands, heath or wetland habitat types, may in certain cases require the removal of forest in order to reinstall conservation-driven management, which might include activities such as mowing or grazing. Nature restoration and halting deforestation are both important and mutually reinforcing environmental objectives. The Commission will develop guidelines, as mentioned in recital 36 of Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council (EU) No. [XXXX/2023] on the making available on the Union market and the export from the Union of certain commodities and products associated with deforestation and forest degradation and repealing Regulation (EU) No. 995/2010, in order to clarify the interpretation of the definition of “agricultural use” in Article 2 of that Regulation, in particular in relation to the conversion of forest to land the purpose of which is not agricultural use.

(30)  It is important to ensure that the restoration measures put in place under this Regulation deliver concrete and measurable improvement in the condition of the ecosystems, both at the level of the individual areas subject to restoration and at national and Union levels.

(31)  In order to ensure that the restoration measures are efficient and that their results can be measured over time, it is essential that the areas that are subject to such restoration measures, with a view to improving the condition of habitats that fall within the scope of Annex I to Directive 92/43/EEC, to re-establish those habitats and to improve their connectivity, show a continuous improvement until good condition is reached.

(32)  It is also essential that the areas that are subject to restoration measures with a view to improving the quality and quantity of the habitats of species that fall within the scope of Directive 92/43/EEC, as well as habitats of wild birds falling within the scope of Directive 2009/147/EC, show a continuous improvement to contribute to the achievement of a sufficient quantity and quality of the habitats of such species.

(33)  It is important to ensure a gradual increase of the areas covered by habitat types that fall within the scope of Directive 92/43/EEC that are in good condition across the territory of Member States and of the Union as a whole, until the favourable reference area for each habitat type is reached and at least 90 % at Member State level of that area is in good condition, so as to allow those habitat types in the Union to achieve favourable conservation status.

(34)  It is important to ensure a gradual increase of the quality and quantity of the habitats of species that fall within the scope of Directive 92/43/EEC, as well as habitats of wild birds falling within the scope of Directive 2009/147/EC, across the territory of Member States and ultimately of the Union, until it is sufficient to ensure the long-term survival of those species.

(35)  It is important that ▌areas covered by habitat types falling within the scope of this Regulation subject to restoration measures show a continuous improvement until they reach good condition, and that they thereafter do not significantly deteriorate, so as not to jeopardize the long-term maintenance or achievement of good condition. It is also important that Member States endeavour to make efforts with the aim to prevent significant deterioration of areas covered by such habitat types either already in good condition or not in good condition and still not subject to restoration measures. Such measures are important to avoid increasing the restoration needs in the future and should focus on areas of habitat types, as identified by the Member States in their national restoration plans, that are necessary to restore in order to reach the restoration targets. It is ▌appropriate to consider the possibility of force majeure, such as natural disasters, which may result in the deterioration of areas covered by those habitat types, as well as unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change. Outside Natura 2000 sites it is appropriate to also consider the result of a plan or project of overriding public interest, for which no less damaging alternative solutions are available,. For areas subject to restoration, this should be determined on a case-by-case basis. For Natura 2000 sites, plans and projects are authorised in accordance with Article 6(4) of Directive 92/43/EEC. Where an area is transformed from one habitat type to another falling within the scope of this Regulation as a desired result of a restoration measure, the area should not be considered to deteriorate.

(35a)  For the purposes of the derogations from the obligations of continuous improvement and non-deterioration outside Natura 2000 sites in this Regulation, Member States should presume plants for the production of energy from renewable sources, their connection to the grid, the related grid itself and storage assets, as being of overriding public interest. Member States may decide to restrict the application of this presumption in duly justified and specific circumstances, such as reasons related to national defence. In addition, Member States may exempt these projects from the obligation to demonstrate that no less damaging alternative solutions are available for the purposes of the application of those derogations, provided that the projects have been subject to a strategic environmental assessment or an environmental impact assessment. Considering such plants as being of overriding public interest and, where applicable, limiting the requirement to assess less damaging alternative solutions would allow such projects to benefit from a simplified assessment as regards the derogations to the assessment of overriding public interest under this Regulation.

(35b)  Activities having as their sole purpose defence or national security should be given utmost priority. Therefore, Member States may when putting in place restoration measures exempt areas used for activities with the sole purpose of national defence if these measures are deemed to be incompatible with the continued military use of the areas in question. In addition for the purpose of the application of the provisions on derogations from the obligations of continuous improvement and non-deterioration outside Natura 2000 sites in this Regulation, Member States should be allowed to presume that plans and projects concerning such activities as being of overriding public interest. Member States may also exempt these projects from the obligation to demonstrate that no less damaging alternative solutions are available, but should put in place measures, as far as reasonable and practicable, with the aim to mitigate the impacts on the habitat types, where they apply this exemption.

(36)  The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 emphasises the need for stronger action to restore degraded marine ecosystems, including carbon-rich ecosystems and important fish spawning and nursery areas. The Strategy also announces that the Commission is to propose a new action plan to conserve fisheries resources and protect marine ecosystems.

(37)  The marine habitat types listed in Annex I to Directive 92/43/EEC are defined broadly and comprise many ecologically different sub-types with different restoration potential, which makes it difficult for Member States to establish appropriate restoration measures at the level of those habitat types. The marine habitat types should therefore be further specified by using relevant levels of the European nature information system (EUNIS) classification of marine habitats. Member States should establish favourable reference areas for reaching the favourable conservation status of each of those habitat types, in so far as those reference areas are not already addressed in other Union legislation. The group of marine soft sediment habitat types, corresponding to certain of the broad benthic habitat types specified under Directive 2008/56/EC, are widely represented in marine waters of several Member States. Therefore Member States should be allowed to limit the restoration measures, that are put in place gradually, to a smaller proportion of the area of these habitat types not in good condition, provided that this does not prevent good environmental status, as determined pursuant to Article 9(1) of Directive 2008/56/EC, from being achieved or maintained, taking into account in particular threshold values for descriptors 1 and 6, laid down in accordance with Article 9(3) of that Directive, for the extent of loss of these habitat types, for adverse effects on the condition of these habitat types and for the maximum allowable extent of those adverse effects.

(38)  Where the protection of coastal and marine habitats requires that fishing or aquaculture activities are regulated, the common fisheries policy applies. Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council(29) provides, in particular, that the common fisheries policy is to implement the ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management so as to ensure that negative impacts of fishing activities on the marine ecosystem are minimised. That Regulation also provides that that policy is to endeavour to ensure that aquaculture and fisheries activities avoid the degradation of the marine environment.

(39)  In order to achieve the objective of continuous, long-term and sustained recovery of biodiverse and resilient nature, Member States should make full use of the possibilities provided under the common fisheries policy. Within the scope of the exclusive competence of the Union with regard to conservation of marine biological resources, Member States have the possibility to take non-discriminatory measures for the conservation and management of fish stocks and the maintenance or improvement of the conservation status of marine ecosystems within the limit of 12 nautical miles. In addition, Member States that have a direct management interest have the possibility to agree to submit joint recommendations for conservation measures necessary for compliance with obligations under Union law on the environment. Such measures will be assessed and adopted according to the rules and procedures provided for under the common fisheries policy.

(40)  Directive 2008/56/EC requires Member States to cooperate bilaterally and within regional and sub-regional cooperation mechanisms, including through regional sea conventions(30), as well as, where fisheries measures are concerned, in the context of the regional groups established under the common fisheries policy.

(41)  It is important that restoration measures are also put in place for the habitats of certain marine species, such as sharks and rays, that for example, fall within the scope of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals or of the European Regional Sea Conventions’ lists of endangered and threatened species, but outside the scope of Directive 92/43/EEC, as they have an important function in the ecosystem.

(42)  To support the restoration and non-deterioration of terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine habitats, Member States have the possibility to designate additional areas as ‘protected areas’ or ‘strictly protected areas’, to implement other effective area-based conservation measures, and to promote private land conservation measures.

(43)  Urban ecosystems represent around 22 % of the land surface of the Union, and constitute the area in which a majority of the citizens of the Union live. Urban green spaces include, inter alia, urban forests, parks and gardens, urban farms, tree-lined streets, urban meadows and urban hedges. As the other ecosystems addressed in this Regulation, urban ecosystems provide important habitats for biodiversity, in particular plants, birds and insects, including pollinators. They also provide many other vital ecosystem services, including natural disaster risk reduction and control (e.g. floods, heat island effects), cooling, recreation, water and air filtration, as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation. Increase of urban green space is one important parameter for the increase of the urban ecosystems ability to provide these important services. Increasing green cover in a given urban area slows water run-off (reducing river pollution risk from storm water overflow) and helps keep summer temperatures down, building climate resilience, and provides additional space for nature to thrive. Increasing the level of urban green space will in many cases improve the health of the urban ecosystem. In turn healthy urban ecosystems are essential for supporting the health of other key European ecosystems – connecting natural areas in the surrounding countryside, improving river health away from the city, providing a haven and breeding ground for bird and pollinator species linked to agricultural and forest habitats, as well as providing important habitats for migrating bird, for example.

(44)  Actions to ensure that the coverage of urban green spaces, especially trees, will no longer be at risk of being reduced need to be strongly enhanced. In order to ensure that urban green spaces continue to provide the necessary ecosystem services, their loss should be stopped and they should be restored and increased, inter alia by integration of green infrastructure and nature-based solutions ▌, such as green roofs and green walls, in the design of buildings. Such integration can contribute not only to the area of urban green space but also, if including trees, to the area of urban tree canopy cover.

(44a)   With artificial light increasing, light pollution has become a pertinent issue. Its sources include building exterior and interior lighting, advertising, commercial properties, offices, factories, streetlights and illuminated sporting venues. Light pollution is a driver of insect declines. Many insects are drawn to light, but artificial lights can create a fatal attraction. Declining insect populations negatively impact all species that rely on insects for food or pollination. Some predators exploit this attraction to their advantage, affecting food webs in unanticipated ways. [Am. 2]

(45)  The EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 requires greater efforts to restore freshwater ecosystems and the natural functions of rivers. The restoration of freshwater ecosystems should include efforts to restore the natural ▌connectivity of rivers as well as their riparian areas and floodplains, including through the removal of artificial barriers with a view to supporting the achievement of favourable conservation status for rivers, lakes and alluvial habitats and species living in those habitats protected by Directives 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC, and the achievement of one of the key objectives of the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, namely, the restoration of at least 25 000 km of free-flowing rivers, assessed against 2020 when the Strategy was communicated. When removing barriers, Member States should primarily address obsolete barriers, which are those that are no longer needed for renewable energy generation, inland navigation, water supply or other uses.

(46)  In the Union, pollinators have dramatically declined in recent decades, with one in three bee species and butterfly species in decline, and one in ten such species on the verge of extinction. Pollinators are essential for the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, human wellbeing and food security, by pollinating wild and cultivated plants. Almost EUR 5 000 000 000 of the EU’s annual agricultural output is directly attributed to insect pollinators(31).

(47)  The Commission launched the EU Pollinators Initiative(32) on 1 June 2018 in response to calls from the European Parliament and from the Council to address the decline of pollinators. The progress report on the implementation of the initiative(33) showed that significant challenges remain in tackling the drivers of pollinator decline, including the use of pesticides. The European Parliament(34) and the Council(35) called for stronger actions to tackle pollinator decline and for the establishment of a Union-wide monitoring framework for pollinators, and clear objectives and indicators regarding the commitment to reverse the decline of pollinators. The European Court of Auditors has recommended that the Commission set up appropriate governance and monitoring mechanisms for actions to address threats to pollinators(36). On 24 January 2023 the Commission presented a revised EU Pollinators Initiative.(37) The revision sets out actions to be taken by the EU and its Member States to reverse the decline of pollinators by 2030.

(48)  The proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the sustainable use of plant protection products [for adoption on 22 June 2022, include title and number of the adopted act when available] aims to regulate one of the drivers of pollinator decline by prohibiting the use of pesticides in ecologically sensitive areas, many of which are covered by this Regulation, for example areas sustaining pollinator species which the European Red Lists(38) classify as being threatened with extinction.

(49)  Sustainable, resilient and biodiverse agricultural ecosystems are needed to provide safe, sustainable, nutritious and affordable food. Biodiversity-rich agricultural ecosystems also increase agriculture’s resilience to climate change and environmental risks, while ensuring food safety and security and creating new jobs in rural areas, in particular jobs linked to organic farming as well as rural tourism and recreation. Therefore, the Union needs to improve the biodiversity in its agricultural lands, through a variety of existing practices beneficial to or compatible with the biodiversity enhancement, including extensive agriculture. Extensive agriculture is vital for the maintenance of many species and habitats in biodiversity rich areas. There are many extensive agricultural practices which have multiple and significant benefits on the protection of biodiversity, ecosystem services and landscape features such as precision agriculture, organic farming, agro-ecology, agroforestry and low intensity permanent grassland.

(50)  Restoration measures need to be put in place to enhance the biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems across the Union, including in the areas not covered by habitat types that fall within the scope of Directive 92/43/EEC. In the absence of a common method for assessing the condition of agricultural ecosystems that would allow setting specific restoration targets for agricultural ecosystems, it is appropriate to set a general obligation to improve biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems and measure the fulfilment of that obligation on the basis of existing indicators.

(51)  Since farmland birds are well-known and widely recognised key indicators of the health of agricultural ecosystems, it is appropriate to set targets for their recovery. The obligation to achieve such targets would apply to Member States, not to individual farmers. Member States should achieve those targets by putting in place effective restoration measures on farmland, working with and supporting farmers and other stakeholders for their design and implementation on the ground.

(52)  High-diversity landscape features on agricultural land, including buffer strips, rotational or non-rotational fallow land, hedgerows, individual or groups of trees, tree rows, field margins, patches, ditches, streams, small wetlands, terraces, cairns, stonewalls, small ponds and cultural features, provide space for wild plants and animals, including pollinators, prevent soil erosion and depletion, filter air and water, support climate change mitigation and adaptation and agricultural productivity of pollination-dependent crops. Productive trees that are part of arable land agroforestry systems and productive elements in non-productive hedges can also be considered as high biodiversity landscape features provided that they do not receive fertilizers or pesticide treatment and if harvest takes place only at moments where it would not compromise high biodiversity levels. Therefore, a requirement to ensure an increasing trend for the share of agricultural land with high-diversity landscape features should be set out. ▌Increasing trends should also be achieved for other existing indicators, such as the grassland butterfly index and the stock of organic carbon in cropland mineral soils. [Am. 14]

(53)  The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) aims to support and strengthen environmental protection, including biodiversity. The policy has among its specific objectives to contribute to halting and reversing biodiversity loss, enhance ecosystem services and preserve habitats and landscapes. The new CAP conditionality standard Nr. 8 on Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAEC 8)(39), requires beneficiaries of area related payments to have at least 4% of arable land at farm level devoted to non-productive areas and features, including land lying fallow and to retain existing landscape features. The 4% share to be attributed to compliance with that GAEC standard can be reduced to 3 % if certain pre-requisites are met(40). That obligation will contribute to Member States reaching a positive trend in high-diversity landscape features on agricultural land. In addition, under the CAP, Member States have the possibility to set up eco-schemes for agricultural practices carried out by farmers on agricultural areas that may include maintenance and creation of landscape features or non-productive areas. Similarly, in their CAP strategic plans, Member States can also include agri-environment-climate commitments including the enhanced management of landscape features going beyond conditionality GAEC 8 and/or eco-schemes. LIFE nature and biodiversity projects will also help to put Europe's biodiversity on agricultural land on a path to recovery by 2030, by supporting the implementation of Directive 92/43/EEC and Directive 2009/147/EC as well as the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030.

(54)  Restoration and rewetting(41) of organic soils(42) in agricultural use (i.e. under grassland and cropland use) constituting drained peatlands help achieve significant biodiversity benefits, an important reduction of green-house gas emissions and other environmental benefits, while at the same time contributing to a diverse agricultural landscape. Member States can choose from a wide range of restoration measures for drained peatlands in agricultural use spanning from converting cropland to permanent grassland and extensification measures accompanied by reduced drainage, to full rewetting with the opportunity of paludicultural use, or the establishment of peat-forming vegetation. The most significant climate benefits are created by restoring and rewetting cropland followed by the restoration of intensive grassland. To allow for a flexible implementation of the restoration target for drained peatlands under agricultural use Member States may count the restoration measures and rewetting of drained peatlands in areas of peat extraction sites as well as, to a certain extent, the restoration and rewetting of drained peatlands under other land uses (for example forest) as contributing to the achievement of the targets for drained peatlands under agricultural use. Where duly justified, and if rewetting of drained peatland under agricultural use cannot be implemented due to considerable negative impacts on buildings, infrastructure, climate adaptation or other public interests and it is not feasible to rewet peatlands under other land uses, the extent of peatlands to be rewetted may be set lower by the Member States.

(55)  In order to reap the full biodiversity benefits, restoration and rewetting of areas of drained peatland should extend beyond the areas of wetlands habitat types listed in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC that are to be restored and re-established. Data about the extent of organic soils as well as their greenhouse gas emissions and removals are monitored and made available by LULUCF sector reporting in national greenhouse gas inventories by Member States, submitted to the UNFCCC. Restored and rewetted peatlands can continue to be used productively in alternative ways. For example, paludiculture, the practice of farming on wet peatlands, can include cultivation of various types of reeds, certain forms of timber, blueberry and cranberry cultivation, sphagnum farming, and grazing with water buffaloes. Such practices should be based on the principles of sustainable management and aimed at enhancing biodiversity so that they can have a high value both financially and ecologically. Paludiculture can also be beneficial to several species which are endangered in the Union and can also facilitate the connectivity of wetland areas and of associated species populations in the Union. Funding for measures to restore and rewet drained peatlands and to compensate possible losses of income can come from a wide range of sources, including expenditure under the Union budget and Union financing programmes.

(56)  The new EU Forest Strategy for 2030(43) outlined the need to restore forest biodiversity. Forests and other wooded land cover over 43,5 % of the EU’s land space. Forest ecosystems that host rich biodiversity are vulnerable to climate change but are also a natural ally in adapting to and fighting climate change and climate-related risks, including through their carbon-stock and carbon-sink functions, and provide many other vital ecosystem services and benefits, such as the provision of timber and wood, food and other non-wood products, climate regulation, soil stabilisation and erosion control and the purification of air and water.

[Am. 112/rev1]

(58)  Restoration targets and obligations for habitats and species protected under Directives 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC, for pollinators and for freshwater, urban, agricultural and forest ecosystems should be complementary and work in synergy, with a view to achieving the overarching objective of restoring ecosystems across the Member States’ land and sea areas. The restoration measures required to achieve one specific target will in many cases contribute to the achievement of other targets or obligations. Member States should therefore plan restoration measures strategically with a view to maximising their effectiveness in contributing to the recovery of nature across the Union. Restoration measures should also be planned in such manner that they address climate change mitigation and climate change adaptation and the prevention and control of the impact of natural disasters, as well as land degradation. They should aim at optimising the ecological, economic and social functions of ecosystems, including their productivity potential, taking into account their contribution to the sustainable development of the relevant regions and communities. It is important that Member States prepare detailed national restoration plans based on the best available scientific evidence. Documented records on historic distribution and area, as well as on the projected changes to environmental conditions due to climate change, should inform judgements on favourable reference area of habitat types. Furthermore, it is important that the public is given early and effective opportunities to participate in the preparation of the plans. Member States should take account of the specific conditions and needs in their territory, in order for the plans to respond to the relevant pressures, threats and drivers of biodiversity loss, and should cooperate to ensure restoration and connectivity across borders.

(59)  To ensure synergies between the different measures that have been, and are to be put in place to protect, conserve and restore nature in the Union, Member States should take into account, when preparing their national restoration plans: the conservation measures established for Natura 2000 sites and the prioritised action frameworks prepared in accordance with Directives 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC; measures for achieving good ecological and chemical status of water bodies included in river basin management plans prepared in accordance with Directive 2000/60/EC; marine strategies for achieving good environmental status for all Union marine regions prepared in accordance with Directive 2008/56/EC; national air pollution control programmes prepared under Directive (EU) 2016/2284; national biodiversity strategies and action plans developed in accordance with Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity, as well as conservation measures adopted in accordance with Regulation 1380/2013 and technical measures adopted in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2019/1241 of the European Parliament and of the Council(44).

(60)  In order to ensure coherence between the objectives of this Regulation and Directive (EU) 2018/2001(45), Regulation (EU) 2018/1999(46) and Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the promotion of energy from renewable sources(47), in particular, during the preparation of national restoration plans, Member States should take account of the potential for renewable energy projects to make contributions towards meeting nature restoration objectives.

(61)  Considering the importance of addressing consistently the dual challenges of biodiversity loss and climate change, the restoration of biodiversity should take into account the deployment of renewable energy and vice versa. Restoration activities and the deployment of renewable energy projects may be combined, wherever possible, including in renewables acceleration and dedicated grid areas. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 requires Member States to perform a coordinated mapping for the deployment of renewable energy in their territory to identify the domestic potential and the available land surface, subsurface, sea or inland water as necessary for the installation of plants for the production of energy from renewable sources, and their related infrastructure, such as grid and storage facilities, including thermal storage, that are required in order to meet at least their national contributions towards the revised 2030 renewable energy target. Such areas, including the existing plants and cooperation mechanisms, shall be commensurate with the estimated trajectories and total planned installed capacity by renewable energy technology set in the national energy and climate plans. Member States should designate a sub-set of such areas as renewables acceleration areas. Those are specific locations, whether on land or sea, particularly suitable for the installation of plants for the production of energy from renewable sources, ▌where the deployment of a specific type of renewable energy is not expected to have significant environmental impacts, in view of the particularities of the selected territory. Member States should give priority to artificial and built surfaces, such as rooftops and facades of buildings, transport infrastructure and their direct surroundings, parking areas, farms, waste sites, industrial sites, mines, artificial inland water bodies, lakes or reservoirs, and, where appropriate, urban waste water treatment sites, as well as degraded land not usable for agriculture. Directive (EU) 2018/2001 also establishes that Member States may adopt a plan or plans to designate dedicated infrastructure areas for the development of grid and storage projects that are necessary to integrate renewable energy into the electricity system, where such development is not expected to have significant environmental impacts or such impacts can be duly mitigated or, where not possible, compensated. The aim of such areas shall be to support and complement the renewables acceleration areas. In the designation of renewables acceleration areas and dedicated infrastructure areas, Member States should avoid protected areas and consider their national nature restoration plans. Member States should coordinate the development of national restoration plans with the mapping of areas necessary for national contribution towards the 2030 renewable energy target and, where relevant, with the designation of the renewables acceleration areas and dedicated grid areas. During the preparation of the nature restoration plans, Member States should ensure synergies with the build-up of renewable energy and energy infrastructure and with the already designated renewables acceleration areas and dedicated grid areas and ensure that the functioning of these renewables ▌ areas, including the permitting procedures applicable in these renewables ▌areas foreseen by Directive (EU) 2018/2001, remain unchanged.

(62)  In order to ensure synergies with restoration measures that have already been planned or put in place in Member States, the national restoration plans should recognise those restoration measures and take them into account. In light of the urgency signalled by the 2022 IPCC report for taking actions on restoration of degraded ecosystems, Member States should implement those measures in parallel with the preparation of the restoration plans.

(63)  The national restoration plans and the measures to restore habitats as well as the measures to prevent habitats from deteriorating should also take into account the results of research projects relevant for assessing the condition of ecosystems, identifying and putting in place restoration measures, and monitoring purposes, and where appropriate, take into account the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Union, in accordance with Article 191(2) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), such as social, economic and cultural requirements and regional and local characteristics, including population density.

(64)  It is appropriate to take into account the specific situation of the Union’s outermost regions, as listed in Article 349 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), which provides for specific measures to support those regions. As envisaged in the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, particular focus should be placed on protecting and restoring the outermost regions’ ecosystems, given their exceptionally rich biodiversity value. At the same time the associated costs for protecting and restoring those ecosystems and the remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate of the outermost regions should be taken into account, in particular when preparing the national restoration plans. Member States are encouraged to include, on a voluntary basis, specific restoration measures in those outermost regions that do not fall within the scope of this Regulation.

(65)  The European Environment Agency (the ‘EEA’) should support Member States in preparing the national restoration plans, as well as in monitoring progress towards meeting the restoration targets and obligations. The Commission should assess whether the national restoration plans are adequate for achieving those targets and obligations.

(66)  The Commission’s State of Nature Report from 2020 has shown that a substantial share of the information reported by Member States in accordance with Article 17 of Council Directive 92/43/EEC(48) and Article 12 of Directive 2009/147/EC, in particular on the conservation status and trends of the habitats and species they protect, comes from partial surveys or is based only on expert judgment. That Report also showed that the status of several habitat types and species protected under Directive 92/43/EEC is still unknown. Filling in those knowledge gaps and investing in monitoring and surveillance are necessary in order to underpin robust and science-based national restoration plans. In order to increase the timeliness, effectiveness and coherence of various monitoring methods, the monitoring and surveillance should make best possible use of the results of Union-funded research and innovation projects, new technologies, such as in-situ monitoring and remote sensing using space data and services delivered under the Union’s Space programme (EGNOS/Galileo and Copernicus). The EU missions ‘Restore Our Ocean and Waters’, ‘Adaptation to Climate Change’, and ‘A Soil Deal for Europe’ will support the implementation of the restoration targets(49).

(66a)  Considering the particular technical and financial challenges associated with mapping and monitoring marine environments, Member States may, as a complement to information reported in accordance with Article 17 of Directive 92/43/EEC and in accordance with Article 17 of Directive 2008/56/EC, use information about pressures and threats or other relevant information as a basis for extrapolation when assessing the condition of marine habitats listed in Annex II. Such an approach may thereby also be used as a basis for planning restoration measures in marine habitats in accordance with this Regulation. The overall assessment of the condition of marine habitats listed in Annex II should be based on the best available knowledge and latest technical and scientific progress.

(67)  In order to monitor the progress in implementing the national restoration plans, the restoration measures put in place, the areas subject to restoration measures, and the data on the inventory of barriers to river continuity, a system should be introduced requiring Member States to set up, keep up-to-date and make accessible relevant data on results from such monitoring. The electronic reporting of data to the Commission should make use of EEA’s Reportnet system and should aim to keep the administrative burden on all entities as limited as possible. To ensure an appropriate infrastructure for public access, reporting and data-sharing between public authorities, Member States should, where relevant, base the data specifications on those referred to in Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(50), Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(51) and Directive (EU) 2019/1024 of the European Parliament and of the Council(52).

(68)  In order to ensure an effective implementation of this Regulation, the Commission should support Member States upon request through the Technical Support Instrument(53), which provides tailor-made technical support to design and implement reforms. The technical support involves, for example, strengthening the administrative capacity, harmonising the legislative frameworks, and sharing relevant best practices.

(69)  The Commission should report on the progress made by Member States towards meeting the restoration targets and obligations of this Regulation on the basis of Union-wide progress reports drawn up by the EEA as well as other analysis and reports made available by Member States in relevant policy areas such as nature, marine and water policy.

(70)  To ensure the achievement of the targets and obligations set out in this Regulation, it is of utmost importance that adequate private and public investments are made in restoration, Member States should integrate expenditure for biodiversity objectives, including in relation to opportunity and transition costs resulting from the implementation of the national restoration plans, in their national budgets and reflect how Union funding is used. Regarding the Union funding, expenditure under the Union budget and Union financing programmes, such as the Programme for the Environment and Climate Action (LIFE)(54), the European Maritime Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund (EMFAF)(55), the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD)(56), the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF), the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the Cohesion Fund(57) and the Just Transition Fund(58), as well as the Union framework programme for research and innovation, Horizon Europe(59), contributes to biodiversity objectives with the ambition to dedicate 7,5 % in 2024, and 10 % in 2026 and in 2027 of annual spending under the 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework(60) to biodiversity objectives.

The Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF)(61) is a further source of funding for the protection and restoration of biodiversity and ecosystems. With reference to the LIFE Programme, special attention should be given to the appropriate use of the Strategic Nature Projects (SNaPs) as a specific tool that could support the implementation of this Regulation, by way of mainstreaming available financial resources in an effective and efficient way.

(71)  A range of EU, national and private initiatives are available to stimulate private financing, such as the InvestEU Programme(62), which offers opportunities to mobilise public and private finance to support inter alia the enhancement of nature and biodiversity by means of green and blue infrastructure projects, and carbon farming as a green business-model(63).

(71a)  To ensure the implementation of this Regulation, adequate private and public investments for nature restoration measures are essential. Therefore, the Commission should, by 12 months from its entry into force and in consultation with Member States, present a report with an analysis identifying any gaps in implementing this Regulation. That report should be accompanied, where appropriate, by proposals for adequate measures, including financial measures to address the gaps identified, such as the establishment of dedicated funding and without prejudging the prerogatives of the co-legislators for the adoption of the next multiannual financial framework post 2027.

(71b)  According to settled case law of the Court of Justice, under the principle of sincere cooperation laid down in Article 4(3) of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), it is for the courts of the Member States to ensure judicial protection of a person’s rights under Union law. Furthermore, Article 19(1) TEU requires Member States to provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective judicial protection in the fields covered by Union law. The Union and the Member States are parties to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (‘the Aarhus Convention’). Under the Aarhus Convention Member States should ensure that, in accordance with the relevant national legal system, members of the public concerned have access to justice.

(72)  Member States should promote a fair and cross-society approach in the preparation and implementation of their national restoration plans, by including processes for participation of the public and by considering the needs of local communities and stakeholders.

(73)  Pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2021/2115 of the European Parliament and of the Council(64), CAP Strategic Plans are meant to contribute to the achievement of, and be consistent with, the long-term national targets set out in, or deriving from, the legislative acts listed in Annex XIII to that Regulation. This Regulation on nature restoration should be taken into account when, in accordance with Article 159 of Regulation (EU) 2021/2115, the Commission reviews, by 31 December 2025, the list set out in Annex XIII to that Regulation.

(74)  In line with the commitment in the 8th Environment Action Programme to 2030(65), Member States should phase out environmentally harmful subsidies at national level, making the best use of market-based instruments and green budgeting tools, including those required to ensure a socially fair transition, and supporting businesses and other stakeholders in developing standardised natural capital accounting practices.

(75)  In order to ensure the necessary adaptation of this Regulation, the power to adopt acts in accordance with Article 290 TFEU should be delegated to the Commission in respect of amending Annexes I to VII to adapt the groups of habitats, to adapt the list of bird species used for the common farmland bird index, as well as to adapt the list of biodiversity indicators for agricultural ecosystems, the list of biodiversity indicators for forest ecosystems and the lists of marine habitats and species ▌and the examples of restoration measures to technical and scientific progress, to take into account experience from the application of the Regulation or to ensure consistency with the EUNIS habitat types. It is of particular importance that the Commission carries out impact assessments and appropriate consultations during its preparatory work, including at expert level, ▌in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement of 13 April 2016 on Better Law-Making52. In particular, to ensure equal participation in the preparation of delegated acts, the European Parliament and the Council receive all documents at the same time as Member States’ experts, and their experts systematically have access to meetings of Commission expert groups dealing with the preparation of delegated acts.

(76)  In order to ensure uniform conditions for the implementation of this Regulation, implementing powers should be conferred on the Commission in order to specify the method for monitoring pollinators, to specify the methods for monitoring the indicators for agricultural ecosystems listed in Annex IV to this Regulation and the indicators for forest ecosystems listed in Annex VI to this Regulation, to establish guiding frameworks for setting the satisfactory levels of urban green space, of urban tree canopy cover in urban ecosystems, of pollinators, of indicators for agricultural ecosystems listed in Annex IV to this Regulation and of indicators for forest ecosystems listed in Annex VI to this Regulation, to set out a uniform format for the national restoration plans, to set out the format, structure and detailed arrangements for reporting data and information electronically to the Commission. Those powers should be exercised in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and the Council(66).

(77)  The Commission should carry out an evaluation of this Regulation. Pursuant to paragraph 22 of the Interinstitutional Agreement on Better Law-Making, that evaluation should be based on the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness, relevance, coherence and EU value added and should provide the basis for impact assessments of possible further measures. In addition, the Commission should assess the need to establish additional restoration targets, based on common methods for assessing the condition of ecosystems not covered by Articles 4 and 5, taking into account the most recent scientific evidence.

(78)  Since the objectives of this Regulation cannot be sufficiently achieved by Member States but can rather, by reason of its scale and effects, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures, in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 TEU. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Regulation does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.

HAVE ADOPTED THIS REGULATION:

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1

Subject matter

1.  This Regulation lays down rules to contribute to:

(a)  ▌ biodiverse, ▌ resilient ▌ and productive ecosystems across the Member States’ land and sea areas through the restoration of degraded ecosystems; [Am. 113/rev1]

(b)  achieving the Union’s overarching objectives concerning climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, including food security, energy transition and social housing, and land degradation neutrality; [Am. 114]

(c)  meeting the Union’s international commitments.

2.  This Regulation establishes a framework within which Member States shall put in place ▌effective and area-based restoration measures with the aim to jointly cover, as a Union target, throughout the areas and ecosystems within the scope as defined in Article 2, by 2030, at least 20 % of ▌land and 20 % of the sea areas and, by 2050, all ecosystems in need of restoration.

2a.   This Regulation needs to create synergies and be coherent with existing and ongoing legislation, taking into account national competences and ensure consistency and coherence with the Union legislation on among others renewable energies, plant protection products, critical raw materials, agricultural and forestry. [Am. 116]

Article 2

Geographical scope

This Regulation applies to ecosystems referred to in Articles 4 to 10:

(a)  in the territory of Member States;

(aa)  in the coastal waters, as defined by Directive 2000/60/EC, of Member States, their seabed and their subsoil;

(b)  in waters, the seabed and subsoil on the seaward side of the baseline from which the extent of the territorial waters is measured extending to the outmost reach of the area where a Member State has or exercises sovereign rights or jurisdiction, in accordance with the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

This Regulation only applies to ecosystems in the European territory of the Member States to which the Treaties apply.

Article 3

Definitions

The following definitions apply:

(1)  ‘ecosystem’ means a dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungi and microorganism communities and their non-living environment, interacting as a functional unit, and includes habitat types, habitats of species and species populations;

(2)  ‘habitat of a species’ means habitat of a species as defined in point (f) of Article 1 of Directive 92/43/EEC;

(3)  ‘restoration’ means the process of actively or passively assisting the recovery of an ecosystem in order to improve its structure and functions with the aim of conserving or enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem resilience; the restoration of ecosystems for the purposes of this Regulation is done through improving to good condition of a habitat type, ▌its re-establishing to favourable reference area and improving to sufficient quality and quantity of a habitat of a species in accordance with Article 4(1), (2) and (3) and Article 5 (1), (2) and (3) and fulfilling targets and obligations under Articles 6 to 10 including reaching satisfactory levels of indicators referred to in Articles 8(1), 9(2) and 10(2) as a means of conserving or enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem resilience;

(4)  ‘good condition’ of a habitat type means a state where its key characteristics ▌, in particular its structure and functions and its typical species or typical species composition reflect the high level of ecological integrity, stability and resilience necessary to ensure its long-term maintenance and thus contribute to reaching or maintaining favourable conservation status according to Article 1, point (e), of Directive 92/43/EEC, where the habitat type concerned is listed in Annex I of that Directive, and, in marine ecosystems, contribute to achieving or maintaining good environmental status according to Article 3(5) of Directive 2008/56/EC;

(5)  ‘favourable reference area’ means the total area of a habitat type in a given biogeographical region or marine region at national level that is considered the minimum necessary to ensure the long-term viability of the habitat type and its typical species or typical species composition, and all its significant ecological variations in its natural range, and which is composed of the area of the habitat type and, if that area is not sufficient, the area necessary for the re-establishment of the habitat type; where the habitat type concerned is listed in Annex I to Directive 92/43/EEC, such re-establishment contributes to reaching favourable conservation status according to Article 1, point (e), of that Directive and, in marine ecosystems, such re-establishment contributes to achieving or maintaining good environmental status according to Article 3(5) of Directive 2008/56/EC;

(6)  ‘sufficient quality of habitat’ means the quality of a habitat of a species which allows the ecological requirements of a species to be met at any stage of its biological cycle so that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its habitat in its natural range, contributing to reaching or maintaining favourable conservation status of species according to the Article 1, point (i) of Directive 92/43/EEC for species listed in Annex II, IV or V to that Directive and securing populations of wild bird species covered by Directive 2009/147/EC and, in addition, in marine ecosystems, contributing to achieving or maintaining good environmental status according to Article 3(5) of Directive 2008/56/EC;

(7)  ‘sufficient quantity of habitat’ means the quantity of a habitat of a species which allows the ecological requirements of a species to be met at any stage of its biological cycle so that it is maintaining itself on a long-term basis as a viable component of its habitat in its natural range, contributing to reaching or maintaining favourable conservation status of species according to the Article 1, point (i), of Directive 92/43/EEC for species listed in Annex II, IV or V to that Directive and securing populations of wild bird species covered by Directive 2009/147/EC and, in addition, in marine ecosystems, contributing to achieving or maintaining good environmental status according to Article 3(5) of Directive 2008/56/EC;

(7a)   ‘deterioration’ means causing a net adverse effect on the habitat types and habitats of species covered by Article 4(6) and (7) and Article 5(6) and (7), in so far as that effect could be significant in relation to the overall objective of Articles 4 and 5 to maintain or restore such habitat types and habitats of species to a favourable conservation status at national and, dependent of the habitat type or the habitat of a species concerned, at a biogeographical level. [Am. 117/rev1]

(8)  ‘pollinator’ means a wild insect which transports pollen from the anther of a plant to the stigma of a plant, enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds;

(9)  ‘decline of pollinator populations’ means a decrease in abundance or diversity, or both, of pollinators;

(9a)  ‘native tree species’ means a tree species occurring within its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. within the range it occupies naturally or could occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans);

(10)  ‘local administrative unit’ or ‘LAU’ means a low-level administrative division of a Member State below that of a province, region or state, established in accordance with Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council(67);

(10a)  ‘urban centres’ and ‘urban clusters’ means territorial units classified in cities and towns and suburbs using the grid-based typology established in accordance with Article 4b.2 of Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003;

(11)  ‘cities’ means LAUs where at least 50 % of the population lives in one or more urban centres, measured using the degree of urbanisation established in accordance with Article 4b.3, point (a), of Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003;

(12)  ‘towns and suburbs’ means LAUs where less than 50 % of the population lives in an urban centre, but at least 50 % of the population lives in an urban cluster, measured using the degree of urbanisation established in accordance with Article 4b.3, point (a) of Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003;

(12a)  ‘peri-urban areas’ means areas adjacent to urban centres or urban clusters, including at least all areas within 1 kilometre measured from the outer limits of those urban centres or urban clusters, and located in the same city or the same town and suburb as those urban centres or urban clusters;

(13)  ‘urban green space’ means the total area of trees, bushes, shrubs, permanent herbaceous vegetation, lichens and mosses, ponds and watercourses found within cities or towns and suburbs calculated on the basis of data provided by the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service as established by Regulation (EU) 2021/696 of the European Parliament and of the Council(68), and, if available for the Member State concerned, other appropriate supplementary data provided by that Member State;

(14)  ‘urban tree canopy cover’ means the total area of tree cover within cities and towns and suburbs, calculated on the basis of the Tree Cover Density data provided by the Copernicus Land Monitoring Service as established by Regulation (EU) 2021/696 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and, if available for the Member State concerned, other appropriate supplementary data provided by that Member State;

(14a)  ‘free flowing river’ means a river or a stretch of river whose longitudinal, lateral and vertical connectivity is not hindered by artificial structures forming a barrier and whose natural functions are largely unaffected;

(14b)   ‘rewetting peatland’ means the process of changing a drained peat soil towards a wet soil;

(15)  ‘renewables acceleration area’ means renewables acceleration area as defined in point 9(a) of Article 2 of Directive 2018/2001/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council(69).

CHAPTER II

RESTORATION TARGETS AND OBLIGATIONS

Article 4

Restoration of terrestrial, coastal and freshwater ecosystems

1.  Member States shall aim to put in place the restoration measures in Natura 2000 sites that are necessary to move towards reaching favourable conservation status of habitat types listed in Annex I which are not in good condition. Such measures shall be put in place on Natura 2000 network area of habitat types listed in Annex I that are not in good condition, as quantified in the national restoration plan referred to in Article 12. [Am. 21]

2.  Member States shall put in place the restoration measures that are necessary to re-establish the habitat types listed in Annex I in areas not covered by those habitat types with the aim to reach their favourable reference area. Such measures shall be in place in areas necessary to ensure fulfilment of the goals laid down in paragraph 1 of this Article▌. [Am. 99]

3.  Member States shall put in place the restoration measures for the terrestrial, coastal and freshwater habitats of the species listed in Annexes II, IV and V to Directive 92/43/EEC and of the terrestrial, coastal and freshwater habitats of wild birds covered by Directive 2009/147/EC that are, in addition to the restoration measures in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, necessary to improve the quality and quantity of those habitats, including by re-establishing them, and to enhance connectivity, until sufficient quality and quantity of those habitats is achieved.

4.  The determination of the most suitable areas for restoration measures in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article shall be based on the best available knowledge and the latest scientific evidence of the condition of the habitat types listed in Annex I, measured by the structure and functions which are necessary for their long-term maintenance including their typical species, as referred to in Article 1(e) of Directive 92/43/EEC, and of the quality and quantity of the habitats of the species referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article, making use of information reported under Article 17 of Directive 92/43/EEC and Article 12 of Directive 2009/147/EC, and where appropriate taking into account the diversity of situations in various regions as referred to in Article 11(9a).

4a.  Member States shall ensure, by 2030 at the latest, that the condition is known for at least 90% of area distributed overall habitat types listed in Annex I. The condition of all areas of habitat types listed in Annex I shall be known by 2040.

5.  The restoration measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall consider the need for improved connectivity between the habitat types listed in Annex I and take into account the ecological requirements of the species referred to in paragraph 3 that occur in those habitat types.

6.  Member States shall endeavour to ensure that the total national area in good condition and the total amount of area with a sufficient quality of the habitats of the species referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 does not significantly decrease over time. [Am. 100]

[Ams. 25, 101 and 121]

8.  Outside Natura 2000 sites, the non-fulfilment of the obligations set out in paragraph 6 ▌is justified if it is caused by:

(a)  force majeure including natural disasters;

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change; ▌

(c)  a plan or project of overriding public interest for which no less damaging alternative solutions are available, to be determined on a case by case basis;

(ca)   in exceptional circumstances, linked to the realisation or continuation of activities of public interest, the non-fulfilment of the obligations set out in paragraph 6 shall be justified, provided that it does not jeopardise the achievement of the restoration targets set out in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3. Member States shall inform the Commission about such exceptional circumstances and duly justify them without delay; or [Am. 6]

(d)  action or inaction from third countries for which the Member State concerned is not responsible.

8a.  Outside Natura 2000 sites, the obligation to put in place necessary measures set out in paragraph 7 does not apply to deterioration caused by:

(a)  force majeure including natural disasters;

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change;

(c)  plans or projects of overriding public interest for which no less damaging alternative solutions are available; or

(d)  action or inaction from third countries for which the Member State concerned is not responsible.

9.  For Natura 2000 sites, the non-fulfilment of the obligations set out in paragraphs 6 and 7, is justified if it is caused by:

(a)  force majeure including natural disasters;

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change:; or

(c)  a plan or project authorised in accordance with Article 6(4) of the Directive 92/43/EEC.

10.  Member States shall ensure that there is:

(a)  an increase of habitat area in good condition for habitat types listed in Annex I until at least 90 % is in good condition and until the favourable reference area for each habitat type in each biogeographic region of the Member State concerned is reached;

(b)  an increasing trend towards the sufficient quality and quantity of the terrestrial, coastal and freshwater habitats of the species referred to in Annexes II, IV and V to Directive 92/43/EEC and of the species covered by Directive 2009/147/EC.

10a.   In the measures to be taken under this Article, Member States shall take into account economic, social and cultural requirements and regional and local particularities, in accordance with Article 2(3) of Directive 92/43/EEC. [Am. 27]

Article 5

Restoration of marine ecosystems

1.  Member States shall put in place the restoration measures that are necessary to improve to good condition areas of habitat types listed in Annex II which are not in good condition. Such measures shall be in place:

(a)  on at least 30 % by 2030 of the total area of groups 1–6 of habitat types listed in Annex II that is not in good condition, as quantified in the national restoration plan referred to in Article 12;

(b)  on at least 60 % by 2040 and on at least 90 % by 2050 of the area of each of the groups 1–6 of habitat types listed in Annex II that is not in good condition, as quantified in the national restoration plan referred to in Article 12;

(c)  on two thirds of the percentage, referred to in point (d), by 2040 of the area of group 7 of habitat types listed in Annex II that is not in good condition, as quantified in the national restoration plan referred to in Article 12; and

(d)  on a percentage, identified in accordance with Article 11(2a), by 2050 of the area of group 7 of habitat types listed in Annex II that is not in good condition, as quantified in the national restoration plan referred to in Article 12.

The percentage, referred to in point (d) of this paragraph, shall be set so as not to prevent good environmental status, as determined pursuant to Article 9(1) of Directive 2008/56/EC, from being achieved or maintained.

[Am. 29]

3.  Member States shall put in place the restoration measures for the marine habitats of species listed in Annex III and in Annexes II, IV and V to Directive 92/43/EEC and for the marine habitats of wild birds covered under Directive 2009/147/EC, that are, in addition to the restoration measures put in place in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, necessary in order to improve the quality and quantity of those habitats, including by re-establishing them, and to enhance connectivity, until sufficient quality and quantity of those habitats is achieved.

4.  The determination of the most suitable areas for restoration measures in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article shall be based on the best available knowledge and the latest technical and scientific progress in determining the condition of the habitat types listed in Annex II, ▌and of the quality and quantity of the habitats of the species referred to in paragraph 3 of this Article, making use of information reported under Article 17 of Directive 92/43/EEC, Article 12 of Directive 2009/147/EC and Article 178 of Directive 2008/56/EC.

4a.  Member States shall ensure, by 2030 at the latest, that the condition is known for at least 50% of the area distributed over all habitat types listed in groups 1–6 of Annex II. The condition of all areas of groups 1–6 of habitat types listed in Annex II shall be known by 2040. Member States shall also ensure, by 2040 at the latest, that the condition is known for at least 50% of the area distributed over all habitat types listed in group 7 of Annex II. The condition of all areas of group 7 of habitat types listed in Annex II shall be known by 2050.

5.  The restoration measures referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 shall consider the need for improved ecological coherence and connectivity between the habitat types listed in Annex II and take into account the ecological requirements of the species referred to in paragraph 3 that occur in those habitat types.

6.  Member States shall endeavour to ensure that the areas that are subject to restoration measures in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 show a continuous improvement in the condition of the habitat types listed in Annex II until good condition is reached, and a continuous improvement of the quality of the habitats of the species referred to in paragraph 3, until the sufficient quality of those habitats is reached. Member States shall endeavour to put in place, where possible, necessary measures with the aim to prevent that areas in which good condition has been reached, and in which the sufficient quality of the habitats of the species has been reached, do not significantly deteriorate on a national level. [Am. 125/rev1]

[Ams. 32, 104 and 126/rev1]

8.  Outside Natura 2000 sites, the non-fulfilment of the obligations set out in paragraph 6 ▌is justified if caused by:

(a)  force majeure including natural disasters;

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change; ▌

(ca)   in exceptional circumstances, linked to the realisation or continuation of activities of public interest, the non-fulfilment of the obligations set out in paragraph 6 shall be justified, provided that it does not jeopardise the achievement of the restoration targets set out in paragraphs 1, 2 and 3. Member States shall inform the Commission about such exceptional circumstances and duly justify them without delay; [Am. 7]

(d)   action or inaction from third countries for which the Member State concerned is not responsible.

8a.  Outside Natura 2000 sites, the obligation to put in place necessary measures set out in paragraph 7 does not apply to deterioration caused by:

(a)  force majeure including natural disasters;

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change;

(c)  plans or projects of overriding public interest, for which no less damaging alternative solutions are available; or

(d)  action or inaction from third countries for which the Member State concerned is not responsible.

9.  For Natura 2000 sites, the non-fulfilment of the obligation set out in paragraphs 6 and 7, is justified if caused by:

(a)  force majeure, including natural disasters;

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change; or

(c)  a plan or project authorised in accordance with Article 6(4) of the Directive 92/43/EEC.

10.  Member States shall ensure that there is:

(a)  an increase of habitat area in good condition for habitat types listed in groups 1–6 of Annex II until at least 90 % is in good condition and until the favourable reference area for each habitat type in each biogeographic region of the Member State concerned is reached;

(aa)  an increase of habitat area in good condition for habitat types listed in group 7 of Annex II until at least the percentage, referred to in paragraph 1, point (d), is in good condition and until the favourable reference area for each habitat type in each biogeographical region of the Member State concerned is reached;

(b)  a positive trend towards the sufficient quality and quantity of the marine habitats of the species listed in Annex III and in Annexes II, IV and V to Directive 92/43/EEC and of the species covered by Directive 2009/147/EC.

Article 5a

Energy from renewable sources

For the purposes of Articles 4(8) and (8a) and 5(8) and (8a), the planning, construction and operation of plants for the production of energy from renewable sources, their connection to the grid and the related grid itself and storage assets shall be presumed as being in the overriding public interest. Member States may exempt them from the requirement that no less damaging alternative solutions are available under Articles 4(8) and (8a) and 5(8) and (8a), if a strategic environmental assessment has been carried out in accordance with the conditions set out in Directive 2001/42/EC or if they have been subject to an environmental impact assessment in accordance with the conditions set out in Directive (EU) 2011/92. Member States may restrict in duly justified and specific circumstances the application of these provisions to certain parts of their territory as well as to certain types of technologies or to projects with certain technical characteristics in accordance with the priorities set in their national integrated energy and climate plans pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2018/1999. Member States shall inform the Commission about applied restrictions and justify them.

Article 5b

National defence

1.  When putting in place restoration measures for the purposes of Articles 4(1), (2) and (3) and 5(1), (2) and (3), Member States may exempt areas used for activities with the sole purpose of national defence, if these measures are deemed to be incompatible with the continued military use of the areas in question.

2.  For the purposes of Articles 4(8) and (8a) and 5(8) and (8a), Member States may provide that plans and projects for the sole purpose of national defence, are presumed as being in the overriding public interest. For the purposes of Articles 4(8) and (8a) and 5(8) and (8a), Member States may also exempt such plans and projects from the requirement that no less damaging alternative solutions are available. However, where this exemption is applied, the Member State concerned shall put in place measures, as far as reasonable and practicable, with the aim to mitigate the impacts on the habitat types.

Article 6

Restoration of urban ecosystems

1.  Member States shall ensure that there is no net loss in the total national area of urban green space, and of urban tree canopy cover in urban ecosystem areas, determined in accordance with Article 11(2b), by 31 December 2030, compared to [year of entry into force of this Regulation]. For the purposes of this obligation, Member States may exclude from that total national area the urban ecosystem areas in which the share of urban green space in the urban centres and urban clusters exceeds 45 % and the share of urban tree canopy cover therein exceeds 10 %.

2.  Member States shall achieve thereafter an increasing trend in the total national area of urban green space, including through integration of urban green space into buildings and infrastructure, in urban ecosystem areas, determined in accordance with Article 11(2b), measured every six years after 31 December 2030, until a satisfactory level identified in accordance with Article 11(3) is reached.

3.  Member States shall achieve, in each urban ecosystem area, determined in accordance with Article 11(2b), an increasing trend of ▌urban tree canopy cover, measured every six years after 31 December 2030, until the satisfactory level identified in accordance with Article 11(3) is reached.

Article 7

Restoration of the natural connectivity of rivers and natural functions of the related floodplains

1.  Member States shall make an inventory of artificial barriers to ▌connectivity of surface waters and, taking into account their socio-economic functions, identify the barriers that need to be removed to contribute to the achievement of the restoration targets set out in Article 4 of this Regulation and of the objective of restoring at least 25 000 km of rivers into free-flowing rivers in the Union by 2030, without prejudice to Directive 2000/60/EC, in particular Articles 4(3), 4(5) and 4(7) thereof, and Regulation 1315/2013, in particular Article 15 thereof.

2.  Member States shall remove the artificial barriers to ▌connectivity of surface waters based on the inventory under paragraph 1 of this Article, in accordance with the plan for their removal referred to in Article 12(2), points (e) and (f). When removing barriers, Member States shall primarily address obsolete barriers, which are those that are no longer needed for renewable energy generation, inland navigation, water supply, flood protection, or other uses.

3.  Member States shall complement the removal of the barriers referred to in paragraph 2, by the measures necessary to improve the natural functions of the related floodplains.

4.  Member States shall ensure that natural connectivity of rivers and natural functions of the related floodplains restored in accordance with paragraphs 2 and 3 are maintained.

Article 8

Restoration of pollinator populations

1.  Member States shall, by putting in place appropriate and effective measures, improve pollinator diversity and reverse the decline of pollinator populations at the latest by 2030 and achieve thereafter an increasing trend of pollinator populations, following the entry into force of the Regulation and measured every six years after 2030, until satisfactory levels are achieved, as set out in accordance with Article 11(3). [Am. 88]

2.  By ... [9 months after the entry into force of this Regulation], the Commission shall adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to establish a science-based method for monitoring pollinator diversity and populations. ▌ [Am. 89]

3.  The method referred to in the paragraph 2 shall provide guidance to Member States for the purpose of defining satisfactory levels pursuant to Article 11(3) and provide a standardised approach for collecting annual data on the abundance and diversity of pollinator species across ecosystems, for assessing pollinator population trends and the effectiveness of restoration measures adopted by Member States in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article. [Am. 90]

3a.  Member States and the Commission shall ensure that monitoring data comes from an adequate number of sites to ensure representativeness across the territory. Member States shall ensure sufficient resources for the monitoring and promote citizen science. [Am. 91]

3b.  The Commission and the relevant Union agencies, in particular the EEA, EFSA and ECHA, shall jointly address the main pressures pollinators face and support the Member States upon their request. [Am. 92]

[Am. 34]

Article 10

Restoration of forest ecosystems

1.  Member States shall put in place the restoration measures necessary to enhance biodiversity of forest ecosystems, in addition to the areas that are subject to restoration measures pursuant to Article 4(1), (2) and (3)

2.  Member States shall achieve an increasing trend at national level of each of the following indicators in forest ecosystems, as further set out in Annex VI, measured in the period from the date of entry into force of this Regulation until 31 December 2030, and every six years thereafter, until the satisfactory levels identified in accordance with Article 11(3) are reached:

[Am. 129/rev1]

[Am. 130/rev1]

(c)  common forest bird index.

2a.  Member States shall achieve an increasing trend at national level of three of the following indicators in forest ecosystems, as further set out in Annex VI, chosen on the basis of their ability to demonstrate the enhancement of biodiversity of forest ecosystems within the Member State concerned. The trend shall be measured in the period from the date of entry into force of this Regulation until 31 December 2030, and every six years thereafter, until the satisfactory levels identified in accordance with Article 11(3) are reached:

(a)  share of forests with uneven-aged structure;

(b)  forest connectivity;

(c)  stock of organic carbon;

(d)  share of forests dominated by native tree species;

(e)  tree species diversity.

3.  The non-fulfilment of the obligations set out in paragraphs 2 and 2a is justified if caused by:

(a)  large-scale force majeure, including natural disasters, in particular unplanned and uncontrolled wildfire; or

(b)  unavoidable habitat transformations which are directly caused by climate change.

Article 10a

Planting of three billion additional trees

1.  When identifying and implementing the restoration measures to meet the objectives and obligations set out in Articles 4, 6, 9 and 10, Member States shall contribute to the achievement of the Union objective of planting at least three billion additional trees by 2030.

2.  Member States shall ensure that the objective set out in paragraph 1 is achieved in full respect of ecological principles, ensuring species diversity, prioritising native tree species except for, in very specific cases and conditions, non-native species adapted to the local soil, climatic and ecological context and habitat conditions that play a role in fostering increased resilience to climate change. The measures to achieve the objective shall aim at increasing connectivity and be based on proforestation, sustainable reforestation and the greening of urban areas.

3.  Trees planted for harvesting purposes shall not count for the objective set out in paragraph 1. [Am. 80]

CHAPTER III

NATIONAL RESTORATION PLANS

Article 11

Preparation of the national restoration plans

1.  Member States shall prepare national restoration plans and carry out the preparatory monitoring and research needed to identify the restoration measures that are necessary to contribute to the Union targets and meet the obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10, taking into account the latest scientific evidence, the needs of local communities, including urban ones, the most cost-effective measures and the socio-economic impact of those measures. An appropriate stakeholder involvement, including landowners and land managers, at each stage of the process is necessary. [Am. 35]

2.  Member states shall quantify the area that needs to be restored to reach the restoration targets set out in Articles 4 and 5 taking into account the condition of the habitat types referred to in Articles 4(1), 4(2), 5(1) and 5(2) and the quality and quantity of the habitats of the species referred to in Article 4(3) and Article 5(3) ▌. The quantification shall be based, amongst others, on the following information:

(a)  for each habitat type:

(i)  the total habitat area and a map of its current distribution;

(ii)  the habitat area not in good condition;

(iii)  the favourable reference area taking into account records of historical distribution and the projected changes to environmental conditions due to climate change;

[Am. 37]

(b)  the sufficient quality and quantity of the habitats of the species required for achieving their favourable conservation status, taking into account the areas most suitable ▌ of those habitatsbearing in mind changes ▌ due to climate change and the roles that the land plays in terms of food production, and the competing needs of the habitats and species; [Am. 38]

(ba)  for the purpose of quantifying the area of each habitat type that needs to be restored to reach the restoration targets set out in Article 4(1), point (a), and Article 5(1), point (a), the habitat area not in good condition referred to in point (a)(ii) shall only include such areas for which the condition is known;

(bb)  for the purpose of quantifying the area of each habitat type that needs to be restored to reach the restoration targets set out in Articles 4(1), point (b), and 5(1), points (b), (c) and (d), the habitat area not in good condition as referred to in point (a)(ii) of this paragraph shall only include such areas for which the condition is known or is to be known pursuant to Articles 4(4a) and 5(4a);

(bc)   feasibility of restoration, cost-effectiveness and conflicting socio-economic interests; [Am. 39]

(bd)   population densities and scarcity of space in the Member State. [Am. 40]

2a.  The financing of funding gaps in relation to the implementation of this Regulation shall be ensured without using any funding from the CAP, the CFP or other agricultural and fisheries funding streams. [Am. 134]

2b.  With regard to group 7 of habitat types listed in Annex II, Member States shall set the percentage referred to in Article 5(1), point (d).

2c.  Member States shall determine and map urban ecosystem areas as referred to in Article 6 for all their cities and towns and suburbs.

The urban ecosystem area of a city or of a town and suburb shall include:

(a)  the entire city or town and suburb; or

(b)  parts of the city or of the town and suburb, including at least its urban centres, urban clusters and, if deemed appropriate by the Member State concerned, peri-urban areas.

Member States may aggregate the urban ecosystem areas of two or more adjacent cities and/or towns and suburbs into one urban ecosystem area common to those cities and/or towns and suburbs.

3.  Member States shall set, by 2030 at the latest, satisfactory levels for each of the indicators referred to in Articles 8(1), 9(2), 10(2), for each of the chosen indicators in Article 10(2a) and for urban green space referred to in Article 6(2) and for urban tree canopy cover referred to in Article 6(3), through an open and effective process and assessment, based on the latest scientific evidence▌, the guiding framework referred to in Article 17(9a) and, if available, the guiding framework referred to in Article 17(9).

4.  Member States shall identify and map the agricultural and forest areas in need of restoration, in particular the areas that, due to intensification or other management factors, are in need of enhanced connectivity and landscape diversity.

4a.  Member States may, within one year from the entry into force of this Regulation, develop a methodology to complement the methodology referred to in Annex IV, in order to monitor high diversity landscape features not covered by the common method referred to in the description of high diversity landscape features in that Annex. The Commission shall provide guidance on the framework for developing such methodology within one month from the entry into force of this Regulation.

4b.  Member States shall, where applicable, determine the reduction of the extent of rewetting peatland as referred to in Article 9(4), fifth subparagraph.

5.  Member States shall identify synergies with climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, land degradation neutrality and disaster prevention and prioritise restoration measures accordingly. Member States shall also take into account:

(a)  their integrated national energy and climate plan referred to in Article 3 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1999;

(b)  their long-term strategy referred to in Article 15 of Regulation (EU) 2018/1999;

(c)  the Union binding target for 2030 set out in Article 3 of Directive 2018/2001/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council.

6.  Member States shall coordinate the development of national restoration plans with the mapping of areas that are required in order to meet at least their national contributions towards the 2030 renewable energy target and, where relevant, with the designation of the renewables acceleration areas and dedicated infrastructure areas. During the preparation of the nature restoration plans, Member States shall ensure synergies with the build-up of renewable energy and energy infrastructure and the already designated renewables acceleration areas and dedicated infrastructure areas and ensure that the functioning of these renewables ▌areas, including the permitting procedures applicable in these renewables ▌areas foreseen by Directive (EU) 2018/2001, as well as the functioning of grid projects that are necessary to integrate renewable energy into the electricity system and the respective permitting procedures, remain unchanged.

7.  When preparing their national restoration plans, Member States shall in particular take the following into account:

(a)  the conservation measures established for Natura 2000 sites in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC;

(b)  prioritised action frameworks prepared in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC;

(c)  measures for achieving good quantitative, ecological and chemical status of water bodies included in programmes of measures and river basin management plans prepared in accordance with Directive 2000/60/EC and flood risk management plans established in accordance with Directive 2007/60/EC;

(d)  where applicable, marine strategies for achieving good environmental status for all Union marine regions prepared in accordance with Directive 2008/56/EC;

(e)  national air pollution control programmes prepared under Directive (EU) 2016/2284;

(f)  national biodiversity strategies and action plans developed in accordance with Article 6 of the Convention on Biological Diversity;

(g)  where applicable, conservation and management measures adopted under the common fisheries policy;

(h)  CAP strategic plans drawn up in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2021/2115.

8.  Member States may, when preparing the national restoration plans, make use of the different examples of restoration measures listed in Annex VII, depending on specific national and local conditions, and the latest scientific evidence.

9.  Member States shall, when preparing the national restoration plans, aim at optimising the ecological, economic and social functions of ecosystems as well as their contribution to the sustainable development of the relevant regions and communities.

9a.  Member States may, when preparing the national restoration plans, take into account, the diversity of situations in various regions related to social, economic and cultural requirements, regional and local characteristics and population density. Where appropriate, the specific situation of the Union’s outermost regions, such as their remoteness, insularity, small size, difficult topography and climate, as well as their rich biodiversity and the associated costs for protecting and restoring their ecosystems, should be taken into account.

10.  Member States shall, where possible, foster synergies with the national restoration plans of other Member States, in particular for ecosystems that span across borders or where Members States share a marine region or subregion within the meaning of Directive 2008/56/EC.

10a.  Member States may, where practical and appropriate, for the purpose of establishing and implementing national restoration plans, in relation to the restoration and re-establishment of marine ecosystems, use existing regional institutional cooperation structures.

10b.  Where Member States identify an issue which is likely to prevent the fulfilment of the obligations to restore and re-establish marine ecosystems and which requires measures for which they are not competent, they shall, individually or jointly, address, where concerned, Member States, the Commission or international organisations, with a description of the identified issues and possible measures, with a view to their consideration and possible adoption.

11.  Member States shall ensure that the preparation of the restoration plan is open, transparent, inclusive and effective and that the public especially landowners, land managers, maritime stakeholders, and other relevant actors, such as advice and extension services , in compliance with the principle of prior and informed consent, are given early and effective opportunities to participate in the preparation of the plan. Local and regional authorities, as well as relevant management authorities, shall be properly involved in the preparation of the plan. Consultations shall comply with the requirements set out in ▌Directive 2001/42/EC. [Am. 12]

Article 12

Content of the national restoration plans

1.  The national restoration plan shall cover the period up to 2050, with intermediate deadlines corresponding to the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10.

1a.  By way of derogation from paragraph 1, the national restoration plan to be submitted in accordance with Article 13 and Article 14(6) may, with regard to the period beyond June 2032, and until reviewed in accordance with Article 15(1), be limited to a strategic overview of:

(a)  the elements referred to in paragraph 2, and;

(b)  the contents referred to in paragraphs 3 and 3a.

The revised national restoration plan resulting from the review to be carried out before July 2032 in accordance with Article 15(1) may, with regard to the period beyond June 2042, and until revised before July 2042 in accordance with Article 15(1), be limited to a strategic overview of those elements and contents.

2.  Member States shall include the following elements in their national restoration plan, using the uniform format established in accordance with paragraph 4 of this Article:

(a)  the quantification of the areas to be restored to reach the restoration targets set out in Articles 4 to 10 based on the preparatory work undertaken in accordance with Article 11 and indicative maps of potential areas to be restored.

(b)  a description of the restoration measures planned, or put in place, for achieving the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10 and a specification regarding which of those restoration measures are planned, or put in place, within the Natura 2000 network established in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC;

(ba)  a dedicated section setting out the measures for achieving the obligations in Articles 4(4a) and 5(4a);

[Am. 41]

[Am. 42]

(e)  the inventory of barriers and the barriers identified for removal in accordance with Article 7(1), the plan for their removal in accordance with Article 7(2) and ▌the length of free-flowing rivers to be achieved by the removal of those barriers estimated from 2020 to 2030 and ▌2050, and any other measures to re-establish the natural functions of floodplains in accordance with Article 7(3);

(ea)  a justification, where applicable, for rewetting peatland on a lower proportion than as set out in Article 9(4), first subparagraph, points (a) to (c);

(eb)  an account of the indicators for forest ecosystems chosen according to Article 10(2a), and their suitability to demonstrate the enhancement of biodiversity in forest ecosystems within the Member State concerned;

(f)  the timing for putting in place the restoration measures in accordance with Articles 4 to 10;

(g)  a dedicated section setting out tailored restoration measures in their outermost regions, as applicable

(h)  the monitoring of the areas subject to restoration in accordance with Articles 4 and 5, the process for assessing the effectiveness of the restoration measures put in place in accordance with Articles 4 to 10 and for revising those measures where needed to ensure that the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10 are met;

(i)  an indication of the provisions for ensuring the continuous, long-term and sustained effects of the restoration measures referred to in Articles 4 to 10;

(j)  the estimated co-benefits for climate change mitigation and land degradation neutrality associated with the restoration measures over time, as well as wider socio-economic benefits of those measures;

(ja)   the estimated socio-economic impact of the implementation of the restoration measures; [Am. 69]

(k)  a dedicated section setting out how the national restoration plan considers:

(i)  the relevance of climate change scenarios for the planning of the type and location of restoration measures;

(ii)  the potential of restoration measures to minimise climate change impacts on nature, to prevent or mitigate the effects of natural disasters and to support adaptation;

(iii)  synergies with national adaptation strategies or plans and national disaster risk assessment reports;

(iv)  an overview of the interplay between the measures included in the national restoration plan and the national energy and climate plan;

(l)  the estimated financing needs for the implementation of the restoration measures, which shall include the description of the support to stakeholders affected by restoration measures or other new obligations arising from this Regulation, and the means of intended financing, public or private, including (co-) financing with Union funding instruments;

(m)  an indication of the subsidies which negatively affect the achievement of the targets and the fulfilment of the obligations set out in this Regulation;

(n)  a summary of the process for preparing and establishing the national restoration plan, including information on public participation and of how the needs of local communities and stakeholders have been considered;

(o)  a dedicated section indicating how observations from the Commission on the draft national restoration plan referred to in Article 14(4) have been taken into account in accordance with Article 14(5). If the Member State concerned does not address an observation from the Commission or a substantial part thereof, that Member State shall provide its reasons.

3.  The national restoration plans shall, where applicable, include the conservation and management measures that a Member State intends to adopt under the common fisheries policy, including conservation measures in joint recommendations that a Member State intends to initiate in accordance with the procedure set out in Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013, and any relevant information on those measures.

3a.  The national restoration plans shall include an overview of the interplay between the measures included in the national restoration plan and the national strategic plan under the common agricultural policy.

3b.  Where appropriate, the national restoration plans shall include an overview of considerations related to the diversity of situations in various regions as referred to in Article 11(9a).

4.  The Commission shall adopt implementing acts to establish a uniform format for the national restoration plans. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 21(2). The Commission shall be assisted by the European Environmental Agency (EEA) when drawing up the uniform format. By ...[date = the first day of the month following 3 months after the date of entry into force of this Regulation], the Commission shall submit the draft implementing acts to the committee referred to in Article 21(1).

Article 13

Submission of the draft national restoration plan

Member States shall submit a draft of the national restoration plan referred to in Articles 11 and 12 to the Commission by… [OP please insert the date = the first day of the month following 24 months after the date of entry into force of this Regulation].

Article 14

Assessment of the national restoration plans

1.  The Commission shall assess the draft national restoration plans within six months of the date of receipt. When carrying out that assessment, the Commission shall act in close cooperation with the Member State concerned.

2.  When considering the national restoration plan, the Commission shall evaluate its compliance with Article 12, as well as its adequacy for meeting the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10, as well as the Union’s overarching objectives referred to in Article 1 and the specific objectives referred to in Article 7(1) to restore at least 20 000 km of rivers into free-flowing rivers in the Union by 2035. The Commission shall also consider the socio-economic impact especially on rural areas and the impact of the national restoration plan in particular on agricultural and forestry production in order to ensure that it does not result in production moving outside the Union. [Am. 43]

3.  For the purpose of the assessment of the draft national restoration plans, the Commission shall be assisted by experts or the EEA.

4.  The Commission may address observations to Member States within six months of the date of receipt of the draft national restoration plan.

5.  Member States shall take ▌account of any observations from the Commission in its final national restoration plan.

6.  Member States shall finalise, publish and submit to the Commission the national restoration plan within six months from the date of receipt of observations from the Commission.

Article 14a

Implementation of measures to restore marine ecosystems

1.  Member States whose national restoration plans include conservation measures within the framework of the common fisheries policy that require the submission of joint recommendations shall consult the other Member States that have a direct management interest in accordance with in Articles 11 and 18 of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 and shall submit the recommendations jointly with the other Member States having a direct management interest:

(a)  no later than 12 months after final submission of their national restoration plan for measures relating to Article 5(3);

(b)  no later than 1 January 2028 for the restoration measures that are necessary to guarantee the targets set for 2030;

(c)  no later than 1 January 2036 for the restoration measures that are necessary to guarantee the targets set for 2040;

(d)  no later than 1 January 2046 for the restoration measures that are necessary to guarantee the targets set for 2050.

2.  The Commission shall monitor progress in relation to deadlines for the measures that require the submission of joint recommendations under the common fisheries policy.

3.  If Member States fail to submit the joint recommendations as set out in Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 in due time, the Commission shall adopt the measures no later than 12 months after the deadline for the submission of the joint recommendation set by paragraph 1 of this Article, using the tools provided for in accordance with Article 11(4) of Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 in the absence of a joint recommendation. [Am. 15]

Article 15

Review of the national restoration plans

1.  Member States shall review and revise their national restoration plan and include supplementary measures before July 2032 and before July 2042. At least once every 10 years thereafter, Member States shall review their national restoration plan and, if necessary, revise it and include supplementary measures. The reviews shall be carried out in accordance with Articles 11 and 12, taking into account progress made in the implementation of the plans, the best available scientific evidence as well as available knowledge of changes or expected changes in environmental conditions due to climate change. In the reviews to be carried out before July 2032 and before July 2042, Member States shall take into account knowledge on the condition of habitat types listed in Annexes I and II gained in accordance with the obligations in Articles 4(4a) and 5(4a). Member States shall publish and communicate to the Commission their revised national restoration plan.

2.  Where monitoring in accordance with Article 17 indicates that the measures set out in the national restoration plan will not be sufficient to comply with the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10, the Member State shall review the national restoration plan, and if necessary revise it and include supplementary measures. Member States shall publish and communicate to the Commission the revised national restoration plan.

3.  Based on the information referred to in Article 18(1) and (2) and the assessment referred to in Article 18(4) and (5), if the Commission considers that the progress made by a Member State is insufficient to comply with the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10, the Commission may, after consultation with the Member State concerned, request the Member State ▌to submit a revised draft national restoration plan with supplementary measures. That revised national restoration plan with supplementary measures shall be published and submitted within six months from the date of receipt of the request from the Commission. On request by the Member State concerned and where duly justified, the Commission may extend that deadline with an additional six months.

[Ams. 18cp and 44]

CHAPTER IV

MONITORING AND REPORTING

Article 17

Monitoring

1.  Member States shall monitor the following:

(a)  the condition and trend in condition of the habitat types and the quality and the trend in quality of the habitats of the species referred to in Articles 4 and 5 in the areas subject to restoration measures on the basis of the monitoring referred to in Article 12(2), point (h);

(b)  the area of urban green space and tree canopy cover within urban ecosystem areas determined in accordance with 11(2b), as referred to in Article 6;

(c)  the indicators of biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems listed in Annex IV;

(d)  the populations of the common farmland bird species listed in Annex V;

(e)  the three indicators of biodiversity in forest ecosystems listed in Article 10(2);

(ea)  three of the indicators of biodiversity in forest ecosystems listed in Article 10(2a), chosen by the Member State;

(f)  the abundance and diversity of pollinator species, according to the method established in accordance with Article 8(2);

(g)  the area and condition of the areas covered by the habitat types listed in Annexes I and II ▌;

(h)  the area and the quality of the habitat of the species referred to in Article 4(3), and Article 5(3) ▌.

2.  The monitoring in accordance with paragraph 1, point (a), shall start as soon as the restoration measures are put in place.

3.  The monitoring in accordance with paragraph 1, points (b), (c), (d), (e) and (ea) shall start on [OP please insert the date of entry into force of this Regulation].

4.  The monitoring in accordance with paragraph 1, point (f), of this Article shall start one year after the entry into force of the implementing act referred to in Article 8(2).

5.  The monitoring in accordance with paragraph 1, points (a) and, (b) shall be carried out at least every six years. The monitoring in accordance with paragraph 1, point (c), ▌concerning the stock of organic carbon in cropland mineral soils and the share of agricultural land with high-diversity landscape features, and (e) concerning the standing deadwood and the lying deadwood, and, where applicable, the share of forests with uneven-aged structure, the forest connectivity, the share of forest dominated by native tree species, the tree species diversity and the stock of organic carbon, shall be carried out at least every six years, or, where necessary to evaluate the achievement of increasing trends to 2030, with a shorter interval. The monitoring in accordance with that paragraph, point (c) concerning the grassland butterfly index, that paragraph, points (d) and (e) concerning the common forest bird index, and that paragraph, point (f) concerning pollinator species shall be carried out every year. The monitoring in accordance with that paragraph, points (g) and (h), shall be carried out at least every six years and shall be coordinated with the reporting cycle under Article 17 of Directive 92/43/EEC and the initial assessment under Article 17 of Directive 56/2008/EC.

6.  Member States shall ensure that the indicators for agricultural ecosystems referred to in Article 9(2), point (b), and the indicators for forest ecosystems referred to in Articles 10 (2), points (a), (b), and 10(2a), point (c), of this Regulation, are monitored in a manner consistent with the monitoring required under Regulations (EU) 2018/841 and (EU) 2018/1999.

7.  Member States shall make public the data generated by the monitoring carried out under this Article, in accordance with Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council(70) and in accordance with the monitoring frequencies set out in paragraph 5.

8.  Member State monitoring systems shall operate on the basis of electronic databases and geographic information systems, and shall maximise the access and use of data and services from remote sensing technologies, earth observation (Copernicus services), in-situ sensors and devices, or citizen science data, leveraging the opportunities offered by artificial intelligence, advanced data analysis and processing.

9.  The Commission may adopt implementing acts to:

(a)  specify the methods for monitoring the indicators for agricultural ecosystems listed in Annex IV;

(b)  specify the methods for monitoring the indicators for forest ecosystems listed in Annex VI;

(c)  establish a guiding framework for setting the satisfactory levels referred to in Articles 10(2) and 10(2a).

9a.  By 2028, the Commission shall adopt implementing acts to establish a guiding framework for setting the satisfactory levels referred to in Articles 6(2), 6(3), 8(1) and 9(2).

9b.   ▌Implementing acts pursuant to paragraphs 9 and 9a shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 21(2).

Article 18

Reporting

1.  Member States shall electronically report to the Commission the area subject to restoration measures referred to in Articles 4 to 10 and the barriers referred to in Article 7 that have been removed, at least every three years. The first report shall be submitted in June 2028.

2.  Member States shall electronically report the following data and information to the Commission, assisted by the EEA, at least every six years:

(a)  the progress in implementing the national restoration plan, in putting in place the restoration measures and progress in achieving the targets and obligations set out in Articles 4 to 10;

(b)  the results of the monitoring carried out in accordance with Article 17. The reporting of the results of the monitoring carried out in accordance with Article 17(1)(g) and (h) shall be submitted, and include geographically referenced maps;

(c)  the location and extent of the areas subject to restoration measures referred to in Article 4, Article 5, and Article 9(4), including a geographically referenced map of those areas;

(d)  the updated inventory of barriers referred to in Article 7(1);

(e)  information on the progress accomplished towards meeting financing needs, in accordance with Article 12(2)(l), including a review of actual investment against initial investment assumptions.

The first reports shall be submitted in June 2031, covering the period up to 2030.

3.  The Commission shall adopt implementing acts to establish the format, structure and detailed arrangements for the presentation of the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article. Those implementing acts shall be adopted in accordance with the examination procedure referred to in Article 21(2). The Commission shall be assisted by the EEA when drawing up the format, structure and detailed arrangements for the electronic reporting.

4.  The EEA shall every three years provide to the Commission ▌technical overview of the progress towards the achievement of the targets and obligations set out in this Regulation, on the basis of the data made available by Member States in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article and Article 17(7).

5.  The EEA shall provide to the Commission a Union-wide technical report on the progress towards the achievement of the targets and obligations set out in this Regulation on the basis of the data made available by Member States in accordance with paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of this Article. It may also use information reported under Article 17 of Directive 92/43/EEC, Article 15 of Directive 2000/60/EC, Article 12 of Directive 2009/147/EC, and Article 17 of Directive 2008/56/EC. The report shall be provided by June 2032 and subsequent reports shall be provided every six years thereafter.

6.  The Commission shall, as from [four years after the date of entry into force of this Regulation], report to the European Parliament and to the Council every six years on the implementation of this Regulation.

.

6a.  Within 12 months of the date of entry into force of this Regulation, the Commission shall, in consultation with Member States, submit a report to the European Parliament and the Council containing:

(a)  an overview of financial resources available at Union level for the purpose of implementing this Regulation;

(b)  an assessment of the funding needs to implement Articles 4 to 10 and to achieve the objective set forth in Article 1(2);

(c)  an analysis to identify any funding gaps in the implementation of the obligations set out in the Regulation, including for the financial compensation of potential losses by landowners and land managers directly due to the implementation of this Regulation;

(d)  where appropriate, proposals for adequate additional measures, including financial measures to address the gaps identified, such as the establishment of a dedicated instrument and without prejudging the prerogatives of co-legislators for the adoption of the multiannual financial framework post 2027. [Am. 11]

7.  Member States shall ensure that the information referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 is adequate and up-to-date and that it is available to the public in accordance with Directives 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directive 2007/2/EC and (EU) 2019/1024 of the Parliament and of the Council.

CHAPTER V

DELEGATED POWERS AND COMMITTEE PROCEDURE

Article 19

Amendment of Annexes

1.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex I in order to adapt the way the ▌habitat types are grouped to technical and scientific progress and to take into account the experience gained from the application of this Regulation.

2.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex II in order to adapt:

(a)   the list of habitat types to ensure consistency with updates to the European nature information system (EUNIS) habitat classification, and;

(b)  the way the ▌habitat types are grouped to technical and scientific progress and to take into account the experience gained from the application of this Regulation.

3.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex III in order to adapt the list of marine species referred to in Article 5 to technical and scientific progress.

4.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex IV, in order to adapt the description, unit and methodology of indicators for agricultural ecosystems to technical and scientific progress.

5.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex V in order to adapt the list of species used for the common farmland bird index in the Member States to technical and scientific progress.

6.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex VI in order to adapt the description, unit and methodology of indicators for forest ecosystems to technical and scientific progress.

7.  The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts in accordance with Article 20 to amend Annex VII in order to adapt the list of examples of restoration measures to technical and scientific progress and to take into account the experience gained from the application of this Regulation.

Article 20

Exercise of the delegation

1.  The power to adopt delegated acts is conferred on the Commission subject to the conditions laid down in this Article.

2.  The power to adopt delegated acts referred to in Article 19 shall be conferred on the Commission for a period of 5 years from [OP please insert the date of entry into force of this Regulation]. The Commission shall draw up a report in respect of the delegation of power not later than nine months before the end of the five-year period. The delegation of power shall be tacitly extended for periods of an identical duration unless the European Parliament or the Council opposes such extension not later than three months before the end of each period.

3.  The delegation of power referred to in Article 19 may be revoked at any time by the European Parliament or by the Council. A decision to revoke shall put an end to the delegation of the power specified in that decision. It shall take effect the day following the publication of the decision in the Official Journal of the European Union or at a later date specified therein. It shall not affect the validity of any delegated acts already in force.

4.  Before adopting a delegated act, the Commission shall consult experts designated by each Member State in accordance with the principles laid down in the Interinstitutional Agreement of 13 April 2016 on Better Law-Making(71).

5.  As soon as it adopts a delegated act, the Commission shall notify it simultaneously to the European Parliament and to the Council.

6.  A delegated act adopted pursuant to Article 19 shall enter into force only if no objection has been expressed either by the European Parliament or by the Council within a period of 2 months of notification of that act to the European Parliament and to the Council or if, before the expiry of that period, the European Parliament and the Council have both informed the Commission that they will not object. That period shall be extended by two months at the initiative of the European Parliament or of the Council.

Article 21

Committee procedure

1.  The Commission shall be assisted by a committee. That committee shall be a committee within the meaning of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011.

2.  Where reference is made to this paragraph, Article 5 of Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 shall apply.

CHAPTER VI

FINAL PROVISIONS

Article 21a

Amendment to Regulation (EU) 2022/869

Article 7(8), first subparagraph, of Regulation (EU) 2022/869 is replaced by the following:"

“With regard to the environmental impacts addressed in Article 6(4) of Directive 92/43/EEC, Article 4(7) of Directive 2000/60/EC and Articles 4(8) and (8a) and Article 5(8) and (8a) of [the proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on nature restoration], provided that all the conditions set out in those Directives are fulfilled, projects on the Union list shall be considered as being of public interest from an energy policy perspective, and may be considered as having an overriding public interest.”

"

Article 22

Review

1.  The Commission shall evaluate ▌ this Regulation by 31 December 2030 and every two years thereafter to assess the impact of this Regulation, in particular on the agricultural sector and the supply of safe and secure food, as well as the socio-economic impacts of this Regulation, especially in rural areas. [Am. 45]

2.  The Commission shall present a report on the main findings of the evaluation to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, and the Committee of Regions. Where the Commission finds it appropriate, the report shall be accompanied by a legislative proposal for amendment of relevant provisions of this Regulation, taking into account the need to establish additional restoration targets, including on updated targets for 2040 and 2050 based on common methods for assessing the condition of ecosystems not covered by Articles 4 and 5, the evaluation as referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, and the most recent scientific evidence. [Am. 17]

Article 22a

Postponement of targets under this Regulation in the event of exceptional socioeconomic consequences

1.  By … [1 year after the date of entry into force of this Regulation] and every year thereafter, the Commission shall publish a notice in the Official Journal of the European Union concerning whether one or more of the following conditions apply:

(a)  the permitting procedures in one or more Member States fall behind due to constraints from Union nature legislation regarding the following fields:

(i)  building and transforming of houses, in particular the social housing sector;

(ii)  rollout of renewable energy projects in relation to achieving the objectives laid down in Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 [European Climate Law];

(b)  the average food price has gone up by 10% over the period of 1 year;

(c)  the total production of food in the Union has reduced by 5% over a period of 1 year.

2.  Where one or more of the conditions referred to in paragraph 1 apply, the targets under this Regulation shall be postponed until all the conditions referred to in that paragraph no longer apply. [Am. 131]

Article 23

Entry into force

This Regulation shall enter into force on the twentieth day following that of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

It shall apply from the date where the Commission has provided robust and scientific data to the European Parliament and to the Council on the necessary conditions to guarantee long term food security, thereby respecting the need of arable land under conventional and ecological agriculture, the impact of nature restoration on food production, food availability and food prices. The Commission shall publish a notice in the Official Journal of the European Union indicating the date from which this Regulation applies. [Am. 135]

It shall apply from the date where the condition set out in Article 11(2a) is met. The Commission shall publish a notice in the Official Journal of the European Union indicating the date from which this Regulation applies. [Am. 136]

This Regulation shall be binding in its entirety and directly applicable in all Member States.

Done at Brussels,

For the European Parliament For the Council

The President The President

ANNEX I

TERRESTRIAL, COASTAL AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS – HABITAT TYPES AND GROUPS OF HABITAT TYPES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 4(1) AND 4(2)

The list below includes all terrestrial, coastal and freshwater habitat types listed in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC referred to in Article 4(1) and 4(2), as well as six groups of those habitat types, namely 1) Wetlands (coastal and inland), 2) Grasslands and other pastoral habitats, 3) River, lake, alluvial and riparian habitats, 4) Forests, 5) Steppe, heath and scrub habitats and 6) Rocky and dune habitats.

1.  GROUP 1: Wetlands (coastal & inland)

Habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Habitat type name as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Coastal and salt habitats

1130

Estuaries

1140

Mudflats and sandflats not covered by seawater at low tide

1150

Coastal lagoons

1310

Salicornia and other annuals colonizing mud and sand

1320

Spartina swards (Spartinion maritimae)

1330

Atlantic salt meadows (Glauco-Puccinellietalia maritimae)

1340

Inland salt meadows

1410

Mediterranean salt meadows (Juncetalia maritimi)

1420

Mediterranean and thermo-Atlantic halophilous scrubs (Sarcocornetea fruticosi)

1530

Pannonic salt steppes and salt marshes

1650

Boreal Baltic narrow inlets

Wet heaths and peat grassland

4010

Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix

4020

Temperate Atlantic wet heaths with Erica ciliaris and Erica tetralix

6460

Peat grasslands of Troodos

Mires, bogs and fens

7110

Active raised bogs

7120

Degraded raised bogs still capable of natural regeneration

7130

Blanket bogs

7140

Transition mires and quaking bogs

7150

Depressions on peat substrates of the Rhynchosporion

7160

Fennoscandian mineral-rich springs and springfens

7210

Calcareous fens with Cladium mariscus and species of the Caricion davallianae

7220

Petrifying springs with tufa formation (Cratoneurion)

7230

Alkaline fens

7240

Alpine pioneer formations of the Caricion bicoloris-atrofuscae

7310

Aapa mires

7320

Palsa mires

Wet forests

9080

Fennoscandian deciduous swamp woods

91D0

Bog woodland

2.  GROUP 2: Grasslands and other pastoral habitats

Habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Habitat type name as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Costal and dune habitats

1630

Boreal Baltic coastal meadows

21A0

Machairs

Heath and scrub habitats

4030

European dry heaths

4040

Dry Atlantic coastal heaths with Erica vagans

4090

Endemic oro-Mediterranean heaths with gorse

5130

Juniperus communis formations on heaths or calcareous grasslands

8240

Limestone pavements

Grasslands

6110

Rupicolous calcareous or basophilic grasslands of the Alysso-Sedion albi

6120

Xeric sand calcareous grasslands

6130

Calaminarian grasslands of the Violetalia calaminariae

6140

Siliceous Pyrenean Festuca eskia grasslands

6150

Siliceous alpine and boreal grasslands

6160

Oro-Iberian Festuca indigesta grasslands

6170

Alpine and subalpine calcareous grasslands

6180

Macaronesian mesophile grasslands

6190

Rupicolous pannonic grasslands (Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis)

6210

Semi-natural dry grasslands and scrubland facies on calcareous substrates (Festuco-Brometalia)

6220

Pseudo-steppe with grasses and annuals of the Thero-Brachypodietea

6230

Species-rich Nardus grasslands, on silicious substrates in mountain areas (and submountain areas in Continental Europe)

6240

Sub-Pannonic steppic grasslands

6250

Pannonic loess steppic grasslands

6260

Pannonic sand steppes

6270

Fennoscandian lowland species-rich dry to mesic grasslands

6280

Nordic alvar and precambrian calcareous flatrocks

62A0

Eastern sub-Mediterranean dry grasslands (Scorzoneratalia villosae)

62B0

Serpentinophilous grassland of Cyprus

62C0

Ponto-Sarmatic steppes

62D0

Oro-Moesian acidophilous grasslands

6410

Molinia meadows on calcareous, peaty or clayey-silt-laden soils (Molinion caeruleae)

6420

Mediterranean tall humid grasslands of the Molinio-Holoschoenion

6510

Lowland hay meadows (Alopecurus pratensis, Sanguisorba officinalis)

6520

Mountain hay meadows

Dehesas and wooded meadows

6310

Dehesas with evergreen Quercus spp.

6530

Fennoscandian wooded meadows

9070

Fennoscandian wooded pastures

3.  GROUP 3: River, lake, alluvial and riparian habitats

Habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Habitat type name as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Rivers and lakes

3110

Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals of sandy plains (Littorelletalia uniflorae)

3120

Oligotrophic waters containing very few minerals generally on sandy soils of the West Mediterranean, with Isoetes spp.

3130

Oligotrophic to mesotrophic standing waters with vegetation of the Littorelletea uniflorae and/or of the Isoëto-Nanojuncetea

3140

Hard oligo-mesotrophic waters with benthic vegetation of Chara spp.

3150

Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition — type vegetation

3160

Natural dystrophic lakes and ponds

3170

Mediterranean temporary ponds

3180

Turloughs

3190

Lakes of gypsum karst

31A0

Transylvanian hot-spring lotus beds

3210

Fennoscandian natural rivers

3220

Alpine rivers and the herbaceous vegetation along their banks

3230

Alpine rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Myricaria germanica

3240

Alpine rivers and their ligneous vegetation with Salix elaeagnos

3250

Constantly flowing Mediterranean rivers with Glaucium flavum

3260

Water courses of plain to montane levels with the Ranunculion fluitantis and Callitricho-Batrachion vegetation

3270

Rivers with muddy banks with Chenopodion rubri p.p. and Bidention p.p. vegetation

3280

Constantly flowing Mediterranean rivers with Paspalo-Agrostidion species and hanging curtains of Salix and Populus alba

3290

Intermittently flowing Mediterranean rivers of the Paspalo-Agrostidion

32A0

Tufa cascades of karstic rivers of the Dinaric Alps

Alluvial meadows

6430

Hydrophilous tall herb fringe communities of plains and of the montane to alpine levels

6440

Alluvial meadows of river valleys of the Cnidion dubii

6450

Northern boreal alluvial meadows

6540

Sub-Mediterranean grasslands of the Molinio-Hordeion secalini

Alluvial/Riparian forests

9160

Sub-Atlantic and medio-European oak or oak-hornbeam forests of the Carpinion betuli

91E0

Alluvial forests with Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae)

91F0

Riparian mixed forests of Quercus robur, Ulmus laevis and Ulmus minor, Fraxinus excelsior or Fraxinus angustifolia, along the great rivers (Ulmenion minoris)

92A0

Salix alba and Populus alba galleries

92B0

Riparian formations on intermittent Mediterranean water courses with Rhododendron ponticum, Salix and others

92C0

Platanus orientalis and Liquidambar orientalis woods (Platanion orientalis)

92D0

Southern riparian galleries and thickets (Nerio-Tamaricetea and Securinegion tinctoriae)

9370

Palm groves of Phoenix

4.  GROUP 4: Forests

Habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Habitat type name as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Boreal forests

9010

Western Taïga

9020

Fennoscandian hemiboreal natural old broad-leaved deciduous forests (Quercus, Tilia, Acer, Fraxinus or Ulmus) rich in epiphytes

9030

Natural forests of primary succession stages of landupheaval coast

9040

Nordic subalpine/subarctic forests with Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii

9050

Fennoscandian herb-rich forests with Picea abies

9060

Coniferous forests on, or connected to, glaciofluvial eskers

Temperate forests

9110

Luzulo-Fagetum beech forests

9120

Atlantic acidophilous beech forests with Ilex and sometimes also Taxus in the shrublayer (Quercion robori-petraeae or Ilici-Fagenion)

9130

Asperulo-Fagetum beech forests

9140

Medio-European subalpine beech woods with Acer and Rumex arifolius

9150

Medio-European limestone beech forests of the Cephalanthero-Fagion

9170

Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests

9180

Tilio-Acerion forests of slopes, screes and ravines

9190

Old acidophilous oak woods with Quercus robur on sandy plains

91A0

Old sessile oak woods with Ilex and Blechnum in the British Isles

91B0

Thermophilous Fraxinus angustifolia woods

91G0

Pannonic woods with Quercus petraea and Carpinus betulus

91H0

Pannonian woods with Quercus pubescens

91I0

Euro-Siberian steppic woods with Quercus spp.

91J0

Taxus baccata woods of the British Isles

91K0

Illyrian Fagus sylvatica forests (Aremonio-Fagion)

91L0

Illyrian oak-hornbeam forests (Erythronio-Carpinion)

91M0

Pannonian-Balkanic turkey oak –sessile oak forests

91P0

Holy Cross fir forest (Abietetum polonicum)

91Q0

Western Carpathian calcicolous Pinus sylvestris forests

91R0

Dinaric dolomite Scots pine forests (Genisto januensis-Pinetum)

91S0

Western Pontic beech forests

91T0

Central European lichen Scots pine forests

91U0

Sarmatic steppe pine forest

91V0

Dacian Beech forests (Symphyto-Fagion)

91W0

Moesian beech forests

91X0

Dobrogean beech forests

91Y0

Dacian oak & hornbeam forests

91Z0

Moesian silver lime woods

91AA

Eastern white oak woods

91BA

Moesian silver fir forests

91CA

Rhodopide and Balkan Range Scots pine forests

Mediterranean and Macaronesian forests

9210

Apeninne beech forests with Taxus and Ilex

9220

Apennine beech forests with Abies alba and beech forests with Abies nebrodensis

9230

Galicio-Portuguese oak woods with Quercus robur and Quercus pyrenaica

9240

Quercus faginea and Quercus canariensis Iberian woods

9250

Quercus trojana woods

9260

Castanea sativa woods

9270

Hellenic beech forests with Abies borisii-regis

9280

Quercus frainetto woods

9290

Cupressus forests (Acero-Cupression)

9310

Aegean Quercus brachyphylla woods

9320

Olea and Ceratonia forests

9330

Quercus suber forests

9340

Quercus ilex and Quercus rotundifolia forests

9350

Quercus macrolepis forests

9360

Macaronesian laurel forests (Laurus, Ocotea)

9380

Forests of Ilex aquifolium

9390

Scrub and low forest vegetation with Quercus alnifolia

93A0

Woodlands with Quercus infectoria (Anagyro foetidae-Quercetum infectoriae)

Mountainous coniferous forests

9410

Acidophilous Picea forests of the montane to alpine levels (Vaccinio-Piceetea)

9420

Alpine Larix decidua and/or Pinus cembra forests

9430

Subalpine and montane Pinus uncinata forests

9510

Southern Apennine Abies alba forests

9520

Abies pinsapo forests

9530

(Sub-) Mediterranean pine forests with endemic black pines

9540

Mediterranean pine forests with endemic Mesogean pines

9550

Canarian endemic pine forests

9560

Endemic forests with Juniperus spp.

9570

Tetraclinis articulata forests

9580

Mediterranean Taxus baccata woods

9590

Cedrus brevifolia forests (Cedrosetum brevifoliae)

95A0

High oro-Mediterranean pine forests

5.  GROUP 5: Steppe, heath and scrub habitats

Habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Habitat type name as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Salt and gypsum steppes

1430

Halo-nitrophilous scrubs (Pegano-Salsoletea)

1510

Mediterranean salt steppes (Limonietalia)

1520

Iberian gypsum vegetation (Gypsophiletalia)

Temperate heath and scrub

4050

Endemic macaronesian heaths

4060

Alpine and Boreal heaths

4070

Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron hirsutum (Mugo-Rhododendretum hirsuti)

4080

Sub-Arctic Salix spp. scrub

40A0

Subcontinental peri-Pannonic scrub

40B0

Rhodope Potentilla fruticosa thickets

40C0

Ponto-Sarmatic deciduous thickets

Sclerophyllous scrub (matorral)

5110

Stable xerothermophilous formations with Buxus sempervirens on rock slopes (Berberidion p.p.)

5120

Mountain Cytisus purgans formations

5140

Cistus palhinhae formations on maritime wet heaths

5210

Arborescent matorral with Juniperus spp.

5220

Arborescent matorral with Zyziphus

5230

Arborescent matorral with Laurus nobilis

5310

Laurus nobilis thickets

5320

Low formations of Euphorbia close to cliffs

5330

Thermo-Mediterranean and pre-desert scrub

5410

West Mediterranean clifftop phryganas (Astragalo-Plantaginetum subulatae)

5420

Sarcopoterium spinosum phryganas

5430

Endemic phryganas of the Euphorbio-Verbascion

6.  GROUP 6: Rocky and dune habitats

Habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Habitat type name as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Sea cliffs, beaches, and islets

1210

Annual vegetation of drift lines

1220

Perennial vegetation of stony banks

1230

Vegetated sea cliffs of the Atlantic and Baltic Coasts

1240

Vegetated sea cliffs of the Mediterranean coasts with endemic Limonium spp.

1250

Vegetated sea cliffs with endemic flora of the Macaronesian coasts

1610

Baltic esker islands with sandy, rocky and shingle beach vegetation and sublittoral vegetation

1620

Boreal Baltic islets and small islands

1640

Boreal Baltic sandy beaches with perennial vegetation

Coastal and inland dunes

2110

Embryonic shifting dunes

2120

Shifting dunes along the shoreline with Ammophila arenaria (‘white dunes’)

2130

Fixed coastal dunes with herbaceous vegetation (“grey dunes’)

2140

Decalcified fixed dunes with Empetrum nigrum

2150

Atlantic decalcified fixed dunes (Calluno-Ulicetea)

2160

Dunes with Hippophaë rhamnoides

2170

Dunes with Salix repens ssp. argentea (Salicion arenariae)

2180

Wooded dunes of the Atlantic, Continental and Boreal region

2190

Humid dune slacks

2210

Crucianellion maritimae fixed beach dunes

2220

Dunes with Euphorbia terracina

2230

Malcolmietalia dune grasslands

2240

Brachypodietalia dune grasslands with annuals

2250

Coastal dunes with Juniperus spp.

2260

Cisto-Lavenduletalia dune sclerophyllous scrubs

2270

Wooded dunes with Pinus pinea and/or Pinus pinaster

2310

Dry sand heaths with Calluna and Genista

2320

Dry sand heaths with Calluna and Empetrum nigrum

2330

Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands

2340

Pannonic inland dunes

91N0

Pannonic inland sand dune thicket (Junipero-Populetum albae)

Rocky habitats

8110

Siliceous scree of the montane to snow levels (Androsacetalia alpinae and Galeopsietalia ladani)

8120

Calcareous and calcshist screes of the montane to alpine levels (Thlaspietea rotundifolii)

8130

Western Mediterranean and thermophilous scree

8140

Eastern Mediterranean screes

8150

Medio-European upland siliceous screes

8160

Medio-European calcareous scree of hill and montane levels

8210

Calcareous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation

8220

Siliceous rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation

8230

Siliceous rock with pioneer vegetation of the Sedo-Scleranthion or of the Sedo albi-Veronicion dillenii

8310

Caves not open to the public

8320

Fields of lava and natural excavations

8340

Permanent glaciers

ANNEX II

MARINE ECOSYSTEMS – HABITAT TYPES AND GROUPS OF HABITAT TYPES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 5(1) AND 5(2)

The list below includes the marine habitat types referred to in Article 5(1) and 5(2), as well as seven groups of those habitat types, namely 1) Seagrass beds, 2) Macroalgal forests, 3) Shellfish beds, 4) Maerl beds, 5) Sponge, coral and coralligenous beds, 6) Vents and seeps and 7) Soft sediments (above 1000 meters of depth). The relation with the habitat types listed in Annex I of Directive 92/43/EEC is also presented.

The classification of marine habitat types used, differentiated by marine biogeographical regions, is made according to the European nature information system (EUNIS), as revised for the marine habitats typology in 2022 by the European Environment Agency (EEA). The information on the related habitats listed in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC is based on the crosswalk published by the EEA in 2021(72).

1.  Group 1: Seagrass beds

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related habitat type code as referred to in Annex I of Council Directive 92/43/EEC

Atlantic

MA522

Seagrass beds on Atlantic littoral sand

1140; 1160

MA623

Seagrass beds on Atlantic littoral mud

1140; 1160

MB522

Seagrass beds on Atlantic infralittoral sand

1110; 1150; 1160

Baltic Sea

 

MA332

Baltic hydrolittoral coarse sediment characterised by submerged vegetation

1130; 1160; 1610; 1620

MA432

Baltic hydrolittoral mixed sediment characterised by submerged vegetation

1130; 1140; 1160; 1610

MA532

Baltic hydrolittoral sand characterised by submerged rooted plants

1130; 1140; 1160; 1610

MA632

Baltic hydrolittoral mud dominated by submerged rooted plants

1130; 1140; 1160; 1650

MB332

Baltic infralittoral coarse sediment characterised by submerged rooted plants

1110; 1160

MB432

Baltic infralittoral mixed sediment characterised by submerged rooted plants

1110; 1160; 1650

MB532

Baltic infralittoral sand characterised by submerged rooted plants

1110; 1130; 1150; 1160

MB632

Baltic infralittoral mud sediment characterised by submerged rooted plants

1130; 1150; 1160; 1650

Black Sea

 

MB546

Seagrass and rhizomatous algal meadows in Black Sea freshwater influenced infralittoral muddy sands

1110; 1130; 1160

MB547

Black Sea seagrass meadows on moderately exposed upper infralittoral clean sands

1110; 1160

MB548

Black Sea seagrass meadows on lower infralittoral sands

1110; 1160

Mediterranean Sea

 

MB252

Biocenosis of Posidonia oceanica

1120

MB2521

Ecomorphosis of striped Posidonia oceanica meadows

1120; 1130; 1160

MB2522

Ecomorphosis of "barrier-reef" Posidonia oceanica meadows

1120; 1130; 1160

MB2523

Facies of dead "mattes" of Posidonia oceanica without much epiflora

1120; 1130; 1160

MB2524

Association with Caulerpa prolifera on Posidonia beds

1120; 1130; 1160

MB5521

Association with Cymodocea nodosa on well sorted fine sands

1110; 1130; 1160

MB5534

Association with Cymodocea nodosa on superficial muddy sands in sheltered waters

1110; 1130; 1160

MB5535

Association with Zostera noltei on superficial muddy sands in sheltered waters

1110; 1130; 1160

MB5541

Association with Ruppia cirrhosa and/or Ruppia maritima on sand

1110; 1130; 1160

MB5544

Association with Zostera noltei in euryhaline and eurythermal environment on sand

1110; 1130; 1160

MB5545

Association with Zostera marina in euryhaline and eurythermal environment

1110; 1130; 1160

2.  Group 2: Macroalgal forests

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related Annex I (Habitats Directive) codes

Atlantic

MA123

Seaweed communities on full salinity Atlantic littoral rock

1160; 1170; 1130

MA125

Fucoids on variable salinity Atlantic littoral rock

1170; 1130

MB121

Kelp and seaweed communities on Atlantic infralittoral rock

1170; 1160

MB123

Kelp and seaweed communities on sediment-affected or disturbed Atlantic infralittoral rock

1170; 1160

MB124

Kelp communities on variable salinity Atlantic infralittoral rock

1170; 1130; 1160

MB321

Kelp and seaweed communities on Atlantic infralittoral coarse sediment

1160

MB521

Kelp and seaweed communities on Atlantic infralittoral sand

1160

MB621

Vegetated communities on Atlantic infralittoral mud

1160

Baltic Sea

 

MA131

Baltic hydrolittoral rock and boulders characterised by perennial algae

1160; 1170; 1130; 1610; 1620

MB131

Perennial algae on Baltic infralittoral rock and boulders

1170; 1160

MB232

Baltic infralittoral bottoms characterised by shell gravel

1160; 1110

MB333

Baltic infralittoral coarse sediment characterised by perennial algae

1110; 1160

MB433

Baltic infralittoral mixed sediment characterised by perennial algae

1110; 1130; 1160; 1170

Black Sea

 

MB144

Mytilid-dominated Black Sea exposed upper infralittoral rock with fucales

1170; 1160

MB149

Mytilid-dominated Black Sea moderately exposed upper infralittoral rock with fucales

1170; 1160

MB14A

Fucales and other algae on Black Sea sheltered upper infralittoral rock, well illuminated

1170; 1160

Mediterranean Sea

 

MA1548

Association with Fucus virsoides

1160; 1170

MB1512

Association with Cystoseira tamariscifolia and Saccorhiza polyschides

1170; 1160

MB1513

Association with Cystoseira amentacea (var. amentacea, var. stricta, var. spicata)

1170; 1160

MB151F

Association with Cystoseira brachycarpa

1170; 1160

MB151G

Association with Cystoseira crinita

1170; 1160

MB151H

Association with Cystoseira crinitophylla

1170; 1160

MB151J

Association with Cystoseira sauvageauana

1170; 1160

MB151K

Association with Cystoseira spinosa

1170; 1160

MB151L

Association with Sargassum vulgare

1170; 1160

MB151M

Association with Dictyopteris polypodioides

1170; 1160

MB151W

Association with Cystoseira compressa

1170; 1160

MB1524

Association with Cystoseira barbata

1170; 1160

MC1511

Association with Cystoseira zosteroides

1170; 1160

MC1512

Association with Cystoseira usneoides

1170; 1160

MC1513

Association with Cystoseira dubia

1170; 1160

MC1514

Association with Cystoseira corniculata

1170; 1160

MC1515

Association with Sargassum spp.

1170; 1160

MC1518

Association with Laminaria ochroleuca

1170; 1160

MC3517

Association with Laminaria rodriguezii on detritic beds

1160

3.  Group 3: Shellfish beds

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related Annex I (Habitats Directive) codes

Atlantic

MA122

Mytilus edulis and/or barnacle communities on wave-exposed Atlantic littoral rock

1160; 1170

MA124

Mussel and/or barnacle communities with seaweeds on Atlantic littoral rock

1160; 1170

MA227

Bivalve reefs in the Atlantic littoral zone

1170; 1140

MB222

Bivalve reefs in the Atlantic infralittoral zone

1170; 1130; 1160

MC223

Bivalve reefs in the Atlantic circalittoral zone

1170

Baltic Sea

 

MB231

Baltic infralittoral bottoms dominated by epibenthic bivalves

1170; 1160

MC231

Baltic circalittoral bottoms dominated by epibenthic bivalves

1170; 1160; 1110

MD231

Baltic offshore circalittoral biogenic bottoms characterised by epibenthic bivalves

1170

MD232

Baltic offshore circalittoral shell gravel bottoms characterised by bivalves

1170

MD431

Baltic offshore circalittoral mixed bottoms characterised by macroscopic epibenthic biotic structures

 

MD531

Baltic offshore circalittoral sand characterised by macroscopic epibenthic biotic structures

 

MD631

Baltic offshore circalittoral mud characterised by epibenthic bivalves

 

Black Sea

 

MB141

Invertebrate-dominated Black Sea lower infralittoral rock

1170

MB143

Mytilid-dominated Black Sea exposed upper infralittoral rock with foliose algae (no Fucales)

1170; 1160

MB148

Mytilid-dominated Black Sea moderately exposed upper infralittoral rock with foliose algae (other than Fucales)

1170; 1160

MB242

Mussel beds in the Black Sea infralittoral zone

1170; 1130; 1160

MB243

Oyster reefs on Black Sea lower infralittoral rock

1170

MB642

Black Sea infralittoral terrigenous muds

1160

MC141

Invertebrate-dominated Black Sea circalittoral rock

1170

MC241

Mussel beds on Black Sea circalittoral terrigenous muds

1170

MC645

Black Sea lower circalittoral mud

 

Mediterranean Sea

 

MA1544

Facies with Mytilus galloprovincialis in waters enriched in organic matter

1160; 1170

MB1514

Facies with Mytilus galloprovincialis

1170; 1160

 

Mediterranean infralittoral oyster beds

 

 

Mediterranean circalittoral oyster beds

 

4.  Group 4: Maerl beds

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related Annex I (Habitats Directive) codes

Atlantic

MB322

Maerl beds on Atlantic infralittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1160

MB421

Maerl beds on Atlantic infralittoral mixed sediment

1110; 1160

MB622

Maerl beds on Atlantic infralittoral muddy sediment

1110; 1160

Mediterranean Sea

 

MB3511

Association with rhodolithes in coarse sands and fine gravels mixed by waves

1110; 1160

MB3521

Association with rhodolithes in coarse sands and fine gravels under the influence of bottom currents

1110; 1160

MB3522

Association with maerl (= Association with Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum) on Mediterranean coarse sands and gravel

1110; 1160

MC3521

Association with rhodolithes on coastal detritic bottoms

1110

MC3523

Association with maerl (Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatholithon calcareum) on coastal dendritic bottoms

1110

5.  Group 5: Sponge, coral and coralligenous beds

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related Annex I (Habitats Directive) codes

Atlantic

MC121

Faunal turf communities on Atlantic circalittoral rock

1170

MC124

Faunal communities on variable salinity Atlantic circalittoral rock

1170; 1130

MC126

Communities of Atlantic circalittoral caves and overhangs

8330; 1170

MC222

Cold water coral reefs in the Atlantic circalittoral zone

1170

MD121

Sponge communities on Atlantic offshore circalittoral rock

1170

MD221

Cold water coral reefs in the Atlantic offshore circalittoral zone

1170

ME122

Sponge communities on Atlantic upper bathyal rock

1170

ME123

Mixed cold water coral communities on Atlantic upper bathyal rock

1170

ME221

Atlantic upper bathyal cold water coral reef

1170

ME322

Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment

 

ME324

Sponge aggregation on Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment

 

ME422

Sponge aggregation on Atlantic upper bathyal mixed sediment

 

ME623

Sponge aggregation on Atlantic upper bathyal mud

 

ME624

Erect coral field on Atlantic upper bathyal mud

 

MF121

Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic lower bathyal rock

1170

MF221

Atlantic lower bathyal cold water coral reef

1170

MF321

Mixed cold water coral community on Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment

 

MF622

Sponge aggregation on Atlantic lower bathyal mud

 

MF623

Erect coral field on Atlantic lower bathyal mud

 

Baltic Sea

 

MB138

Baltic infralittoral rock and boulders characterized by epibenthic sponges

1170; 1160

MB43A

Baltic infralittoral mixed sediment characterized by epibenthic sponges (Porifera)

1160; 1170

MC133

Baltic circalittoral rock and boulders characterized by epibenthic cnidarians

1170; 1160

MC136

Baltic circalittoral rock and boulders characterized by epibenthic sponges

1170; 1160

MC433

Baltic circalittoral mixed sediment characterized by epibenthic cnidarians

1160; 1170

MC436

Baltic circalittoral mixed sediment characterized by epibenthic sponges

1160

Black Sea

 

MD24

Black Sea offshore circalittoral biogenic habitats

1170

ME14

Black Sea upper bathyal rock

1170

ME24

Black Sea upper bathyal biogenic habitat

1170

MF14

Black Sea lower bathyal rock

1170

Mediterranean Sea

 

MB151E

Facies with Cladocora caespitosa

1170; 1160

MB151Q

Facies with Astroides calycularis

1170; 1160

MB151α

Facies and association of coralligenous biocenosis (in enclave)

1170; 1160

MC1519

Facies with Eunicella cavolini

1170; 1160

MC151A

Facies with Eunicella singularis

1170; 1160

MC151B

Facies with Paramuricea clavata

1170; 1160

MC151E

Facies with Leptogorgia sarmentosa

1170; 1160

MC151F

Facies with Anthipatella subpinnata and sparse red algae

1170; 1160

MC151G

Facies with massive sponges and sparse red algae

1170; 1160

MC1522

Facies with Corallium rubrum

8330; 1170

MC1523

Facies with Leptopsammia pruvoti

8330; 1170

MC251

Coralligenous platforms

1170

MC6514

Facies of sticky muds with Alcyonium palmatum and Parastichopus regalis on circalittoral mud

1160

MD151

Biocenosis of Mediterranean shelf-edge rock

1170

MD25

Mediterranean offshore circalittoral biogenic habitats

1170

MD6512

Facies of sticky muds with Alcyonium palmatum and Parastichopus regalis on lower circalittoral mud

 

ME1511

Mediterranean upper bathyal Lophelia pertusa reefs

1170

ME1512

Mediterranean upper bathyal Madrepora oculata reefs

1170

ME1513

Mediterranean upper bathyal Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa reefs

1170

ME6514

Mediterranean upper bathyal facies of with Pheronema carpenteri

 

MF1511

Mediterranean lower bathyal Lophelia pertusa reefs

1170

MF1512

Mediterranean lower bathyal Madrepora oculata reefs

1170

MF1513

Mediterranean lower bathyal Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa reefs

1170

MF6511

Mediterranean lower bathyal facies of sandy muds with Thenea muricata

 

MF6513

Mediterranean lower bathyal facies of compact muds with Isidella elongata

 

6.  Group 6: Vents and seeps

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related Annex I (Habitats Directive) codes

Atlantic

MB128

Vents and seeps in Atlantic infralittoral rock

1170; 1160; 1180

MB627

Vents and seeps in Atlantic infralittoral mud

1130; 1160

MC127

Vents and seeps in Atlantic circalittoral rock

1170; 1180

MC622

Vents and seeps in Atlantic circalittoral mud

1160

MD122

Vents and seeps on Atlantic offshore circalittoral rock

1170

MD622

Vents and seeps in Atlantic offshore circalittoral mud

 

7.  Group 7: Soft sediments (above 1000 meters of depth)

EUNIS code

EUNIS habitat type name

Related Annex I (Habitats Directive) codes

Atlantic

MA32

Atlantic littoral coarse sediment

1130; 1160

MA42

Atlantic littoral mixed sediment

1130; 1140; 1160

MA52

Atlantic littoral sand

1130; 1140; 1160

MA62

Atlantic littoral mud

1130; 1140; 1160

MB32

Atlantic infralittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1130; 1160

MB42

Atlantic infralittoral mixed sediment

1110; 1130; 1150; 1160

MB52

Atlantic infralittoral sand

1110; 1130; 1150; 1160

MB62

Atlantic infralittoral mud

1110; 1130; 1160

MC32

Atlantic circalittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1160

MC42

Atlantic circalittoral mixed sediment

1110; 1160

MC52

Atlantic circalittoral sand

1110; 1160

MC62

Atlantic circalittoral mud

1160

MD32

Atlantic offshore circalittoral coarse sediment

 

MD42

Atlantic offshore circalittoral mixed sediment

 

MD52

Atlantic offshore circalittoral sand

 

MD62

Atlantic offshore circalittoral mud

 

ME32

Atlantic upper bathyal coarse sediment

 

ME42

Atlantic upper bathyal mixed sediment

 

ME52

Atlantic upper bathyal sand

 

ME62

Atlantic upper bathyal mud

 

MF32

Atlantic lower bathyal coarse sediment

 

MF42

Atlantic lower bathyal mixed sediment

 

MF52

Atlantic lower bathyal sand

 

MF62

Atlantic lower bathyal mud

 

Baltic Sea

 

MA33

Baltic hydrolittoral coarse sediment

1130; 1160; 1610; 1620

MA43

Baltic hydrolittoral mixed sediment

1130; 1140; 1160; 1610

MA53

Baltic hydrolittoral sand

1130; 1140; 1160; 1610

MA63

Baltic hydrolittoral mud

1130; 1140; 1160; 1650

MB33

Baltic infralittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1150; 1160

MB43

Baltic infralittoral mixed sediment

1110; 1130; 1150; 1160; 1170; 1650

MB53

Baltic infralittoral sand

1110; 1130; 1150; 1160

MB63

Baltic infralittoral mud

1130; 1150; 1160; 1650

MC33

Baltic circalittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1160

MC43

Baltic circalittoral mixed sediment

1160; 1170

MC53

Baltic circalittoral sand

1110; 1160

MC63

Baltic circalittoral mud

1160; 1650

MD33

Baltic offshore circalittoral coarse sediment

 

MD43

Baltic offshore circalittoral mixed sediment

 

MD53

Baltic offshore circalittoral sand

 

MD63

Baltic offshore circalittoral mud

 

Black Sea

 

MA34

Black Sea littoral coarse sediment

1160

MA44

Black Sea littoral mixed sediment

1130; 1140; 1160

MA54

Black Sea littoral sand

1130; 1140; 1160

MA64

Black Sea littoral mud

1130; 1140; 1160

MB34

Black Sea infralittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1160

MB44

Black Sea infralittoral mixed sediment

1110; 1170

MB54

Black Sea infralittoral sand

1110; 1130; 1160

MB64

Black Sea infralittoral mud

1130; 1160

MC34

Black Sea circalittoral coarse sediment

1160

MC44

Black Sea circalittoral mixed sediment

 

MC54

Black Sea circalittoral sand

1160

MC64

Black Sea circalittoral mud

1130; 1160

MD34

Black Sea offshore circalittoral coarse sediment

 

MD44

Black Sea offshore circalittoral mixed sediment

 

MD54

Black Sea offshore circalittoral sand

 

MD64

Black Sea offshore circalittoral mud

 

Mediterranean Sea

 

MA35

Mediterranean littoral coarse sediment

1160; 1130

MA45

Mediterranean littoral mixed sediment

1140; 1160

MA55

Mediterranean littoral sand

1130; 1140; 1160

MA65

Mediterranean littoral mud

1130; 1140; 1150; 1160

MB35

Mediterranean infralittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1160

MB45

Mediterranean infralittoral mixed sediment

 

MB55

Mediterranean infralittoral sand

1110; 1130; 1150; 1160

MB65

Mediterranean infralittoral mud

1130; 1150

MC35

Mediterranean circalittoral coarse sediment

1110; 1160

MC45

Mediterranean circalittoral mixed sediment

 

MC55

Mediterranean circalittoral sand

1110; 1160

MC65

Mediterranean circalittoral mud

1130; 1160

MD35

Mediterranean offshore circalittoral coarse sediment

 

MD45

Mediterranean offshore circalittoral mixed sediment

 

MD55

Mediterranean offshore circalittoral sand

 

MD65

Mediterranean offshore circalittoral mud

 

ME35

Mediterranean upper bathyal coarse sediment

 

ME45

Mediterranean upper bathyal mixed sediment

 

ME55

Mediterranean upper bathyal sand

 

ME65

Mediterranean upper bathyal mud

 

MF35

Mediterranean lower bathyal coarse sediment

 

MF45

Mediterranean lower bathyal mixed sediment

 

MF55

Mediterranean lower bathyal sand

 

MF65

Mediterranean lower bathyal mud

 

ANNEX III

MARINE SPECIES REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 5(3)

(2)  dwarf sawfish (Pristis clavata);

(3)  smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata);

(4)  largetooth sawfish (Pristis pristis);

(6)  basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias);

(7)  smooth lantern shark (Etmopterus pusillus);

(8)  reef manta ray (Manta alfredi);

(9)  giant manta ray (Manta birostris);

(10)  devil fish (Mobula mobular);

(11)  lesser Guinean devil ray (Mobula rochebrunei);

(12)  spinetail mobula (Mobula japanica);

(13)  smoothtail mobula (Mobula thurstoni);

(14)  longhorned mobula (Mobula eregoodootenkee);

(16)  Chilean devil ray (Mobula tarapacana);

(17)  shortfin devil ray (Mobula kuhlii);

(18)  lesser devil ray (Mobula hypostoma);

(19)  Norwegian skate (Raja (Dipturus) nidarosiensis);

(20)  white skate (Raja alba);

(21)  guitarfishes (Rhinobatidae);

(22)  angel shark (Squatina squatina);

(23)  salmon (Salmo salar);

(24)  sea trout (Salmo trutta);

(25)  houting (Coregonus oxyrhynchus).

[Am. 47]

ANNEX V

COMMON FARMLAND BIRD INDEX AT NATIONAL LEVEL

Description

The Farmland Bird Index (FBI) summarises population trends of common and widespread birds of farmland and is intended as a proxy to assess the biodiversity status of agricultural ecosystems in Europe. The national FBI is a  composite, multispecies index that measures the rate of change in the relative abundance of farmland bird species across selected survey sites at national level. The index is based on specially selected species that are dependent on farmland habitats for feeding and or nesting. National common farmland bird indices are based on species sets that are relevant to each Member State.  The index is calculated with reference to a base year when the index value is typically set at 100. Trend values express the overall population change in the population size of the constituent farmland birds over a period of years.

Methodology: Brlík et al. (2021): Long-term and large-scale multispecies dataset tracking population changes of common European breeding birds. Sci Data 8, 21. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00804-2

“Member States with historically more depleted populations of farmland birds” means Member States where half or more species contributing to the national common farmland bird index have a negative long-term population trend. In Member States, where information on long-term population trends is not available for some species, information on the European status of species is used.

These Member States are:

Czechia

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Hungary

Italy

Luxembourg

Netherlands

Spain

“Member States with historically less depleted populations of farmland birds” means Member States where less than half of species contributing to the national common farmland bird index have a negative long-term population trend. In Member States, where information on long-term population trends is not available for some species, information on the European status of species is used.

These Member States are:

Austria

Belgium

Bulgaria

Croatia

Cyprus

Greece

Ireland

Latvia

Lithuania

Malta

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Slovakia

Slovenia

Sweden

List of species used for the common farmland bird index in the Member States

Austria

Acrocephalus palustris

Alauda arvensis

Anthus spinoletta

Anthus trivialis

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Jynx torquilla

Lanius collurio

Lullula arborea

Miliaria calandra

Oenanthe oenanthe

Passer montanus

Perdix perdix

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Serinus citrinella

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Turdus pilaris

Vanellus vanellus

Belgium - Flanders

Belgium - Wallonia

Alauda arvensis

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Anthus pratensis

Emberiza citrinella

Carduelis cannabina

Falco tinnunculus

Corvus frugilegus

Haematopus ostralegus

Emberiza citrinella

Hippolais icterina

Falco tinnunculus

Hirundo rustica

Hirundo rustica

Limosa limosa

Lanius collurio

Linaria cannabina

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla alba

Motacilla flava

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Numenius arquata

Perdix perdix

Passer montanus

Saxicola torquatus

Perdix perdix

Streptopelia turtur

Phoenicurus ochruros

Sturnus vulgaris

Saxicola torquatus

Sylvia communis

Sylvia communis

Vanellus vanellus

Vanellus vanellus

 

Bulgaria

Alauda arvensis

Carduelis carduelis

Carduelis cannabina

Coturnix coturnix

Corvus frugilegus

Emberiza hortulana

Emberiza melanocephala

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla flava

Perdix perdix

Passer montanus

Sylvia communis

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Upupa epops

Croatia

Alauda arvensis

Anthus campestris

Anthus trivialis

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza cirlus

Emberiza citrinella

Emberiza melanocephala

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Jynx torquilla

Lanius collurio

Lanius senator

Lullula arborea

Luscinia megarhynchos

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla flava

Oenanthe hispanica

Oriolus oriolus

Passer montanus

Pica pica

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Streptopelia turtur

Sylvia communis

Upupa epops

Vanellus vanellus

Cyprus

Alectoris chukar

Athene noctua

Carduelis carduelis

Cisticola juncidis

Clamator glandarius

Columba palumbus

Coracias garrulus

Corvus corone cornix

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza calandra

Emberiza melanocephala

Falco tinnunculus

Francolinus francolinus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Chloris chloris

Iduna pallida

Linaria cannabina

Oenanthe cypriaca

Parus major

Passer hispaniolensis

Pica pica

Streptopelia turtur

Sylvia conspicillata

Sylvia melanocephala

Czechia

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Carduelis cannabina

Ciconia ciconia

Corvus frugilegus

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Perdix perdix

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Vanellus vanellus

Denmark

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Corvus corone

Corvus frugilegus

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Gallinago gallinago

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla alba

Motacilla flava

Oenanthe oenanthe

Passer montanus

Perdix perdix

Saxicola rubetra

Sylvia communis

Sylvia curruca

Turdus pilaris

Vanellus vanellus

Estonia

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Corvus frugilegus

Emberiza citrinella

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Linaria cannabina

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Saxicola rubetra

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Vanellus vanellus

Finland

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Corvus monedula

Crex crex

Delichon urbica

Emberiza hortulana

Hirundo rustica

Numenius arquata

Passer montanus

Saxicola rubertra

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Turdus pilaris

Vanellus vanellus

France

Alauda arvensis

Alectoris rufa

Anthus campestris

Anthus pratensis

Buteo buteo

Carduelis cannabina

Corvus frugilegus

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza cirlus

Emberiza citrinella

Emberiza hortulana

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Lanius collurio

Lullula arborea

Melanocorypha calandra

Motacilla flava

Oenanthe oenanthe

Perdix perdix

Saxicola torquatus

Saxicola rubetra

Sylvia communis

Upupa epops

Vanellus vanellus

Germany

Alauda arvensis

Athene noctua

Emberiza citrinella

Lanius collurio

Limosa limosa

Lullula arborea

Miliaria calandra

Milvus milvus

Saxicola rubetra

Vanellus vanellus

Greece

Alauda arvensis

Apus apus

Athene noctua

Calandrella brachydactyla

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Carduelis chloris

Ciconia ciconia

Corvus corone

Corvus monedula

Delichon urbicum

Emberiza cirlus

Emberiza hortulana

Emberiza melanocephala

Falco naumanni

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo daurica

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Lanius minor

Lanius senator

Lullula arborea

Luscinia megarhynchos

Melanocorypha calandra

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla flava

Oenanthe hispanica

Oenanthe oenanthe

Passer domesticus

Passer hispaniolensis

Passer montanus

Pica pica

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Streptopelia decaocto

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia melanocephala

Upupa epops

Hungary

Alauda arvensis

Anthus campestris

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza calandra

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Lanius collurio

Lanius minor

Locustella naevia

Merops apiaster

Motacilla flava

Perdix perdix

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Sylvia nisoria

Vanellus vanellus

Ireland

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Columba oenas

Columba palumbus

Corvus cornix

Corvus frugilegus

Corvus monedula

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Fringilla coelebs

Hirundo rustica

Chloris chloris

Motacilla alba

Passer domesticus

Phasianus colchicus

Pica pica

Saxicola torquatus

Sturnus vulgaris

Italy

Alauda arvensis

Anthus campestris

Calandrella brachydactyla

Carduelis carduelis

Carduelis chloris

Corvus cornix

Emberiza calandra

Emberiza hortulana

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Jynx torquilla

Lanius collurio

Luscinia megarhynchos

Melanocorypha calandra

Motacilla alba

Motacilla flava

Oriolus oriolus

Passer domesticus italiae

Passer hispaniolensis

Passer montanus

Pica pica

Saxicola torquatus

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus unicolor

Sturnus vulgaris

Upupa epops

Latvia

Acrocephalus palustris

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Carduelis carduelis

Carpodacus erythrinus

Ciconia ciconia

Crex crex

Emberiza citrinella

Lanius collurio

Locustella naevia

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Saxicola rubetra

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Vanellus vanellus

Lithuania

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Carduelis carduelis

Ciconia ciconia

Crex crex

Emberiza citrinella

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Saxicola rubetra

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Vanellus vanellus

Luxembourg

Alauda arvensis

Carduelis cannabina

Emberiza citrinella

Lanius collurio

Passer montanus

Saxicola torquatus

Sylvia communis

Malta

Calandrella brachydactyla

Linaria cannabina

Cettia cetti

Cisticola juncidis

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza calandra

Lanius senator

Monticola solitarius

Passer hispaniolensis

Passer montanus

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia decaocto

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia conspicillata

Sylvia melanocephala

Netherlands

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Athene noctua

Calidris pugnax

Carduelis carduelis

Corvus frugilegus

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Gallinago gallinago

Haematopus ostralegus

Hippolais icterina

Hirundo rustica

Limosa limosa

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla fl ava

Numenius arquata

Passer montanus

Perdix perdix

Saxicola torquatus

Spatula clypeata

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Tringa totanus

Turdus viscivorus

Vanellus vanellus

Poland

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Carduelis cannabina

Ciconia ciconia

Emberiza citrinella

Emberiza hortulana

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Limosa limosa

Miliaria calandra

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Saxicola torquatus

Saxicola rubetra

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Upupa epops

Vanellus vanellus

Portugal

Athene noctua

Bubulcus ibis

Carduelis carduelis

Chloris chloris

Ciconia ciconia

Cisticola juncidis

Coturnix coturnix

Delichon urbicum

Emberiza cirlus

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Lanius meridionalis

Linaria cannabina

Merops apiaster

Miliaria calandra

Milvus migrans

Passer domesticus

Pica pica

Saxicola torquatus

Serinus serinus

Sturnus unicolor

Upupa epops

Romania

Alauda arvensis

Anthus campestris

Calandrella brachydactyla

Ciconia ciconia

Corvus frugilegus

Emberiza calandra

Emberiza citrinella

Emberiza hortulana

Emberiza melanocephala

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Lanius minor

Linaria cannabina

Melanocorypha calandra

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Perdix perdix

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Upupa epops

Vanellus vanellus

Slovakia

Alauda arvensis

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Emberiza calandra

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Hirundo rustica

Chloris chloris

Lanius collurio

Locustella naevia

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Sylvia nisoria

Vanellus vanellus

Slovenia

Acrocephalus palustris

Alauda arvensis

Anthus trivialis

Carduelis cannabina

Carduelis carduelis

Columba oenas

Columba palumbus

Emberiza calandra

Emberiza cirlus

Emberiza citrinella

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Jynx torquilla

Lanius collurio

Lullula arborea

Luscinia megarhynchos

Motacilla flava

Passer montanus

Phoenicurus phoenicurus

Picus viridis

Saxicola rubetra

Saxicola torquatus

Serinus serinus

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Upupa epops

Vanellus vanellus

Spain

Alauda arvensis

Alectoris rufa

Athene noctua

Calandrella brachydactyla

Carduelis carduelis

Cisticola juncidis

Corvus monedula

Coturnix coturnix

Emberiza calandra

Falco tinnunculus

Galerida cristata

Hirundo rustica

Linaria cannabina

Melanocorypha calandra

Merops apiaster

Oenanthe hispanica

Passer domesticus

Passer montanus

Pica pica

Pterocles orientalis

Streptopelia turtur

Sturnus unicolor

Tetrax tetrax

Upupa epops

Sweden

Alauda arvensis

Anthus pratensis

Carduelis cannabina

Corvus frugilegus

Emberiza citrinella

Emberiza hortulana

Falco tinnunculus

Hirundo rustica

Lanius collurio

Motacilla fl ava

Passer montanus

Saxicola rubetra

Sturnus vulgaris

Sylvia communis

Vanellus vanellus

ANNEX VI

LIST OF BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS FOR FOREST ECOSYSTEMS REFERRED TO IN ARTICLE 10(2) AND 10(2a)

Indicator

Description, unit, and methodology for determining and monitoring the indicator

Standing deadwood

Description: This indicator shows the amount of non-living standing woody biomass in forest and other wooded land.

Unit: m3/ha.

Methodology: as developed and used by FOREST EUROPE, State of Europe’s Forests 2020, FOREST EUROPE 2020, and in the description of national forest inventories in Tomppo E. et al., National Forest Inventories, Pathways for Common Reporting, Springer, 2010, and taking into account the methodology as set out in Annex V of Regulation 2018/1999 in accordance with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Lying deadwood

Description: This indicator shows the amount of non-living woody biomass lying on the ground in forest and other wooded land.

Unit: m3/ha.

Methodology: as developed and used by FOREST EUROPE, State of Europe’s Forests 2020, FOREST EUROPE 2020, and in the description of national forest inventories in Tomppo E. et al., National Forest Inventories, Pathways for Common Reporting, Springer, 2010, and taking into account the methodology as set out in Annex V of Regulation 2018/1999 in accordance with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Share of forests with uneven-aged structure

Description: This indicator refers to the share of forests available for wood supply (FAWS) with uneven-aged structure in forests as compared to even-aged structure in forests.

Unit: Percent of FAWS with uneven-aged structure.

Methodology: as developed and used by FOREST EUROPE, State of Europe’s Forests 2020, FOREST EUROPE 2020, and in the description of national forest inventories in Tomppo E. et al., National Forest Inventories, Pathways for Common Reporting, Springer, 2010.

Forest connectivity

Description: Forest connectivity is the degree of compactness of forest covered areas. It is defined in the range of 0 to 100.

Unit: Index.

Methodology: as developed by FAO, Vogt P., et al., FAO – State of the World’s Forests: Forest Fragmentation, JRC Technical Report, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2019.

Common forest birds index

Description: The forest bird indicator describes trends in the abundance of common forest birds across their European ranges over time. It is a composite index created from observational data of bird species characteristic for forest habitats in Europe. The index is based on a specific list of species in each Member State.

Unit: Index.

Methodology: Brlík et al. Long-term and large-scale multispecies dataset tracking population changes of common European breeding birds, Sci Data 8, 21. 2021.

Stock of organic carbon

Description: This indicator describes the stock of organic carbon in the litter and in the mineral soil at a depth of 0 to 30 cm in forest ecosystems.

Unit: tonnes organic carbon/ha.

Methodology: as set out in Annex V of Regulation 2018/1999 in accordance to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, and as supported by the Land Use and Coverage Area frame Survey (LUCAS) Soil, Jones A. et al., LUCAS Soil 2022, JRC technical report, Publications Office of the European Union, 2021.

Share of forest dominated by native tree species

Description: Share of forest and other wooded land dominated by (>50% coverage) native tree species

Unit: %

Methodology: as developed and used by FOREST EUROPE, State of Europe’s Forests 2020, FOREST EUROPE 2020, and in the description of national forest inventories in Tomppo E. et al., National Forest Inventories, Pathways for Common Reporting, Springer, 2010.

Tree species diversity

Description: This indicator describes the mean number of tree species occuring in forest areas

Unit: Index

Methodology: Based on FOREST EUROPE, State of Europe’s Forests 2020, FOREST EUROPE 2020, and in the description of national forest inventories in Tomppo E. et al., National Forest Inventories, Pathways for Common Reporting, Springer, 2010.

ANNEX VII

LIST OF EXAMPLES OF RESTORATION MEASURES REFERRED TO IN

ARTICLE 11(8)

(1)  Restore wetlands, by rewetting drained peatlands, removing peatland drainage structures or de-poldering and discontinuing peat excavation.

(2)  Improve hydrological conditions by increasing quantity, quality and dynamics of surface waters and groundwater levels for natural and semi-natural ecosystems.

(3)  Remove unwanted scrub encroachment or non-native plantations on grasslands, wetlands, forests and sparsely vegetated land.

(4)  Apply paludiculture.

(5)  Re-establish the meandering of rivers and reconnect artificially cut meanders or oxbow lakes.

(6)  Remove longitudinal and lateral barriers (such as dikes and dams), give more space to river dynamics and restore free-flowing river stretches.

(7)  Re-naturalise river beds and lakes and lowland watercourses by e.g. removing artificial bed fixation, optimising substrate composition, improving or developing habitat cover.

(8)  Restore natural sedimentation processes.

(9)  Establish riparian buffers, e.g. riparian forests, buffer strips, meadows or pastures.

(10)  Increase ecological features in forests, such as large, old and dying trees (habitat trees) and amounts of lying and standing deadwood.

(11)  Work towards a diversified forest structure in terms of e.g. species composition and age, enable natural regeneration and succession of tree species.

(11a)  Assist migration of provenances and species where it may be needed due to climate change.

(12)  Enhance forest diversity by restoring mosaics of non-forest habitats such as open patches of grassland or heathland, ponds or rocky areas.

(13)  Make use of “close-to-nature” or “continuous cover” forestry approaches; introduce native tree species.

(14)  Enhance the development of old-growth native forests and mature stands (e.g. by abandonment of harvesting or by active mangagement which favours development of autoregulatory functions and appropriate resilience).

(15)  Introduce high-diversity landscape features in arable land and intensively used grassland, such as buffer strips, field margins with native flowers, hedgerows, trees, small forests, terrace walls, ponds, habitat corridors and stepping stones, etc.

(16)  Increase the agricultural area subject to agro-ecological management approaches such as organic agriculture or agro-forestry, multicropping and crop rotation, integrated pest and nutrient management.

(17)  Reduce grazing intensity or mowing regimes on grasslands where relevant and re-establish extensive grazing with domestic livestock and extensive mowing regimes where they were abandoned.

(18)  Stop or reduce the use of chemical pesticides as well as chemical and animal manure fertilizers.

(19)  Stop ploughing grassland and introducing seeds of productive grasses.

(20)  Remove plantations on former dynamic inland dune systems to re-enable natural wind dynamics in favour of open habitats.

(21)  Improve connectivity across habitats to enable the development of populations of species, and to allow for sufficient individual or genetic exchange as well as for species’ migration and adaptation to climate change.

(22)  Allow ecosystems to develop their own natural dynamics for example by abandoning harvesting and promoting naturalness, wilderness.

(23)  Remove and control invasive alien species, and prevent or minimize new introductions.

(24)  Minimise negative impacts of fishing activities on the marine ecosystem, for example by using gear with less impact on seabed.

(25)  Restore important fish spawning and nursery areas.

(26)  Provide structures or substrates to encourage the return of marine life, for example coral/oyster/boulder reefs.

(27)  Restore seagrass meadows and kelp forests by actively stabilising the sea bottom, reducing and, where possible, eliminating pressures or by active propagation and planting.

(27a)  Restore or improve the state of characteristic native spicies population vital to the ecology of marine habitats by conducting passive or active restoration measures, e.g. introducing juveniles.

(28)  Reduce various forms of marine pollution, such as nutrient loading, noise pollution and plastic waste.

(29)  Increase urban green spaces with ecological features, such as parks, trees and woodland patches ▌, green roofs, wildflower grasslands, gardens, city horticulture, tree-lined streets, urban meadows and hedges, ponds and watercourses, taking into consideration inter alia species diversity, native species, local conditions and resilience to climate change.

(30)  Stop, reduce or remediate pollution from pharmaceuticals, hazardous chemicals, urban and industrial wastewater, and other waste including litter and plastics as well as light in all ecosystems.

(31)  Convert brownfield sites, former industrial areas and quarries into natural sites.

(1)OJ C , , p. .
(2)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, The European Green Deal, 11.12.2019 (COM (2019) 640 final).
(3)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, Bringing nature back into our lives, 20.5.2020, COM(2020) 380 final.
(4)Council Decision 93/626/EEC of 25 October 1993 concerning the conclusion of the Convention on Biological Diversity (OJ L 309, 13.12.1993, p. 1).
(5)https://www.cbd.int/decision/cop/?id=12268.
(6) Kunming-Montreal Global biodiversity framework. Draft decision submitted by the President, CBD/COP/DEC/15/4 19 December 2022.
(7)United Nations Sustainable Development – 17 Goals to Transform Our World.
(8)Resolution 73/284 of 1 March 2019 on the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021–2030).
(9)European Parliament resolution of 9 June 2021 on the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back into our lives (2020/2273(INI)).
(10)Council Conclusions on Biodiversity - the need for urgent action, 12210/20.
(11)Commission Staff Working Document Criteria and guidance for protected areas designations (SWD(2022) 23 final).
(12)Available at Circabc (europa.eu) [Reference to be completed]
(13)Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council and the European Economic and Social Committee “The state of nature in the European Union Report on the status and trends in 2013 - 2018 of species and habitat types protected by the Birds and Habitats Directives”, COM/2020/635 final.
(14) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Trade Policy Review - An Open, Sustainable and Assertive Trade Policy - Brussels, 18.2.2021 COM(2021)0066 final.
(15)https://seea.un.org/sites/seea.un.org/files/documents/EA/seea_ea_white_cover_final.pdf.
(16)Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC): Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)] https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/
(17)Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability | Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (ipcc.ch).
(18)IPBES (2019): Global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. E. S. Brondizio, J. Settele, S. Díaz, and H. T. Ngo (editors). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 1148 pages. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3831673.
(19)Regulation (EU) 2021/1119 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 June 2021 establishing the framework for achieving climate neutrality and amending Regulations (EC) No 401/2009 and (EU) 2018/1999 (‘European Climate Law’) (OJ L 243, 9.7.2021, p. 1).
(20)Nature-based solutions are solutions that are inspired and supported by nature, that are cost-effective, and that simultaneously provide environmental, social and economic benefits and help build resilience. Such solutions bring more, and more diverse, nature and natural features and processes into cities, landscapes and seascapes, through locally adapted, resource-efficient and systemic interventions. Nature-based solutions must therefore benefit biodiversity and support the delivery of a range of ecosystem services.
(21)Communication from the European Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Forging a climate-resilient Europe - the new EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change (COM/2021/82 final).
(22)Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Regulations (EU) 2018/841 as regards the scope, simplifying the compliance rules, setting out the targets of the Member States for 2030 and committing to the collective achievement of climate neutrality by 2035 in the land use, forestry and agriculture sector, and (EU) 2018/1999 as regards improvement in monitoring, reporting, tracking of progress and review (COM/2021/554 final).
(23)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European, Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Safeguarding food security and reinforcing the resilience of food systems, COM (2022) 133 final.
(24)Conference on the Future of Europe – Report on the Final Outcome, May 2022, Proposal 2 (1, 4, 5) p. 44, Proposal 6 (6) p. 48.
(25)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. EU Soil Strategy for 2030 Reaping the benefits of healthy soils for people, food, nature and climate (COM/2021/699 final).
(26)Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7).
(27)Directive 2009/147/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds (OJ L 20, 26.1.2010, p. 7).
(28)DG Environment. 2017, “Reporting under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive: Explanatory notes and guidelines for the period 2013-2018” and DG Environment 2013, “Interpretation manual of European Union habitats Eur 28”.
(29)Regulation (EU) No 1380/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2013 on the Common Fisheries Policy, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1954/2003 and (EC) No 1224/2009 and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 2371/2002 and (EC) No 639/2004 and Council Decision 2004/585/EC (OJ L 354, 28.12.2013, p. 22).
(30)The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment in the North-East Atlantic of 1992 – the OSPAR Convention (OSPAR), the Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment in the Baltic Sea Area of 1992 – the Helsinki Convention (HELCOM), the Convention for the Protection of Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean of 1995 – the Barcelona Convention (UNEP-MAP) and the Convention for the Protection of the Black Sea of 1992 – the Bucharest Convention.
(31)Vysna, V., Maes, J., Petersen, J.E., La Notte, A., Vallecillo, S., Aizpurua, N., Ivits, E., Teller, A., Accounting for ecosystems and their services in the European Union (INCA). Final report from phase II of the INCA project aiming to develop a pilot for an integrated system of ecosystem accounts for the EU. Statistical report. Publications office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2021.
(32)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. EU Pollinators Initiative (COM/2018/395 final).
(33)Report from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Progress in the implementation of the EU Pollinators Initiative (COM/2021/261 final).
(34)European Parliament resolution of 9 June 2021 on the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030: Bringing nature back into our lives (2020/2273(INI), available at https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-9-2021-0277_EN.pdf.
(35)Council Conclusions of 17 December 2020 on European Court of Auditors' Special Report No 15/2020 entitled "Protection of wild pollinators in the EU: Commission initiatives have not borne fruit(14168/20).
(36)Special Report 15/2020, https://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR20_15/SR_Pollinators_EN.pdf
(37)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Revision of the EU Pollinators Initiative. A new deal for pollinators (COM/2023/35 final).
(38)European Redlist - Environment - European Commission (europa.eu)
(39)Regulation (EU) 2021/2115 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 2 December 2021 establishing rules on support for strategic plans to be drawn up by Member States under the common agricultural policy (CAP Strategic Plans) and financed by the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) and by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and repealing Regulations (EU) No 1305/2013 and (EU) No 1307/2013, OJ L 435, 6.12.2021, p. 1,
(40)Where a farmer commits to devote at least 7% of his/her arable land to non-productive areas or features, including land lying fallow, under an enhanced eco-scheme or if there is a minimum share of at least 7 % of arable land at farm level that includes also catch crops or nitrogen fixing crops, cultivated without the use of plant protection products.
(41)Rewetting is the process of changing a drained soil into a wet soil. Chapter 1 of IPCC 2014, 2013 and Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands, Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Tanabe, K., Srivastava, N., Baasansuren, J., Fukuda, M. and Troxler, T.G. (eds).
(42)The term ‘organic soil’ is defined in IPCC 2006, 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds).
(43)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. New EU Forest Strategy for 2030 (COM/2021/572 final).
(44)Regulation (EU) 2019/1241 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on the conservation of fisheries resources and the protection of marine ecosystems through technical measures, amending Council Regulations (EC) No 1967/2006, (EC) No 1224/2009 and Regulations (EU) No 1380/2013, (EU) 2016/1139, (EU) 2018/973, (EU) 2019/472 and (EU) 2019/1022 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and repealing Council Regulations (EC) No 894/97, (EC) No 850/98, (EC) No 2549/2000, (EC) No 254/2002, (EC) No 812/2004 and (EC) No 2187/2005 (OJ L 198, 25.7.2019, p. 105).
(45)Directive (EU) 2018/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 82).
(46)Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 1).
(47)Directive 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 1998 relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels and amending Council Directive 93/12/EEC (OJ L 350, 28.12.1998, p. 58).▌
(48)Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (OJ L 206, 22.7.1992, p. 7).
(49)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on European Missions COM(2021) 609 final).
(50)Directive 2003/4/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information and repealing Council Directive 90/313/EEC (OJ L 41, 14.2.2003, p. 26).
(51)Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) (OJ L 108, 25.4.2007, p. 1).
(52)Directive (EU) 2019/1024 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on open data and the re-use of public sector information (OJ L 172, 26.6.2019, p. 56).
(53)Regulation (EU) 2021/240 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 February 2021 establishing a Technical Support Instrument (OJ L 57, 18.2.2021, p. 1).
(54)Regulation (EU) 2021/783 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2021 establishing a Programme for the Environment and Climate Action (LIFE), and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1293/2013 (OJ L 172, 17.5.2021, p. 53).
(55)Regulation (EU) 2021/1139 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2021 establishing the European Maritime, Fisheries and Aquaculture Fund and amending Regulation (EU) 2017/1004 (OJ L 247, 13.7.2021, p. 1).
(56)Regulation (EU) 2020/2220 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 December 2020 laying down certain transitional provisions for support from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and from the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) in the years 2021 and 2022 and amending Regulations (EU) No 1305/2013, (EU) No 1306/2013 and (EU) No 1307/2013 as regards resources and application in the years 2021 and 2022 and Regulation (EU) No 1308/2013 as regards resources and the distribution of such support in respect of the years 2021 and 2022 (OJ L 437, 28.12.2020, p. 1).
(57)Regulation (EU) 2021/1058 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 June 2021 on the European Regional Development Fund and on the Cohesion Fund (OJ L 231, 30.6.2021, p. 60).
(58)Regulation (EU) 2021/1056 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 June 2021 establishing the Just Transition Fund (OJ L 231 30.06.2021, p. 1).
(59)Regulation (EU) 2021/695 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 April 2021 establishing Horizon Europe – the Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, laying down its rules for participation and dissemination, and repealing Regulations (EU) No 1290/2013 and (EU) No 1291/2013 (OJ L 170, 12.5.2021, p. 1).
(60)Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2020/2093 of 17 December 2020 laying down the multiannual financial framework for the years 2021 to 2027 (OJ L 433I , 22.12.2020, p. 11).
(61)Regulation (EU) 2021/241 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2021 establishing the Recovery and Resilience Facility (OJ L 57, 18.2.2021, p.  17).
(62)Regulation (EU) 2021/523 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 March 2021 establishing the InvestEU Programme and amending Regulation (EU) 2015/1017 (OJ L 107, 26.3.2021, p. 30).
(63)Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament And the Council Sustainable Carbon Cycles (COM(2021) 800 final).
(64)Regulation (EU) 2021/2115 of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU) of 2 December 2021 establishing rules on support for strategic plans to be drawn up by Member States under the common agricultural policy (CAP Strategic Plans) and financed by the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) and by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and repealing Regulations (EU) No 1305/2013 and (EU) No 1307/2013.
(65)[Reference to be added when the 8th EAP has been published].
(66)Regulation (EU) No 182/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 2011 laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for control by the Member States of the Commission’s exercise of implementing powers (OJ L 55, 28.2.2011, p. 13).
(67)Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 May 2003 on the establishment of a common classification of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) (OJ L 154, 21.6.2003, p. 1).
(68)Regulation (EU) 2021/696 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 April 2021 establishing the Union Space Programme and the European Union Agency for the Space Programme and repealing Regulations (EU) No 912/2010, (EU) No 1285/2013 and (EU) No 377/2014 and Decision No 541/2014/EU (OJ L 170, 12.5.2021, p. 69).
(69)Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directive (EU) 2018/2001 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources, Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, COM(2022)222 final.
(70)Directive 2007/2/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 March 2007 establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE) (OJ L 108, 25.4.2007, p. 1).
(71)Interinstitutional Agreement between the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union and the European Commission on Better Law-Making (OJ L 123, 12.5.2016, p. 1).
(72)EUNIS marine habitat classification 2022. European Environment Agency.

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