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Procedure : 2022/2170(INI)
Document stages in plenary
Document selected : A9-0342/2023

Texts tabled :

A9-0342/2023

Debates :

PV 21/11/2023 - 22
CRE 21/11/2023 - 22

Votes :

PV 23/11/2023 - 5.11
Explanations of votes

Texts adopted :

P9_TA(2023)0438

Texts adopted
PDF 219kWORD 78k
Thursday, 23 November 2023 - Strasbourg
Job creation – the just transition and impact investments
P9_TA(2023)0438A9-0342/2023

European Parliament resolution of 23 November 2023 on job creation – the just transition and impact investments (2022/2170(INI))

The European Parliament,

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 16 June 2022 on ensuring a fair transition towards climate neutrality(1),

–  having regard to the Agreement adopted at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP) in Paris on 12 December 2015 (the Paris Agreement),

–  having regard to the International Labour Organization ‘Guidelines for a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and societies for all’ adopted in 2015,

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 11 December 2019 on the European Green Deal (COM(2019)0640),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 14 July 2021 entitled ‘Fit for 55’: delivering the EU’s 2030 Climate Target on the way to climate neutrality’ (COM(2021)0550),

–  having regard to the declaration entitled ‘Supporting the Conditions for a Just Transition Internationally’ of 4 November 2021, adopted at COP26 in Glasgow,

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 23 February 2022 on decent work worldwide for a global just transition and a sustainable recovery (COM(2022)0066),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 4 March 2021 on the European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan (COM(2021)0102),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2021/1056 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 June 2021 establishing the Just Transition Fund(2),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2021/241 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 February 2021 establishing the Recovery and Resilience Facility(3),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2021/1057 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 June 2021 establishing the European Social Fund Plus (ESF+) and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1296/2013(4),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2021/691 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 April 2021 on the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund for Displaced Workers (EGF) and repealing Regulation (EU) No 1309/2013(5),

–  having regard to the European Modernisation Fund as set out in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/1001 of 9 July 2020 laying down detailed rules for the application of Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the operation of the Modernisation Fund supporting investments to modernise the energy systems and to improve energy efficiency of certain Member States(6),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 17 September 2020 entitled ‘An EU-wide assessment of National Energy and Climate Plans – Driving forward the green transition and promoting economic recovery through integrated energy and climate planning’ (COM(2020)0564),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 17 January 2023 entitled ‘Harnessing talent in Europe’s regions’ (COM(2023)0032),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 1 July 2020 entitled ‘European Skills Agenda for sustainable competitiveness, social fairness and resilience’ (COM(2020)0274),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 5 May 2021 entitled ‘Updating the 2020 New Industrial Strategy: Building a stronger Single Market for Europe’s recovery’ (COM(2021)0350),

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 8 November 2019 on access to social protection for workers and the self-employed(7),

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 24 November 2020 on vocational education and training (VET) for sustainable competitiveness, social fairness and resilience(8),

–  having regard to Regulation (EU) 2023/955 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 May 2023 establishing a Social Climate Fund and amending Regulation (EU) 2021/1060(9),

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 16 June 2022 on a European approach to micro-credentials for lifelong learning and employability(10),

–  having regard to the opinion of the European Committee of the Regions of 25 May 2023 entitled ‘Zero long-term unemployment: the local and regional perspective’,

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 16 June 2022 on individual learning accounts(11),

–  having regard to its resolution of 15 January 2013 with recommendations to the Commission on information and consultation of workers, anticipation and management of restructuring(12),

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 12 June 2023 on strengthening social dialogue in the European Union,

–  having regard to its resolution of 6 July 2022 on the EU action plan for the social economy(13),

–  having regard to its resolution of 1 June 2023 on strengthening social dialogue(14),

–  having regard to its resolution of 17 December 2020 on a strong social Europe for Just Transitions(15),

–  having regard to its resolution of 15 March 2023 on the European Semester for economic policy coordination: Employment and social priorities for 2023(16),

–  having regard to the proposal of 13 June 2023 for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the transparency and integrity of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) rating activities (COM(2023)0314),

–  having regard to the Council Recommendation of 9 October 2023 on developing social economy framework conditions,

–  having regard to the proposal of 16 March 2023 for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on establishing a framework of measures for strengthening Europe’s net-zero technology products manufacturing ecosystem (Net Zero Industry Act) (COM(2023)0161),

–  having regard to Directive 2014/24/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 February 2014 on public procurement and repealing Directive 2004/18/EC(17) (‘Public Procurement Directive’),

–  having regard to Decision (EU) 2023/936 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 May 2023 on a European Year of Skills(18),

–  having regard to the Commission communication of 16 March 2023 entitled ‘Long-term competitiveness of the EU: looking beyond 2030’ (COM(2023)0168),

–  having regard to Rule 54 of its Rules of Procedure,

–  having regard to the opinion of the Committee on Regional Development,

–  having regard to the report of the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (A9-0342/2023),

A.  whereas the green transition, if well managed and sufficiently supported, will greatly expand economic activities related to renewable energy, energy efficiency and the circular economy, while transforming other economic activities and their potential for sustainable growth; whereas the green transition will add up to 2 million new jobs in the EU in the short to medium term, and up to 10 million more as the transition advances(19); whereas for every investment of EUR 1 million in energy renovation of buildings, an average of 18 jobs are expected to be created in the EU(20); whereas according to studies, the circular economy could contribute to the creation of around 700 000 jobs in the EU alone by 2030(21); whereas reuse is a labour-intensive circular activity; whereas social enterprises active in reuse are estimated to create approximately 70 jobs per 1 000 tonnes of materials collected(22);

B.  whereas urgent action is needed to mitigate the impact of climate change on the environment, the economy, employment, well-being, and health in the workplace across all sectors; whereas climate change risks increasing job insecurity, precarious work and health hazards for workers, particularly in the agriculture, food processing, and hospitality sectors(23); whereas the importance of addressing the social impacts of climate change is acknowledged, but specific policy measures are yet to be implemented;

C.  whereas it is important to leverage technologies such as AI, but without overstating their contribution and creating unrealistic expectations;

D.  whereas a common definition of the ‘green economy’ and ‘green jobs’, together with accurate methodologies to assess its size, growth rate, and associated employment, are crucial for anticipating and managing change effectively, while ensuring targeted policy planning, implementation and evaluation; whereas a common definition would provide clarity and coherence and allow the authorities responsible to gather much-needed information to combat the scarcity of monitoring and evaluation data that creates a difficult environment for proposing concrete and targeted policy recommendations; whereas the International Labour Organization (ILO) defines ‘green jobs’ as decent employment in green economic sectors that produce environmentally beneficial goods or services, or in cross-sectoral roles contributing to eco-friendly production processes; whereas jobs and activities in the field of healthcare, education and care, including childcare and long-term care, are key to sustain the rest of the economy in its greening pathway; whereas these jobs are also indispensable in the light of the new health threats related to climate change and pollution(24);

E.  whereas a just transition should ensure social inclusion and enable and seize the tremendous potential to create quality jobs at all skill levels, tackle discrimination at work, ensure decent working conditions and raise labour standards across all sectors; whereas just transition policies should focus first on the most affected communities and the most vulnerable groups; whereas the just transition should be mainstreamed with an intersectional approach across legislation and policy in the EU and the Member States, ensuring the inclusion of young and older workers, women, people with disabilities and workers from disadvantaged regions and socio-economic backgrounds; whereas, for the ILO, the just transition means greening the economy in a way that is as fair and inclusive as possible to everyone concerned, creating decent work opportunities and leaving no one behind(25); whereas, for the Commission, the Just Transition Mechanism is a key tool to ensure that the transition towards a climate-neutral economy happens in a fair way, leaving no one behind, and will benefit, among others, the people and citizens most vulnerable to the transition(26);

F.  whereas a holistic and ambitious policy response at EU level is essential to maximise the employment potential of the transition and to avoid increased unemployment; whereas a just transition relies on establishing policies for environmentally sustainable development and economies, combined with effective measures for poverty eradication and providing decent work for all; whereas employment and social policy in the just transition should include a focus on actions to conserve, protect, restore and sustainably manage natural ecosystems, while simultaneously addressing societal and economic challenges with measures to ensure human well-being, the resilience of ecosystems and biodiversity benefits(27);

G.  whereas innovative direct employment initiatives have emerged at local level in different Member States, such as the ‘Territoires zéro chômeur de longue durée’ in France and Belgium, the ‘Territori a disoccupazione zero’ in Italy, the ‘Job Guarantee’ in Austria, the ‘Basisbaan’ in the Netherlands and the ‘Solidarity Basic Income’ in Germany; whereas the local jobs created under these initiatives are often part of the social economy sector and implement projects addressing the unmet social and environmental needs of society by prioritising care and green services;

H.  whereas the European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan envisages that at least 78 % of the population aged 20 to 64 should be in employment by 2030, and at least 60 % of all adults should participate in training every year;

I.  whereas more incentives for public purchases and investments in inclusive local employment and effective circular solutions in the reuse, repair and recycling sectors are needed, including via capacity building measures for public procurers, to facilitate access to tendering opportunities by social enterprises active in the circular economy; whereas strengthening the capacity of public administrations at all levels is crucial for the effective absorption of EU funds and the effective implementation of environmental and climate legislation, and comes with a significant job creation potential;

J.  whereas most sectors where job opportunities are expected to emerge in the transition to climate-neutral economies remain highly male-dominated(28); whereas labour shortages are particularly prevalent in sectors with poor job quality and in sectors with gender segregation(29); whereas gender-segmented labour markets reflect systematic gender gaps in access to relevant education and training, and occupational gender stereotypes which must be tackled as early as possible to reverse this trend(30);

K.  whereas the prosperity of workers and societies must be ensured in the transition to a climate-neutral economy; whereas the transition to a climate-neutral economy will impact workers and societies, with some workers expected to be made redundant and entire regions and industries dependent on fossil fuels needing to be redesigned by 2050; whereas workers will need training, new employment opportunities, and may have to relocate; whereas highly polluting sectors and activities will be subject to significant structural changes related to their greening; whereas these sectors are often regionally and locally concentrated; whereas, therefore, the transition will have a major impact on the inhabitants of these regions and on jobs that are mainly carried out by medium-skilled workers; whereas the expansion of green economic activities can be negatively impacted if the socio-economic dimension is not adequately addressed and the necessary investments are not sufficiently and properly designed; whereas the consequences of the green transition are unevenly distributed in the European Union and among its territories(31);

L.  whereas workers and communities already in situations of vulnerability, including workers in the informal economy, are at higher risk of seeing their source of income affected by the transition;

M.  whereas achieving climate neutrality by 2050 will require sufficient investment and the anticipation of change and suitable framework conditions to support labour market transitions, including the necessary skilling, reskilling and upskilling processes that offer access to jobs with adequate remuneration and decent working conditions, as well as addressing obstacles such as skill shortages and shortages of trainers and teachers; whereas a particular focus on the needs and specificities of disadvantaged groups and local and regional labour markets which are more impacted by this transition is crucial to ensure that no one is left behind; whereas, according to the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP), the lack of skilled workers to design repairable and reusable products and technologies may amplify producers’ reluctance to start producing them; whereas the circular economy provides an opportunity to reinvigorate manufacturing industries through reshoring of production and strategies such as remanufacturing, refurbishing and repairing; whereas the focus on skills intelligence is essential to address the demands of the green economy and understand sectoral and local needs; whereas just transition policies should integrate education and training efforts to support disadvantaged workers and communities; whereas partnerships between the private sector, educational institutions and the social partners are crucial for identifying current and future skill needs, requiring increased investment in professional education and upskilling;

N.  whereas apart from ensuring that sufficient labour market entrants acquire the skills needed for the economy of the future, another challenge lies in the need to upskill and reskill workers, in particular to meet current and evolving labour market needs; whereas this can be difficult for older workers and particularly for low-skilled workers, as it may be challenging for them to ‘skill up’ and compete for new jobs; whereas as a spatial challenge also exists, in that jobs in the low-carbon economy may be created in locations very different from those suffering job losses, education and training efforts therefore need to be linked with a just transition policy; whereas disadvantaged workers and communities will need targeted assistance to ensure they are not left behind;

O.  whereas more investment is needed in professional education and upskilling and reskilling; whereas the social partners know best the skills and competences that are needed to strengthen Europe’s economy; whereas it is important to match these needs with people’s aspirations;

P.  whereas having a skilled workforce that is aligned with the demands of the labour market contributes to sustainable growth, leads to more innovation and improves companies’ competitiveness;

Q.  whereas learning or improving certain core skills is likely to be of greater relevance for a person’s employability than skills and competences that are highly specific to certain occupations or technologies; whereas competencies in literacy and numeracy, as well as in decision-making, teamwork and communication, are critical in that they affect people’s ability to function well in teams, thus enhancing their adaptability and their occupational mobility;

R.  whereas the green and digital transitions, technological change, supply-chain transformations and changing consumer expectations are all generating demand for new jobs and skills across industries and regions, and are opening up new opportunities for workers, employers and the EU economy; whereas these positive drivers are offset by growing geo-economic tensions and high inflation, leading to a cost-of-living crisis;

S.  whereas the investment gap for climate action, has been estimated by the Commission at EUR 520 billion a year until 2030(32); whereas further investments will be needed to implement social and climate justice policies; whereas it is necessary to better analyse the extent of this investment gap in order to strengthen the EU’s economy; whereas both public and private investment are needed in order to close this gap; whereas the administrative and technical capacity of different stakeholders needs to be built; whereas the Member States still face many challenges in effectively managing the EU funds at local level;

T.  whereas young people are the basis for sustainable economic and social prosperity for Europe and are a key priority for the EU, as affirmed by the European youth strategy and the reinforced Youth Guarantee, and therefore warrant priority measures for their support, protection, guidance and inclusion, and deserve to fully benefit from the new employment opportunities created by the green transition;

U.  whereas the enhancement of workplace democracy has beneficial consequences for workers, companies and the whole economy, and it is key to a successful and just transition; whereas the fairness, inclusiveness and success of the green transition should be established in its very definition through the meaningful participation of, provision of information to and consultation of all workers, trade unions and workers’ representatives in every region in Europe, regarding the governance of company and sectoral transitions and the anticipation and social management of change at all levels; whereas the social partners’ involvement in the green transition of the labour market is key to anticipate change and provide for adequate policy responses; whereas sectoral social dialogue has been weakened in some regions; whereas the social partners’ participation and collective agreement coverage should be promoted and strengthened, particularly in new and emerging sectors;

V.  whereas demographic changes, such as the ageing population, will require the adoption of targeted strategies in order to adapt to these changes, such as via adaptations of workplaces;

W.  whereas the right to engage in work is a right enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union;

X.  whereas it is essential to complement companies’ financial performance and to steer their extra-financial practices towards more sustainable activities and investments;

Green economy and employment opportunities for the labour market

1.  Emphasises that a transition towards sustainable, renewable and circular economies and societies generates the potential both to create significant numbers of new jobs and to transform existing employment into green and sustainable jobs in most sectors; notes also the possible environmental, economic and social consequences, particularly in terms of exacerbating existing inequalities, if the transition is not well anticipated, led and significantly funded, and if green policies lack climate and social justice provisions; highlights that a Green Deal focused on investments to make the transition to a decarbonised, climate-neutral economy should, at the same time, support and invest in the people impacted by the transition to ensure that no one is left behind; highlights the importance of the necessary investments and streamlined procedures, as well as the involvement of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs);

2.  Believes that the EU’s cohesion policy funds aimed at territorial, economic and social cohesion are crucial for supporting the transition towards climate neutrality, while guaranteeing high-quality employment opportunities in the regions, as well as opportunities for skilling, reskilling and upskilling the workforce so that no one is left behind;

3.  Welcomes the Commission communication entitled ‘Long-term competitiveness of the EU: looking beyond 2030’, which aims to rationalise and simplify reporting requirements by 25 % for each of the green, digital and economic thematic areas, and the Commission’s presentation of a proposal for achieving this by autumn 2023; calls on the Commission to demonstrate this commitment swiftly, thereby improving the competitiveness of all undertakings in the EU, including SMEs, and enhancing the basic conditions for social justice and prosperity; recalls that SMEs are the backbone of our social cohesion;

4.  Notes that the job creation potential of the green transition is also connected to environmentally and economically sustainable activities such as renewable energy production, housing renovation, repair, reuse, zero-emission transport and organic farming being most likely more labour-intensive than the activities they replace(33); underlines that, in addition to providing jobs, these sectors are also key to ensuring that the transition is fair and to the benefit of all; stresses that, while the shift to sustainability is crucial, it is essential that such jobs maintain full compliance with the European social and labour acquis;

5.  Underlines the importance of a just transition which is aimed at maintaining and creating quality jobs and employment in Europe; notes that the green transition has significant potential to create European, national, regional and local quality jobs which are difficult to offshore, and which will contribute to strengthening European sovereignty, resilience and competitiveness; stresses that the best way to create local employment which cannot be offshored, and to decrease any carbon emissions linked to the transport of goods, is to invest in the production of essential goods and services in the European Union; underlines also that the green transition is the opportunity to build a powerful European industrial policy; adds that the importance of resilience and sovereignty has been particularly highlighted by Russia’s ongoing invasion and war of aggression against Ukraine and its effects on the European economy;

6.  Calls on the Member States to develop regional strategies to prevent structural unemployment and the deterioration of social cohesion, to ensure social protection and come up with ambitious measures to support the re-industrialisation and prevent de-industrialisation of European regions through strategic investment projects and development plans for vulnerable regions, particularly in rural and remote areas; notes the positive impact this could have on regions and communities affected by demographic transitions and a shrinking labour force; stresses that EU regions should be supported to retain and attract people through investments in local and regional infrastructure and education, training and adult learning; recalls, in this context, the importance of the efficient and targeted deployment of EU funds, in particular Cohesion programmes, the ESF+, the Just Transition Fund and the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF);

7.  Highlights that 1,4 million additional low- and medium-skilled jobs, as well as 450 000 high-skilled jobs, will be created as a result of increased investments in building renovation and reduced energy consumption of fossil fuels for heating;

8.  Notes that a vast proportion of workers in agriculture still face challenging working and housing conditions, particularly seasonal and migrant workers; stresses the need to ensure that the green transition becomes an opportunity for agro-food workers in Europe to make the sector greener, while tackling discrimination at work and promoting gender equality and workplace democracy; notes that sustainable farming is estimated to create 20 % more jobs than currently, as sustainable farming practises such as mechanical weeding require additional labour;

9.  Stresses that the creation of decent jobs needed to implement a just transition could be done through the implementation of demand-driven direct employment initiatives already experimented with in different Member States at local and regional level(34); recalls that these initiatives often address unemployment and climate change simultaneously and therefore offer the double benefit of creating employment, while endowing people with the competencies needed to reorient the EU economy towards a greener and more sustainable model; in this regard, welcomes the Commission’s support to these experiments under the ESF Social Innovation+ initiative, in order to have a better understanding of their functioning and efficiency, to share best practices among Member States and to disseminate and stimulate the emergence of new initiatives all across the EU;

10.  Welcomes the ongoing work at international level by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the ILO on greening jobs and skills; calls on the Commission, in collaboration with the social partners, to work on conceptual guidelines with a view to establishing a common EU definition of what constitutes a quality green job, based on, inter alia, its potential for greening the economy and improving energy efficiency, its contribution to social inclusion and lifelong learning, including upskilling and reskilling, people’s health and well-being and decent working conditions; stresses that job creation in the green transition requires information and data collection for the creation of policies that properly address sectoral development throughout the transition in order to ensure quality job creation accompanied by the necessary skill levels; stresses, in this regard, the need for the Commission and the Member States to establish common indicators to improve the scope and relevance of data collection at Union and national level, disaggregated by sector, on developments in the green economy in order to ensure informed policy outcomes;

11.  Stresses the need to help companies, in particular SMEs, to address skills shortages in the EU and to promote a mindset of reskilling and upskilling, helping people to get the right skills for quality jobs;

12.  Calls on the Member States to adopt targeted measures to formalise informal, substandard jobs in environment-related sectors, such as waste management and recycling, to transform them into decent jobs;

13.  Highlights the regulatory burden on EU employers and its possible negative impact on competitiveness, growth and quality job creation in the context of the green and digital transitions; continues to support the ‘one in, one out’ principle, and calls on the Commission to develop a more ambitious Better Regulation agenda, which should lead to a reduced regulatory burden for EU employers;

Decent work for a just transition

14.  Stresses that the transition must benefit both current workers, who are undergoing significant changes in their work tasks, and displaced workers, who are transitioning to new jobs, by ensuring decent working conditions for all; emphasises that the green transition of the job market should go hand in hand with upward social convergence towards better working conditions, more stable employment and attractive career paths and quality jobs, including stronger collective bargaining, decent wages and good physical and mental health, not least through health and safety at work; recalls, in this context, the importance of work-life balance, work time reduction and the right to disconnect; stresses the need for enhanced public employment services to provide support to and facilitate people changing jobs including through, inter alia, tailored job search assistance, learning courses targeting green skills and the use of targeted employment programmes to support beneficiaries through on-the-job training, particularly those from disadvantaged groups; highlights that for the EU to achieve its European Green Deal and the European Pillar of Social Rights objectives, a more holistic understanding of sustainability, sustainable jobs and the just transition is needed;

15.  Reiterates its call that projects and recipients of EU funding, including State aid, should ensure coherence with public policy objectives, in particular social and environmental requirements, and must respect all legal obligations; calls on the Member States to ensure that the public financial support provided to firms is conditional upon the funding being used to benefit employees and the recipient firms refraining from paying bonuses to management, paying out dividends or offering share buy-back schemes for as long as they are receiving the funds; underlines that public authorities should lead by example and set strong social criteria in public procurement; calls on the Commission to consider revising the Public Procurement Directive to further strengthen the social clause and ensure that benefiting companies and sub-contractors support collective bargaining and respect workers’ rights, high-quality jobs, high-quality apprenticeships, decent and equal pay, and training; regrets that under the current framework, while the possibility is given to contracting authorities to value social criteria in public procurement, in 2019 half of the contracts awarded were based on the lowest-price criterion only(35); until the revision of the Public Procurement Directive, calls on the Commission to enforce the social clause in the existing EU Public Procurement Directive to ensure that benefiting companies comply with all applicable obligations in the fields of environmental, social and labour law established by Union law, national law or collective agreement, or by applicable international environmental, social or labour law provisions, including respect for freedom of association, the right to organise and collective bargaining;

16.  Takes note of the most recent adoption by the Commission of a targeted amendment to the General Block Exemption Regulation(36) and its potential to further facilitate, simplify and speed up support for the EU’s green transition, while protecting the level playing field in the single market;

17.  Calls on the Commission to safeguard the right to health and to a healthy environment at EU level, as this right is essential to ensuring the fulfilment of most other fundamental rights such as food, shelter and work, as well as to achieving an inclusive transition; recalls that the EU strategic framework on health and safety at work 2021-2027 highlights the need to modernise EU occupational safety and health (OSH) rules in the context of the green and digital transitions, taking into account specific risks in new sectors, and to tackle the unequal vulnerability and exposure to risks deriving from climate change and environmental degradation such us increased ambient temperature, air pollution and extreme weather events; notes that several sectors impacted by climate change will face increasingly difficult working conditions, especially regarding occupational health and safety, in particular when they involve working outside and are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, as in the case for workers in the agriculture, construction and care sectors, public services workers and seasonal and migrant workers in particular; calls for the implementation of particular measures taking into account the effects of climate change on working conditions, such as the adjustment of working hours;

18.  Calls on the Commission and Member States to ensure that the OSH aspects of emerging sectors and changing employment are addressed in the respective European and national OSH legislative frameworks in consultation with the social partners; in this context, welcomes the Commission’s announcement in the EU strategic framework on health and safety at work 2021-2027(37) that it will review the Workplace Directive 89/654/EEC(38), and calls on the Commission, in consultation with the social partners, to propose an EU framework on maximum working temperatures, including the interruption, reduction or reorganisation of working time and longer breaks above certain temperatures, the obligation to set up effective ventilation systems for indoor working, mandatory protective equipment and compensation for working hours lost due to extreme weather events, with the support of national social security systems; calls on the Member States to ratify and implement ILO core conventions, No 155, the Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981, No 187, the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006, and No 184, the Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001;

19.  Stresses the importance of involving young people in transition planning, including those not in employment, education or training; calls on the Member States to facilitate access for young people to paid, quality and inclusive traineeships and apprenticeships; reiterates that Parliament has repeatedly condemned the practice of unpaid traineeships as a form of exploitation of young workers and a violation of their rights, and has called for a directive to ensure fair remuneration for traineeships in order to avoid exploitative practices(39); underlines the importance of also paying particular attention to experienced and older workers in reskilling and upskilling policies, as these workers face specific challenges with changes late in their working careers; underscores the importance of including persons with disabilities, leveraging their skills and knowledge, as well as ensuring that they are represented at all levels of just transition policy and programme design, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation across all policy areas;

20.  Emphasises that gender equality should be an integral part of green economy strategies and mainstreamed across related policy and legislative measures to strengthen the fairness of our societies; believes it is essential to ensure equal treatment and equal access to economic opportunities for women, with an intersectional approach paying attention to the most vulnerable, such as women with disabilities, single mothers, women belonging to minorities and migrant women; stresses that most of the workers in the energy, mobility and agricultural sectors are men(40), meaning that a transition focusing solely on the most polluting sectors in specific regions and without gender equality policies would mainly benefit male workers and could reinforce existing gender segregation and inequalities; calls on the Commission and the Member States to take all necessary measures to ensure that pre-existing gender inequalities are not replicated in the emerging green economy and to enable women to take part and benefit from the transition also by increasing women’s participation in male-dominated sectors, as well as by encouraging men to enter sectors with a predominantly female labour force, such as care;

Skills and competences for a just transition that anticipates change and is set for the future

21.  Stresses the need to invest significantly in people and to offer quality, inclusive and subsidised education and training in areas linked to skills and competences needs that are identified in labour markets and future-oriented sectors according to local and regional needs; further stresses the need to address skills mismatches and labour market shortages, and to ensure that the labour market is ready for the green transition, that workers can benefit from opportunities for new employment or career progression and that training and education programmes are aligned with the needs of the planet, the economy and the society of the future; recalls that training and skills are crucial in a just transition and part of high-quality jobs with adequate remuneration to provide a decent standard of living; adds that more skills, including hard and soft skills, knowledge and qualifications, whether acquired in formal, non-formal or informal settings, open up new opportunities and empower individuals to participate fully in the labour market, society and democracy, to harness and benefit from the opportunities of the green transitions and to exercise their rights;

22.  Welcomes the European Year of Skills and the opportunities it provides to promote reskilling and upskilling, in particular in the context of seizing the opportunities of the green transition; welcomes the fact that the Commission proposal for a Net Zero Industry Act aims to enhance skills for quality job creation through the European Net Zero Industry Academies and the recognition of professional qualifications; recalls that the creation of good-quality jobs and the implementation of retention strategies are the best way to attract a skilled workforce and encourage employers to invest in their workers; highlights that recruitment difficulties and labour shortages are particularly prevalent in sectors with challenging working conditions and poor job quality(41); recalls that in addition to training and skills which are essential in a just transition, the creation of high-quality, well-paid jobs that increase the quality of life is crucial;

23.  Recalls the European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan targets that at least 60 % of all adults should participate in training annually; highlights that the EU average is only at 45,5 %, with those most in need of training being those getting the least training opportunities through their employers(42); calls for the introduction of an enforceable and individual right to professional education, employee training and lifelong learning undertaken during working hours and at no cost to the employee, which should be reflected in the relevant EU and national policies and collective agreements, as well in company mitigation and adaptation strategies; calls on the Member States to enter into dialogue with the social partners on arrangements to allow employees to participate in paid educational leave, with due consideration for the situation of SMEs and microenterprises;

24.  Calls on the Member States to establish individual learning accounts and an accompanying enabling framework in line with the Council Recommendation(43) in order to increase adult training and professional development; stresses the potential of such accounts in the context of the green transition, where the financing, recognition and portability of such training entitlements could increase uptake and assist people’s upskilling and reskilling in green skills and competences;

25.  Stresses that education and training institutions need to enhance the relevance of their training in line with competitive labour market needs and prepare learners, trainers and teachers with the relevant knowledge and skills to be active agents of change in a just transition towards environmentally sustainable economies and a society for all;

26.  Stresses that VET can become an important driver in the transition to a green economy, and the importance of increasing its attractiveness;

27.  Stresses the crucial role of the social partners through social dialogue, collective bargaining and collaboration with policy makers in designing and contributing to national, sectoral and company-specific skills and competence policies for quality job strategies and training; recalls that the social partners should be consulted in tripartite discussions on reskilling, upskilling, VET and lifelong learning policies; encourages the social partners to address re- and upskilling, particularly regarding green skills, through social dialogue on training policies; calls on the Member States to recognise lifelong learning as an individual right of workers, in line with national law and practice, including collective agreements; calls for such learning provisions to facilitate the acquisition and strengthening of transversal competences, beyond green, sector-specific skills, to facilitate the adaptation and transfer of skills and/or competences from one industry to another, allowing learners to be mobile and adaptable to the ever-changing situation on the labour market and beyond; highlights the importance of core and cognitive skills and the preparation of the necessary instruments to encourage citizens to consider also their personal development and growth with these skills, such as creative thinking, resilience, flexibility and agility; motivation and self-awareness; and curiosity and lifelong learning – in recognition of the importance of workers’ ability to adapt to disrupted workplaces, self-efficacy and working with others in teams; calls on the Member States to ensure an enabling environment for bipartite and tripartite social dialogue at all levels and to involve the social partners in the design and implementation of employment and social policies related to the green economy in a systematic, meaningful and timely manner, in line with the Council Recommendation on strengthening social dialogue(44);

28.  Calls on the Member States to integrate sustainable development, environmental competences and transversal skills into training and education systems from primary level onwards through updated curricula, into the support provided by employment services and into active labour market policies; calls for a swift implementation of the Council Recommendation on learning for environmental sustainability(45); underlines the importance of quality career guidance that familiarises and orients individuals towards training for green jobs as well as relevant career opportunities; highlights the critical role of teachers and trainers in promoting the right skills and competences for both the younger and the older generation of workers and appropriate re- and upskilling for workers affected by the green transition; emphasises the need for qualified educators and trainers in order to properly disseminate such curricula; encourages, in this context, the Member States to ensure adequate support and timely professional development and training for educators and trainers; recalls the importance of collaboration between education and training institutions, enterprises and the social partners to establish the skills, competencies and outcomes that can simultaneously benefit workers’ professional development and address labour market demands;

29.  Stresses the need for investment in reskilling, upskilling and re-educating in formal and informal programmes to build competences for strong socially inclusive green jobs; in this regard, calls on the Member States to develop comprehensive learning strategies at national and local level to help workers acquire the required skills;

30.  Stresses the importance of up-to-date labour market and skills intelligence at occupational, sectoral and regional level to assist in the identification and forecasting of relevant occupational and transversal skills needs for the green transition; welcomes the Commission’s commitment to define a taxonomy of skills for the green transition as part of the EU Skills Agenda and calls for its delivery as soon as possible;

31.  Stresses that training should be of a high quality, evaluated by the worker, designed in consultation with trade unions and workers’ representatives and lead to a qualification that is validated through transparent and clear recognition and certification systems which allow for comparability between Member States; calls on the Union and the Member States to promote and continue the implementation of tools and instruments for the increased transferability of qualifications, including qualifications awarded outside the Union, and for the validation and formal recognition of non-formal and informal learning such as long-term care or volunteering; calls also for the qualifications and certified competences to be adequately remunerated; calls on the Commission and the Member States to develop a European ecosystem for micro-credentials in line with the Council Recommendation(46) and ensure their portability across Europe, with a particular focus on skills and competencies related to the green and circular economy; believes that micro-credentials can only be complementary to full qualifications and must be quality assured, accredited and based on a standardised delivery mode, assessment procedure and duration;

32.  Stresses the importance of leveraging face-to-face classroom sessions and short training courses or modules without underestimating the potential of online learning;

Public policy coherence to fully develop the job potential of the green transition

33.  Highlights that the implementation of environmental legislation is essential for the full realisation of the potential linked to the green economy and therefore for the creation of jobs; stresses that environmental, social and employment legislation must be approached in a holistic manner to ensure a just transition;

34.  Calls on the Commission to ensure diligent and comprehensive impact assessments for all proposed legislation, assessing the socio-economic impact and with due consideration to jobs, skills, competences and working conditions in different countries, regions, sectors and companies in order to provide the necessary knowledge to develop adequate social policies and measures as well as territorial and sectoral just transition pathways adapted to regional realities; calls on the Commission and the Member States to systematically map at regional level, and with a sufficient level of granularity, the developments in the labour market connected to the green transition, such us quality jobs and collective bargaining coverage rate, existing skills, demographic trends and skills needs, at NUTS 3 level, in order to facilitate the job-to-job transition; stresses that this analysis is not meant to lower the ambition of any climate law, but to make it possible to identify the needs in terms of job profiles and the necessary skills and qualifications, on the basis of which training, upskilling, and reskilling plans can be developed, as well as any additional measures for health and safety at work; calls on the Commission to reflect the findings of this analysis in its sectoral transition pathways;

35.  Calls on the Commission to ensure that Member States, in cooperation with the social partners, identify the social challenges and opportunities expected from the transition to net zero, as well as the detailed measures and resources that will be necessary to manage them in the next update of the national energy and climate plans; calls on the Commission, in consultation with the social partners and on the basis of an impact assessment, to consider a revision of the Energy Union Governance Regulation(47) to systemically include just transition objectives and measures in national energy and climate plans;

36.  Emphasises the importance of closely involving and associating local and regional authorities, the social partners and civil society in change, as addressing the issue of the just transition requires actions at all levels – European, national and local – with effective policy coordination; calls, in this context, for the creation of a European Just Transition Observatory, with the aim of providing sectoral social partners and local and regional authorities with a space for reflection and knowledge exchange in order to manage change, prevent potential conflicts and generate conclusions and recommendations for decision-making, as well as monitoring the implementation of all policies and measures related to the European Green Deal on employment, quality jobs, and working conditions;

37.  Reiterates its repeated calls(48) on the Commission, following its anticipated impact assessment and in consultation with the social partners, to introduce a new framework directive on the anticipation and management of the transition that guarantees timely and effective information and consultation of workers and trade unions on companies’ plans and strategies impacting workplaces in the context of a just transition and in order to preserve jobs and working conditions and to avoid redundancies; emphasises that Directive 2002/14/EC(49) on informing and consulting employees in the EU will need to be updated accordingly, in order to include information and consultation rights in transition plans implemented by companies across their operations; welcomes the Commission’s announcement of a revision of Directive 2009/38/EC(50) to enhance the roles of European Work Councils in the event of large company transformation; highlights the importance of the Member States in promoting sectoral social dialogue and collective bargaining, especially in newly emerging green industries, and also in ensuring the inclusion of small and medium-sized businesses, including social economy enterprises; stresses that the Minimum Wage Directive(51) represents a great opportunity to strengthen collective bargaining on wage-setting and the presence of the social partners in emerging sectors;

38.  Calls for the adoption of just transition plans to be negotiated by the social partners at sectoral and company level, particularly those affected by the green transition, with due consideration for the situation of SMEs and microenterprises; highlights that this process aims to protect at the same time the interests of companies as regards competitiveness and sustainability and those of their workers, as regards social, employment, health and working conditions; stresses that trade unions and workers’ representatives must be involved at all stages of the transition process; stresses that these plans should ensure that companies’ operations and value chains reflect the Green Deal objectives and should also specify the accompanying social measures aimed at promoting employment and quality jobs, including addressing strategic jobs and skills planning and related training policies;

39.  Stresses the need for the economic governance review to ensure that Member States have sufficient flexibility to ensure green and social investments and reform at the scale needed, while ensuring effective, sustainable and efficient public spending to achieve a just transition to a climate-neutral economy; insists that social and environmental policies and objectives must be integrated on an equal footing with economic ones in the economic governance architecture; stresses the need for the economic governance framework to align with the principles included in the EU Pillar of Social Rights; stresses that green and social investments are needed in public services, and the Union’s economic governance should take into account the need for resources and personnel in the education sectors, public employment services and other local, regional and national public administrations which are key players in a just and social green transition; calls on the Commission to issue country-specific recommendations that contribute to job creation, higher employment and smaller ecological footprints, including the phasing out of counterproductive subsidies competing with green and social investments, as well as assessing the distributional effects of climate policies across different income groups, in order to identify the policy measures needed to address these impacts; calls for a social convergence framework to be automatically reflected in the country-specific recommendations;

40.  Calls for a re-balancing of the tax system to favour employment while taxing other sources of income, including those deriving from highly polluting activities, in order to ensure robust social protection systems, incentivise job creation, reduce inequalities and ensure sufficient capital for investment; recalls that workers and vulnerable and middle-class households should not unduly pay for the cost of the transition;

41.  Highlights the importance of robust national social security systems and safety nets to complement job creation measures and ensure that no one is left behind, including adequate minimum income support, with no age discrimination, adequate unemployment benefits, adequate minimum wage protection and other measures to adequately support workers in sectors impacted by the transition, combined with job creation measures, active labour market integration measures and re- and upskilling efforts; stresses that social protection must be adequate, accessible and ensure formal and effective coverage; stresses the importance of social protection systems also covering the self-employed; regrets that thus far the implementation of the Council Recommendation on access to social protection for workers and the self-employed(52) has been mixed and calls for all Member States to close the existing gaps in access to social protection, particularly in view of the green transition; calls on the Commission to reinforce the European instrument for temporary Support to mitigate Unemployment Risks in an Emergency (SURE) to support short-time work schemes, workers’ income and workers who would be temporarily laid off in the context of the green transition, also taking into account the outcome of the final evaluation report(53) and considering that SURE saved 40 million jobs(54); stresses that an EU directive on adequate minimum income could contribute to the goal of reducing poverty by at least half in all Member States by 2030 and ensure the integration of people absent from the labour market, while respecting the specificities of national social protection systems, the subsidiarity principle and the competences of the Member States;

42.  Notes with concern that the Youth Guarantee has so far not fully reached its goals and calls for reinforced measures, including making full use of the opportunities provided by the ESF+, to promote employment through active interventions for labour market integration and the creation of sustainable entry-level positions, and that these measures should not be replaced by traineeships;

Investing in sustainable job creation: the role of investment

43.  Recognises the importance of facilitating access to funding for public and private companies and organisations addressing social, environmental and educational needs in order to address skills gaps with the explicit expectation of a measurable social and environmental return, including on employment and quality job creation; recalls the role that social economy entities can play in developing sustainable products and services, job creation, operating inclusive business models and supporting workers to develop skills to adapt to the changing labour market; calls on the Commission and the Member States to promote an enabling environment and support the role of cooperatives and the social economy in the just transition, in order to generate decent work, productive employment and improved living conditions for all;

44.  Welcomes the important role the European Union is playing in providing impact investments, with the Commission being the world’s biggest social bond issuer(55); regrets the lack of clarity on what constitutes an ‘impact investment’ and the connected risk of green and social washing; calls on the Commission to work on a clear and harmonised framework on impact investment, based on the principle of compatibility of financial performance with ecological and social performances;

45.  Stresses the need for quality assessments of the environmental risks and impacts of corporate practices, as well as the way in which companies manage their social responsibilities and the quality and ethics of corporate governance, moving towards more responsible and ethical practices based on transparent and reliable information; welcomes, in this regard, the recent Commission proposal for a regulation on the transparency and integrity of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) rating activities(56);

46.  Stresses the crucial role and responsibility of the private and public sectors in channelling funding into sustainable investments and enabling the transition to a resilient, decarbonised and climate-neutral economy; stresses the influential role that the European Investment Bank can play in this regard and calls for continued strong investments in climate action and environmental sustainability projects that have tangible social benefits;

47.  Calls for the swift creation of a European sovereignty fund with newly allocated EU money to mobilise large-scale investments in green technology; stresses the added value of a new instrument of this type to support fiscally constrained Member States, to protect cohesion and the single market against risks caused by the unequal availability of State aid and to coordinate EU industrial policy; regrets the lack of ambition of the Commission proposal on the Strategic Technologies for Europe Platform, which is to be primarily funded through a reshuffle of existing funds with little newly allocated EU money; warns that there is no sign of sufficient financing being made available in the EU to reach the 2030 targets(57); calls on the Commission to ensure sufficient ambition and fresh resources to match the scale of the investments required for a sovereign green industry and economy; calls for any new EU funding initiatives to further the principles of social and environmental justice, including the fair distribution of the returns on investments, and a strong focus on workers and quality jobs;

48.  Recalls that the Just Transition Fund (JTF) provides support for territories and people facing socio-economic and employment challenges deriving from the transition process towards a climate neutral economy of the Union by 2050; highlights its importance for addressing the social aspects of the transition, in particular support to jobseekers and workers affected by the green transition; notes that the JTF needs adequate financial resources to ensure its effectiveness in supporting regions’ transition towards climate neutrality; suggests expanding and broadening the JTF’s scope and budget; recalls, however, that it is essential to ensure that the whole EU budget serves the objectives of the just transition and that a broader JTF should complement existing financial instruments effectively; calls on the Commission to improve the accessibility of the JTF for SMEs and support Member States in its efficient management by national and regional authorities; underlines that in order to move forward with the green and just transitions, capacities need to be strengthened and properly resourced at all levels, particularly at the level of local and regional administrations;

49.  Is concerned about the implications of higher interest rates for green investments and the related potential for job creation in sustainable sectors;

50.  Calls on the Commission to continue monitoring and fostering investment and access to funding to stimulate quality job creation, education and training for skills development within NextGenerationEU, the RRF and the ESF+ with a focus on the green transition and to ensure that Parliament remains closely involved; highlights the need to strengthen the capacity of public administrations to ensure, among other things, the effective absorption of EU Funds and the effective implementation of environmental and climate legislation; calls for increased investment in building administrative and technical capacity at local level, through training and the use of the technical assistance available under different EU funds; recalls, to this end, the importance of sufficient administrative capacity and equal access to funding and to information in all EU regions;

51.  Emphasises that investments in young people are known to have a positive impact on the employment and participation of young people in society and produce measurable social and financial returns on the funds invested, fostering economic development while achieving social goals; calls on the Member States to ensure complementarity between measures under the RRF and other EU programmes such as the reinforced Youth Guarantee, the European Child Guarantee and national investment and measures to promote skills, education, training and labour market integration in compliance with their own needs and specific national conditions;

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52.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council and the Commission.

(1) OJ C 243, 27.6.2022, p. 35.
(2) OJ L 231, 30.6.2021, p. 1.
(3) OJ L 57, 18.2.2021, p. 17.
(4) OJ L 231, 30.6.2021, p. 21.
(5) OJ L 153, 3.5.2021, p. 48.
(6) OJ L 221, 10.7.2020, p. 107.
(7) OJ C 387, 15.11.2019, p. 1.
(8) OJ C 417, 2.12.2020, p. 1.
(9) OJ L 130, 16.5.2023, p. 1.
(10) OJ C 243, 27.6.2022, p. 10.
(11) OJ C 243, 27.6.2022, p. 26.
(12) OJ C 440, 30.12.2015, p. 23.
(13) OJ C 47, 7.2.2023, p. 171.
(14) Texts adopted, P9_TA(2023)0218.
(15) OJ C 445, 29.10.2012, p. 75.
(16) Texts adopted, P9_TA(2023)0079.
(17) OJ L 94, 28.3.2014, p. 65.
(18) OJ L 125, 11.5.2023, p. 1.
(19) European Climate Foundation ‘Perspectives on a European green recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic – Summary report’, April 2021.
(20) Renovate Europe, ‘Building renovation: a kick-starter for the EU recovery’, p. 3, available at: https://www.renovate-europe.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/BPIE-Research-Layout_FINALPDF_08.06.pdf.
(21) https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/economy/20151201STO05603/circular-economy-definition-importance-and-benefits#:~:text=Moving%20towards%20a%20more%20circular,different%20sectors%20of%20the%20economy.
(22) RREUSE briefing entitled ‘Job creation in the re-use sector: data insights from social enterprises’, available at: https://www.rreuse.org/wp-content/uploads/04-2021-job-creation-briefing.pdf.
(23) European Environment Agency Report No 6/2020, ‘Monitoring and evaluation of national adaptation policies throughout the policy cycle’.
(24) European Union, ‘The Just Transition Mechanism: making sure no one is left behind’, https://commission.europa.eu/strategy-and-policy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/finance-and-green-deal/just-transition-mechanism_en.
(25) ILO, Green jobs, Frequently Asked Questions on just transition: https://www.ilo.org/global/topics/green-jobs/WCMS_824102/lang--en/index.htm.
(26) European Union, ‘The Just Transition Mechanism: making sure no one is left behind’, https://commission.europa.eu/strategy-and-policy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal/finance-and-green-deal/just-transition-mechanism_en.
(27) European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, The vital role of nature-based solutions in a nature positive economy, Publications Office of the European Union, 2022, available at: https://op.europa.eu/en/web/eu-law-and-publications/publication-detail/-/publication/85aeb571-c69c-11ec-b6f4-01aa75ed71a1 and ILO, the UN Environment Programme and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Decent Work in Nature-Based Solutions, 2022, available at: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/documents/publication/wcms_863035.pdf.
(28) Culot, M. and Wiese, K., Reimagining work for a just transition, European Environmental Bureau, Brussels, 2022, available at: https://eeb.org/library/reimagining-work-for-a-just-transition/.
(29) European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, ‘EU lack of labour won’t be solved by skills alone: Improving job quality is key’, available at: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/en/blog/2023/eu-lack-labour-wont-be-solved-skills-alone-improving-job-quality-key#:~:text=An%20analysis%20of%20data%20from,and%20unsocial%20working%20hours%2C%20among.
(30) EU Science Hub, ‘Gender gaps in education and employment’, https://joint-research-centre.ec.europa.eu/scientific-activities-z/gender-gaps-education-and-employment_en.
(31) Rodriguez-Pose, A. and Bartalucci, F., Regional vulnerability to the green transition – Single Market Economics Papers, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2023, https://www.google.lu/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiB8bSlweuBAxWdhv0HHQL1AmkQFnoECA8QAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fsingle-market-economy.ec.europa.eu%2Fdocument%2Fdownload%2F78a5cb8e-4834-4670-8a01-5f4d4706739e_en&usg=AOvVaw0EIJqo_5H3ZPl4oy5wJ6VX&opi=89978449.
(32) Commission communication of 2 March 2022 entitled ‘Towards a green, digital and resilient economy: our European Growth Model’ (COM(2022)0083).
(33) World Bank, ‘Green’ growth, ‘green’ jobs and labor markets, available at: https://blogs.worldbank.org/developmenttalk/green-growth-green-jobs-and-labor-markets.
(34) ‘Territoires zéro chômeur de longue durée’ in France and Belgium, ‘Territori a disoccupazione zero’ in Italy, ‘Job Guarantee’ in Austria, ‘Basisbaan’ in the Netherlands, ‘Solidarity Basic Income’ in Germany.
(35) UNI Europa, Put your money where your mouth is: Why and how the EU needs to change its public spending policies to promote a social Europe, UNI Europa Snapshot Report, 2021, available at: https://www.uni-europa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2021/11/Public-procurement-December-2021-snapshot-report.pdf.
(36) Commission Regulation (EU) No 651/2014 of 17 June 2014 declaring certain categories of aid compatible with the internal market in application of Articles 107 and 108 of the Treaty (OJ L 187, 26.6.2014, p. 1).
(37) Commission communication of 28 June 2021 entitled ‘EU strategic framework on health and safety at work 2021-2027 – Occupational safety and health in a changing world of work (COM(2021)0323).
(38) Council Directive 89/654/EEC of 30 November 1989 concerning the minimum health and safety requirements for the workplace (first individual directive within the meaning of Article 16(1) of Directive 89/391/EEC) (OJ L 393, 30.12.1989, p. 1).
(39) European Parliament resolution of 14 June 2023 with recommendations to the Commission on quality traineeships in the Union (Texts adopted, P9_TA(2023)0239).
(40) Culot, M. and Wiese, K., Reimagining work for a just transition, European Environmental Bureau, Brussels, 2022, available at: https://eeb.org/library/reimagining-work-for-a-just-transition/.
(41) European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Measures to tackle labour shortages: lessons for future policy, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2023, available at: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/publications/report/2023/measures-to-tackle-labour-shortages-lessons-for-future-policy.
(42) European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021.
(43) Council Recommendation of 16 June 2022 on individual learning accounts (OJ C 243, 27.6.2022, p. 26).
(44) Council Recommendation of 12 June 2023 on strengthening social dialogue in the European Union.
(45) Council Recommendation of 16 June 2022 on learning for environmental sustainability.
(46) Council Recommendation of 16 June 2022 on a European approach to micro-credentials for lifelong learning and employability (OJ C 243, 27.6.2022, p. 10).
(47) Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 December 2018 on the Governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, amending Regulations (EC) No 663/2009 and (EC) No 715/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Directives 94/22/EC, 98/70/EC, 2009/31/EC, 2009/73/EC, 2010/31/EU, 2012/27/EU and 2013/30/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council, Council Directives 2009/119/EC and (EU) 2015/652 and repealing Regulation (EU) No 525/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 328, 21.12.2018, p. 1.
(48) European Parliament resolution of 2 February 2023 with recommendations to the Commission on Revision of European Works Council Directive (OJ C 267, 28.7.2023, p. 2) ; European Parliament resolution of 16 December 2021 on democracy at work: a European framework for employees’ participation rights and the revision of the European Works Council Directive (OJ C 251, 30.6.2022, p. 104); European Parliament resolution of 15 January 2013 with recommendations to the Commission on information and consultation of workers, anticipation and management of restructuring (OJ C 440, 30.12.2015, p. 23).
(49) Directive 2002/14/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2002 establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in the European Community – Joint declaration of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission on employee representation (OJ L 80, 23.3.2002, p. 29).
(50) Directive 2009/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on the establishment of a European Works Council or a procedure in Community-scale undertakings and Community-scale groups of undertakings for the purposes of informing and consulting employees (OJ L 122, 16.5.2009, p. 28).
(51) Directive (EU) 2022/2041 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 October 2022 on adequate minimum wages in the European Union (OJ L 275, 25.10.2022, p. 33).
(52) Council Recommendation of 8 November 2019 on access to social protection for workers and the self-employed (OJ C 387, 15.11.2019, p. 1).
(53) Commission report of 2 June 2023 entitled ‘Report on the Temporary Support to mitigate Unemployment Risks in an Emergency (SURE) following the COVID-19 outbreak pursuant to Article 14 of Council Regulation (EU) 2020/672 – SURE after its sunset: final bi-annual report’ (COM(2023)0291).
(54) State of the Union Address 2023, available at: https://neighbourhood-enlargement.ec.europa.eu/news/2023-state-union-address-president-von-der-leyen-2023-09-13_en.
(55) https://commission.europa.eu/strategy-and-policy/eu-budget/eu-borrower-investor-relations/funding-instruments_en.
(56) Proposal of 13 June 2023 for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the transparency and integrity of Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) rating activities (COM(2023)0314).
(57) EU auditors see 2030 climate and energy targets at risk, https://www.eca.europa.eu/en/news/NEWS-SR-2023-18.

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