The Common Agricultural Policy in figures

The tables below show basic statistical data in several areas relating to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), namely: the agriculture and food industries in the Member States (Table II), the integration of environmental concerns into the CAP (Table III), the forestry sector (Table IV), CAP financing and expenditure (Tables I and V) and trade in agricultural and food products (Table VI).

Table I: The 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) and the CAP: negotiating proposals

Commitment appropriations
(EUR billion at 2018 constant prices)
EU-27 2014 -2020
(1)
 
EC proposal 2021-2027 (May 2018)
(2)
 
 
%
(1)/(2)
EP proposal 2021-2027 (November
2018)
(3)
 
 
%
(1)/(3)
EC proposal 2021-2027 (May 2020)
(4)
 
MFF adopted on 17.12.2020 (5)
 
%
(1)/(5)
A. Total MFF commitment appropriations 1 082.2 1 134.6 +5% 1 324.1 +22% 1 100.0 1 074.3 -1%
As a percentage of EU-27 GNI 1.16% 1.11% 1.30% n.a. 1.05% (estimated)
B. CAP — Pillar 1 (EAGF) 286.1 254.2 -11% 286.5 0.0% 258.2 258.6 -10%
C. CAP — Rural development
(EAFRD)
96.7 70.0 -28% 96.7 0.0% 75.0 77.8 (⁎) -19%
D. TOTAL CAP
(Pillars 1 and 2) (B + C)
382.8 324.2 -15% 383.2 0.0% 333.2 336.4 -12%
E. CAP as a percentage of MFF 35.4% 28.5% 28.9% 30.3% 31.3%

Sources: European Commission (proposals of May 2018 and May 2020), European Parliament (resolution of 14 November 2018, OJ C 363, 28.10.2020, p. 179) and Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2020/2093 of 17 December 2020 (OJ L 433I , 22.12.2020, p. 11).

(⁎) The Next Generation EU Programme added EUR 7.5 billion. The total amount available for rural development actions for 2021-2027 will therefore be EUR 85.3 billion.

Table II: Basic figures relating to agriculture and the food industry (EU-28, 2016-2019)

  Utilised agricultural area (UAA)
(1 000 ha)
No of farms
(1 000 farms)
UAA per farm
(ha)
Employment in agriculture
(1 000 persons)
GVA in agriculture (million EUR) Share of primary sector of GVA /GDP
(%)
Factor income per annual work unit
(EUR/
AWU)
Employment in the manufacture of food products
(1 000 persons)
GVA in food industry (million EUR)
  2018 2016 2016 2019 2019 2019 2019 2018 2017
BE 1 356 36.8 36.7 59.1 2 279.3 0.6 32 551.6 86.4 8 236.7
BG 5 030 202.7 22.0 596.8 1 912.6 3.9 9 565.3 81.8 1 042.5
CZ 3 523 26.5 130.2 158.6 1 661.6 2.2 18 466.6 100.1 3 878.5
DK 2 632 35.0 74.6 68.4 3 499.0 1.2 52 852.4 54.6 4 200.8
DE 16 645 276.1 60.5 597.0 2 105.3 0.9 29 633.5 625.2 46 240.0
EE 1 004 16.7 59.6 20.6 350.6 3.1 15 380.1 13.4 393.4
EL 5 288 684.90 6.6 469.4 5 689.2 4.3 15 594.3 124.9 5 615.6
ES 24 201 945.0 24.6 782.1 26 556.0 3.1 29 267.8 369.2 26 255.0
FR 29 020 456.5 60.9 741.0 31 270.7 1.8 33 649.8 623.0 43 677.0
IE 4 516 137.6 35.5 102.9 2 917.0 1.0 19 522.7 49.5 8 812.8
IT 12 908 1 145.7 11.0 930.0 31 775.4 2.2 19 682.9 400.2 (2017) 28 060.8
CY 131 34.9 3.2 15.0 359.0 2.3 16 525.5 12.7 311.2
HR 1 485 134.5 11.6 103.9 1 067.4 3.5 6 361.9 49.1 1 476.3
LV 1 937 69.9 27.6 65.8 533.5 4.1 7 604.4 21.3 543.9
LT 2 947 150.3 19.5 88.6 1 352.7 3.2 6 741.8 38.35 1 523.0
LU 131 1.9 66.3 3.6 117.4 0.3 22 470.1 4.7 277.4
HU 5 343 430.0 10.9 187.7 3 498.7 4.2 9 121.2 97.5 2 285.2
MT 11 9.2 1.2 3.6 62.3 1.0 11 761.9 3.0 147.6
NL 1 822 55.7 32.3 204.0 11 230.3 1.8 44 673.6 127.3 15 726.0
AT 2 653 132.5 20.1 150.7 3 307.3 1.3 20 464.1 74.3 6 286.9
PL 14 539 1 410.7 10.2 1 508.4 10 403.1 2.6 6 959.7 410.3 13 450.3
PT 3 591 259.0 14.1 401.4 3 159.3 2.4 11 992.4 96.7 4 138.4
RO 13 413 3 422.0 3.7 1 884.8 8 980.2 4.8 4 918.5 158.5 8 884.5
SI 477 69.9 7.0 72.1 578.2 2.4 6 296.9 16.0 568.9
SK 1 919 25.7 73.6 73.3 506.7 2.6 17 329.4 38.0 857.4
FI 2 274 49.7 44.9 89.3 1 254.2 2.8 23 242.4 36.0 2 705.0
SE 3 000 62.9 47.9 98.5 1 682.6 1.6 28 082.5 57.8 4 731.5
UK 17 367 185.1 90.1 396.6 11 673.2 0.7 34 421.2 374.5 35 243.1 (2016)
EU-27 161 548     9 476.6 177 056.8 1.8 16 579.5  2 956.7 240 191.6
EU- 28 179 163 10 467.7 16.6 9 873.1 188 730.0 1.7 17 160.5 3 331,2 273 950.7

Sources: Eurostat, ‘Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics’, 2020 Edition; European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2019 update’.

Table III: Basic agri-environmental indicators (EU-28, 2017-2018)

  Share of UAA classed as Natura 2000 area including natural grassland
(%)
Share of energy used in agroforestry of total energy consumption(%) Share of UAA managed by farms by low input intensity (%) Share of UAA under organic farming
(%)
Share of agriculture in production of renewable energy
(%)
Share of forestry in production of renewable energy
(%)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture
(1 000 t CO2 equivalent) and share of total (%)
  2018 2018 2017 2018 2018 2018 2018
BE 7.1 2.4 63.0 6.6 18.8 36.3 9 798 (8.3%)
BG 22.5 1.9 10.3 2.6 6.6 59.5 5 465 (11.1%)
CZ 6.6 2.6 27.8 14.8 16.6 67.2 8 136 (6.1%)
DK 4.0 4.3 42.7 9.8 7.1 42.9 16 842 (30.9%)
DE 10.7 1.7 34.4 7.3 24.1 27.2 91 454 (11.0%)
EE 5.8 4.3 29.2 20.6 0.3 94.5 1 764 (9.8%)
EL 18.7 1.7 40.2 9.3 6.0 25.9 6 567 (7.4%)
ES 16.6 3.0 27.0 9.3 9.8 29.0 35 532 (12.0%)
FR 8.4 2.9 31.6 7.0 13.3 37.0 84 540 (20.2%)
IE 3.6 2.0 31.1 2.6 2.6 18.6 26 215 (40.2%)
IT 9.5 2.4 35.0 15.2 8.3 26.5 21 444 (5.5%)
CY 6.3 2.7 61.4 4.6 5.9 11.8 220 (2.6%)
HR 25.7 3.2 26.9 6.9 2.7 62.6 2 892 (15.5%)
LV 6.4 4.5 28.4 14.5 6.0 85.8 6 683 (50.9%)
LT 4.5 2.0 35.2 8.1 10.3 79.1 4 365 (26.6%)
LU 21.1 0.6 30.6 4.4 11.5 52.2 673 (6.5%)
HU 14.8 3.6 24.6 3.9 17.2 71.1 6 755 (11.5%)
MT 8.1 0.9 38.2 0.4 4.8 0.0 68 (3.1%)
NL 4.2 8.1 23.6 3.2 37.0 23.7 23 069 (12.0%)
AT 11.8 2.0 21.0 24.1 5.4 47.0 7 546 (10.2%)
PL 11.5 5.6 33.5 3.3 11.8 69.3 31 478 (8.4%)
PT 17.8 2.4 30.6 5.9 5.2 41.8 7 381 (12.1%)
RO 12.7 2.4 16.1 2.4 3.2 58.3 17 558 (19.2%)
SI 23.5 1.5 35.5 10.0 1.9 51.8 1 164 (6.6%)
SK 16.2 1.3 20.2 9.9 17.8 56.3 1 411 (3.7%)
FI 1.1 2.7 37.5 13.1 2.7 74.1 15 140 (32.8%)
SE 4.0 1.9 30.4 20.3 2.4 48.5 10 585 (108%)
UK 2.6 1.0 32.3 2.6 11.3 26.9 42 144 (9.3%)
EU-27 11.2 2.9 27.0 8.0 12.1 41.4 444 746 (12.7%)
EU-28 10.9 2.7 27.2 7.5 12.1 40.3 486 890 (12.3%)

Source: European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2019 update’.

Table IV: Basic data on EU forests (EU-27, 2015-2019)

Member State
EU-27
Forests / Wooded land area
(1 000 ha, 2019)
Share of forests in total area (%) (2019) GVA/forest area (EUR/hectare) (2018) Ownership of forest: % of Public forests
(2015)
Forest and other wooded land per inhabitant
(ha, 2015)
Persons employed in forestry (1 000 AWU) (2018)
Austria 3 885.6 46.4 274 25.8 0.47 21.7
Belgium 689.3 22.6 121 46.5 0.06 2.3
Bulgaria 3 880.0 35.2 68 87.9 0.53 22.2
Croatia 1 936.6 34.2 112 71.7 0.59 14.4
Cyprus 172.7 (2015) 33.9 442 68.8 0.34 21.8
Czechia 2 675.3 33.9 442 76.6 0.25 21.8
Denmark 627.5 14.6 557 23.7 0.12 6.0
Estonia 2 438.4 53.9 98 41.3 1.85 5.8
Finland 22 409.0 66.2 183 30.4 4.23 20.8
France 17 169.6 27.1 206 24.7 0.27 30.0
Germany 11 419.0 32.0 275 52 0.14 39.0
Greece 3 901.8 29.5 14 77.5 0.59 9.0
Hungary 2 054.5 22.1 129 57.6 0.22 20.7
Ireland 778.0 11.1 24 53.2 0.17 2.4
Italy 9 512.3 31.5 208 33.6 0.19 38.8
Latvia 3 406.9 52.8 163 52.3 1.72 17.9
Lithuania 2 200.0 33.7 122 61.4 0.77 11.9
Luxembourg 88.7 34.3 400 47.1 0.16 0.3
Malta 0.4 1.5 0.0 0.0
The Netherlands 368.6 8.9 430 48.5 0.02 2.0
Poland 9 471.0 30.3 165 81.9 0.24 73.3
Portugal 3 312.0 35.9 288 3 0.47 15.3
Romania 6 929.1 29.1 257 67 0.35 51.8
Slovakia 1 925.9 39.3 256 50.2 0.36 25.5
Slovenia 1 185.6 58.5 228 25.3 0.62 7.1
Spain 18 567.9 36.7 54 29.2 0.59 88.8
Sweden 27 980.0 63.8 110 24.3 3.18 40.0
EU-27 158 822.9 37.7 168 39.7 (EU 28) 0.36 (EU 28) 519.4

Source: Eurostat and DG AGRI

Table V: CAP expenditure by Member State (EU-28, 2019)

  1. Distribution by Member State
Direct Aids/Markets and other measures 2018 / Rural Development 2019
(EUR million)
2. Percentage of farms benefiting from direct aids under the EAGF
(2019)
Member State
 
a. Direct aids
(1st pillar — EAGF)
b. Total
1st pillar — EAGF
(incl. (a.))
c. Total EAFRD
(2nd pillar)
(b+c) % of total EU d. With aid ≤ EUR 5 000 e. With aid ≤ EUR 20 000 f. With aid ≥ EUR 50 000
BE 488.3 553.9 78.9 1.1% 34.50 74.65 3.79
BG 785.3 805.4 308.6 2,0% 65.86 89.90 4.77
HR 278.85 288,2 299.6 1.0% 89.92 98.44 0.29
CZ 854.3 875.3 393.8 2.3% 57.19 80.89 10.10
DK 822.3 833.3 101.1 1.7% 49.38 73.33 13.17
DE 4 794.3 4 910.0 1 273.6 11.2% 45.11 79.93 4.73
EE 133.0 134.2 124.9 0.4% 75.68 90.04 4.07
EL 1 982.3 2 038.7 411.4 4.4% 82.27 98.17 0.15
ES 5 101.4 5 690.7 1 165.6 12.4% 68.55 90.25 2.15
FR 6 935.0 7 480.3 2 063.5 17.3% 26.93 57.54 8.64
IE 1 200.4 1 198.2 324.0 2.7% 40.96 88.68 1.29
IT 3 633.6 4 273.0 1 449.1 10.4% 81.32 95.67 1.14
CY 48.5 55.1 20.9 0.1% 94.58 98.98 0.18
LV 252.6 254.0 206.5 0.8% 86.04 95.81 1.42
LT 468.9 469.3 181.2 1.1% 84.94 96.72 0.74
LU 32.9 33.4 14.4 0.1% 27.33 59.74 5.58
HU 1 265.2 1 303.0 511.3 3.3% 78.14 92.72 2.63
MT 5.1 5.7 19.4 0.0% 96.80 99.05 0.10
NL 679.5 703.8 90.4 1.4% 28.34 73.89 3.20
AT 691.1 716.4 538.1 2.2% 56.91 95.60 0.40
PL 3 387.3 3 415.6 1 092.2 8.1% 87.56 99.97 0.24
PT 671.3 775.1 523.0 2.3% 86.92 96.12 1.33
RO 1 847.4 1 889.8 967.0 5.2% 93.62 98.37 0.60
SI 134.7 142.1 120.1 0.5% 90.16 99.20 0.10
SK 445.1 456.3 209.3 1.2% 73.21 86.12 8.82
FI 523.1 528.4 351.1 1.6% 47.31 86.14 2.44
SE 687.5 709.2 226.3 1.7% 57.69 83.10 5.18
UK 3 186.2 3 228.7 773.9 7.2% 30.46 68.12 10.65
EU 0.0 195.3 0.0 0.3%
EU-27 (Ex. UK) 38 149.4 40 733.7 13 066.1
EU-28 41 335.6 43 962.4 13 840.0 100.0 74.89 92.16 1.93

Sources: Columns (a) and (b): European Commission, 13th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund — EAGF 2019.

Column (c): European Commission, 13th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development — EAFRD 2019.

Columns (d), (e) and (f): European Commission, ‘Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by size-class of aid, received in the context of direct aid paid to the producers in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1307/2013 — Financial Year 2019’.

Table VI: Trade in agricultural and food products in EU-27 by selected countries (2019)

EXTRA-EU-27 TRADE A. Imports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 B. Exports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 Balance
(B-A)
1. All trade 1 934 944 2 132 015 197 071
2. Agricultural-food trade 121 644 100 181 825 100 60 181
% agricultural-food trade (2/1) 6.3% 8.5% ---
Commodities / primary products 76 168 65.0% 65 281 35.9% -10 887
Processed (incl. wine) 12 064 9.9% 38 878 21.4% 24 814
Food preparations and beverages 17 443 14.3% 58 557 32.2% 41 114
Non-edible 12 968 10.7% 19 108 10.5% 6 140
SELECTED COUNTRIES          
Argentina 4 365 3.6% 207 0.1% -4 158
Brazil 10 760 8.9% 1 799 1.0% -8961
China 5 331 4.4% 14 491 8.0% 9 160
India 2 609 2.1% 746 0.4% -1 863
Indonesia 3 882  3.2% 932 0.5% -2 950
Japan 347 0.3% 7 280 4.0% 6 933
Russia 1 509 1.2% 7 027 3.9% 5 518
Switzerland 4 589 3.8% 8 376 4.6% 3 778
United Kingdom 16 750 13.8 41 215 22.7 24 465
Ukraine 7 024 5.8% 2 455 1.4% -4 569
United States of America 10 182 8.4% 21 851 12.0% 11 669
SELECTED COUNTRIES (TOTALS) 67 348 55.3% 106 379 58.5% 39 031

Source: European Commission (DG AGRI), Agri-Food Trade Statistical Factsheet. EU — Extra EU-28, March 2020; Trade Statistics 2019 — DG AGRI (Trade picture files by country — Main EU partners).

 

Albert Massot