The Common Agricultural Policy in figures

The tables below show basic statistical data in several areas relating to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), namely: the agriculture and food industries in the Member States (Table II), the integration of environmental concerns into the CAP (Table III), the forestry sector (Table IV), CAP financing and expenditure (Tables I and V) and trade in agricultural and food products (Table VI).

Table I: The 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) and the CAP: negotiating proposals

Commitment appropriations
(EUR billion at 2018 constant prices)
 
 
EU-27 2014 -2020
(1)
 
EC proposal 2021-2027 (May 2018)
(2)
 
 
% (1)/(2)
 
 
EP proposal 2021-2027 (November 2018)
(3)
 
 
% (1)/(3)
 
 
Finnish Presidency proposal (December 2019)
(4)
 
Council Presidency proposal (February 2020)
(5)
 
% (1)/(5)
 
 
A. Total MFF commitment appropriations 1 082.2 1 134.6 +5% 1 324.1 +22% 1 087.0 1 094.8 +1%
As a percentage of EU-27 GNI 1.16% 1.11% 1.30% 1.07% 1.074%
B. CAP — Pillar 1 (EAGF) 286.1 254.2 -11% 286.5 0.0% 254.2 256.7 -10%
C. CAP — Rural development
(EAFRD)
96.7 70.0 -28% 96.7 0.0% 80.0 72.5 -25%
D. TOTAL CAP
(Pillars 1 and 2) (B + C)
382.8 324.2 -15% 383.2 0.0% 334.2 329.2 -14%
E. CAP as a percentage of MFF 35.4% 28.5% 28.9% 30.7% 30.1%

Sources: European Commission (proposals of May 2018), European Parliament (resolution of 14 November 2018, Texts adopted, P8_TA(2018)0449) and Council (draft conclusions of December 2019 and February 2020)

Table II: Basic figures relating to agriculture and the food industry (EU-28, 2012-2017)

  Utilised agri-cultural area (UAA)
(1 000 ha)
No of farms
(1 000 farms)
UAA per farm
(ha)
Employment in agriculture
(1 000 persons)
Total agricultural output
(million EUR)
Share of primary sector of GVA/GDP
(%)
Factor income per annual work unit
(EUR/AWU)
Employment in the food industry
(1 000 persons)
Share of food industry in GVA
(%)
  2017 2016 2016 2017 2019 2018 2017 2016 2012
BE 1 329 36.8 36.7 51.4 8 701 0.8 33 617 119.7 2.0
BG 5 030 202.7 22.0 186.6 4 253 4.2 8 965 109.0 3.8
CZ 3 521 26.5 130.2 113.3 5 422 2.2 19 840 130.5 2.4
DK 2 631 35.0 74.6 56.7 11 649 1.2 43 461 60.3 1.4
DE 16 687 276.1 60.5 490.3 57 005 0.8 33 443 913.2 (2011) 1.7
EE 1 002 16.7 59.6 17.1 1 004 2.6 13 353 14.0 2.0
EL 5 151 684.90 6.6 437.8 11 307 4.3 15 070 128.5 (2011) 3.2
ES 23 841 945.0 24.6 749.7 50 637 2.9 32 459 482.4 (2011) 2.7
FR 29 101 456.5 60.9 646.1 75 419 1.8 32 272 648.8 1.9
IE 4 470 137.6 35.5 104.3 8 578 1.0 22 783 56.6 4.7
IT 12 843 1 145.7 11.0 797.8 56 579 2.1 19 579 493.7 1.9
CY 123 34.9 3.2 8.7 740 2.0 16 459 9.5 2.0
HR 1 497 134.5 11.6 92.2 2 275 3.6 5 961 62.8
LV 1 932 69.9 27.6 45.7 1 560 3.8 6 269 27.9 (2010) 2.4
LT 2 935 150.3 19.5 90.9 3 000 3.0 6 413 38.7 4.6
LU 131 1.9 66.3 3.1 429 0.3 23 082 1.3 0.7
HU 5 352 430.0 10.9 197.3 8 705 4.3 8 715 141.5 2.2
MT 11 9.2 1.2 1.5 127 1.0 9 913 4.6 1.7
NL 1 790 55.7 32.3 171.1 28 635 1.8 54 576 141.0 2.8
AT 2 656 132.5 20.1 157.2 7 561 1.3 19 628 82.9 1.9
PL 14 498 1 410.7 10.2 1 574.2 26 789 2.8 6 965 542.1 (2011) 2.9
PT 3 603 259.0 14.1 278.6 7 958 2.3 10 902 103.4 (2011) 2.2
RO 13 378 3 422.0 3.7 1 925.2 19 942 4.8 4 380 216.1 (2011) 6.1
SI 481 69.9 7.0 49.4 1 320 2.2 5 072 17.0 1.5
SK 1 911 25.7 73.6 48.5 2 232 3.3 19 212 54.4 1.7
FI 2 272 49.7 44.9 70.8 4 571 2.8 19 736 36.8 1.6
SE 3 011 62.9 47.9 60.8 6 243 1.2 27 785 46.3 1.3
UK 17 360 185.1 90.1 329.4 0.6 36 365 416.2 (2011) 1.6
EU- 28 178 548 10 467.7 16.6 8 756.0 412 808 (EU-27) 1.6 17 304 5 116.6 2.0 (EU-27)

Sources: Eurostat, ‘Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics’, 2018 Edition; European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2018 update’.

Table III: Basic agri-environmental indicators (EU-28, 2012-2017)

  Share of UAA classed as Natura 2000 area
(%)
Territory classed as nitrate vulnerable zone (NVZ)
(%)
Farming intensity (EUR per ha UAA in constant input prices) Share of UAA under organic farming
(%)
Share of agriculture in production of renewable energy
(%)
Share of forestry in production of renewable energy
(%)
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural soils
(1 000 t CO2 equivalent) and share of total (%)
  2016 2012 2016 2017 2016 2016 2016
BE 7.2 76.2 1 322 6.6 27.2 42.1 10 582 (8.8%)
BG 22.4 34.6 201 2.6 2.3 58.3 5 603 (10.4%)
CZ 6.6 41.6 303 14.7 17.9 69.4 7 604 (6.0%)
DK 4.7 100.0 803 9.7 3.0 45.5 14 773 (26.2%)
DE 10.6 100.0 632 7.3 26.6 30.8 98 556 (10.8%)
EE 5.7 7.2 113 20.5 0.0 95.6 1 948 (11.4%)
EL 18.7 24.3 363 9.3 5.4 31.7 6 324 (6.7%)
ES 16.8 16.2 280 9.3 6.8 30.0 30 774 (10.5%)
FR 8.3 45.5 454 7.0 9.9 46.4 82 927 (18.8%)
IE 3.7 100.0 344 2.6 3.2 23.3 25 793 (38.1%)
IT 10.8 12.6 509 15.2 8.7 30.4 25 839 (6.2%)
CY 6.1 5.3 972 4.6 9.4 7.4 206 (2.3%)
HR 25.7 n.a. 339 6.9 1.9 67.1 2 955 (15.3%)
LV 6.6 12.8 139 14.5 5.9 85.2 5 958 (56.1%)
LT 4.6 100.0 128 8.1 7.3 80.1 6 344 (51.6%)
LU 21.1 100.0 458 4.4 14.1 50.6 740 (7.7%)
HU 14.7 56.2 232 3.9 13.5 75.1 6 587 (11.2%)
MT 7.9 100.0 4 581 0.4 7.8 0.0 66 (3.1%)
NL 4.3 100.0 2 213 3.1 35.0 29.0 26 110 (12.8%)
AT 11.5 100.0 395 24.1 7.0 48.1 7 589 (9.8%)
PL 11.5 4.5 244 3.3 10.3 71.1 28 785 (7.6%)
PT 18.1 3.7 271 5.9 4.3 44.7 7 392 (11.3%)
RO 12.7 57.8 194 2.4 2.7 58.7 16 098 (17.8%)
SI 23.2 100.0 280 10.0 2.2 55.1 1 673 (12.8%)
SK 16.0 29.8 161 9.9 18.5 52.1 1 267 (3.6%)
FI 1.2 100.0 403 13.1 4.3 79.0 14 105 (42.6%)
SE 4.1 19.8 343 20.3 1.2 54.1 10 438 (95.8%)
UK 2.5 43.6 336 9.8 30.9 43 060 (8.9%)
EU-28 11.0 45.3
(EU-27)
396.6 8.0
(EU-27)
11.7 44.7 490 098 (11.9%)

Source: European Commission, ‘CAP Context Indicators 2014-2020, 2018 update’.

Table IV: Basic data on EU forests (EU-28, 2010-2015)

Member State
EU-28
Forests[1]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other wooded land[2]
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Other land
(1 000 ha, 2015)
Ownership of forest: % of Public forests
(2015)
Forest and other wooded land per inhabitant
(ha, 2015)
Volume of total roundwood removals
(1 000 m³, 2010)
Austria 3 869 153 4 221.5 25.8 0.47 17 550
Belgium 683.4 35.7 2 308.7 46.5 0.06
Bulgaria 3 823 22 7 011 87.9 0.53 6 372
Croatia 1 922 569 3 105 71.7 0.59 5 178
Cyprus 172.7 213.5 538 68.8 0.34 11
Czechia 2 667.4 5 054.2 76.6 0.25 16 183
Denmark 612.2 45.5 3 585.3 23.7 0.12 3 180
Estonia 2 232 223.6 2 067.2 41.3 1.85 7 736
Finland 22 218 801 7 370 30.4 4.23 59 411
France 16 989 590 37 187 24.7 0.27 51 005
Germany 11 419 23 442 52 0.14 55 613
Greece 3 903 2 636 6 351 77.5 0.59 1 217
Hungary 2 069.1 121.3 7 113.2 57.6 0.22
Ireland 754 47.2 6 087.8 53.2 0.17 2 908
Italy 9 297 1 813 18 304 33.6 0.19
Latvia 3 356 112 2 750 52.3 1.72 12 294
Lithuania 2 180 104 3 983.5 61.4 0.77 6 414
Luxembourg 86.8 1.4 170.9 47.1 0.16 381
Malta 0.3 31.7
The Netherlands 376 2 999 48.5 0.02 1 173
Poland 9 435 21 187 81.9 0.24 41 375
Portugal 3 182.1 1 725.1 4 118.3 3 0.47 11 533
Romania 6 861 90 16 051 67 0.35 15 315
Slovakia 1 940 2 870 50.2 0.36 8 995
Slovenia 1 248 23 743 25.3 0.62 5 054
Spain 18 417.9 9 208.8 22 253.3 29.2 0.59 16 719
Sweden 28 073 2 432 10 528 24.3 3.18 74 300
United Kingdom 3 144 20 21 029 28.4 0.05 10 550
EU-28 161 082 20 836 242 461 39.7 0.36 446 819

Source: Eurostat

Table V: CAP expenditure by Member State (EU-28, 2018)

  1. Distribution by Member State
Direct Aids/Markets and other measures 2018 / Rural Development 2018
(EUR million)
2. Percentage of farms benefiting from direct aids under the EAGF
(2018)
Member State
 
a. Direct aids
(1st pillar — EAGF)
b. Total
1st pillar — EAGF
(incl. (a.))
c. Total EAFRD
(2nd pillar)
(b+c) % of total EU d. With aid ≤ EUR 5 000 e. With aid ≤ EUR 20 000 f. With aid ≥ EUR 50 000
BE 501.5 608.9 69.1 1.2 34.36 74.75 3.95
BG 783.8 815.5 205.7 1.8 67.73 90.29 4.60
HR 240.5 249.2 206.1 0.8 91.13 98.78 0.23
CZ 834.1 852.7 324.6 2.0 58.93 81.45 10.05
DK 827.4 842.8 89.7 1.6 48.80 73.13 13.05
DE 4 815.1 4 999.7 1 117.7 10.8 44.85 80.13 4.52
EE 122.6 125.8 128.1 0.4 77.52 90.96 3.67
EL 2 043.8 2 116.9 579.9 4.8 81.97 98.11 0.17
ES 5 072.3 5 581.8 899.7 12.1 69.03 90.61 2.08
FR 7 193.5 7 822.8 1 725.0 16.9 27.55 57.14 9.16
IE 1 197.0 1 226.5 318.7 2.7 44.62 88.84 1.29
IT 3 675.7 4 322.8 1 045.7 9.5 81.69 95.73 1.18
CY 49.4 57.3 14.5 0.1 94.62 98.95 0.18
LV 228.1 237.1 192.6 0.8 87.31 96.39 1.23
LT 462.5 491.4 219.4 1.2 86.39 96.91 0.70
LU 33.1 33.6 14.5 0.1 26.50 58.51 5.48
HU 1 279.6 1 320.0 385.9 3.1 78.44 92.86 2.60
MT 5.1 5.3 9.3 0.0 96.85 99.19 0.10
NL 720.3 778.6 80.7 1.5 28.40 71.45 3.73
AT 691.4 719.4 512.8 2.2 57.79 95.40 0.39
PL 3 364.6 3 433.3 944.5 7.8 87.93 99.03 0.23
PT 665.0 769.6 503.0 2.2 87.06 96.22 1.30
RO 1 774.5 1 810.5 1 146.1 5.2 94.15 98.43 0.58
SI 134.8 142.2 110.9 0.4 80.05 99.18 0.10
SK 438.4 447.9 200.2 1.1 73.47 86.58 8.48
FI 523.4 532.3 351.8 1.6 47.25 86.59 2.28
SE 685.6 697.7 195.6 1.6 58.53 83.33 5.08
UK 3 132.8 3 181.3 580.9 6.7 30.56 68.23 10.39
EU-27 (Ex. UK) 38 315.2 41 041.8 11 592.6
EU-28 41 496.5 44 223.1 12 173.5 100.0 75.23 92.21 1.94

Sources: Columns (a) and (b): European Commission, 12th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Guarantee Fund — EAGF 2018. Column (b) does not include expenditure made directly by the Commission (EUR 141.4 million in 2018).

Column (c): European Commission, 12th Financial Report on the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development — EAFRD 2018, Total payments made by Member State, Tables 10a (2007-2013 period) and 10b (2014-2020 period).

Columns (d), (e) and (f): European Commission, ‘Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by size-class of aid, received in the context of direct aid paid to the producers in accordance with Council Regulation (EC) No 1307/2013 — Financial Year 2018’.

Table VI: Trade in agricultural and food products in EU-28 by selected countries (2018)

EXTRA-EU-28 TRADE A. Imports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 B. Exports
(EUR million)
% of row 2 Balance
(B-A)
1. All trade 1 980 361 1 955 746 -24 615
2. Agricultural-food trade 116 310 100 137 528 100 21 218
% agricultural-food trade (2/1) 5.9% 7.0% -86.2%
Commodities / primary products 79 905 68.7% 46 010 33.5% -33 895
Processed (incl. wine) 12 625 10.9% 27 198 19.8% 14 573
Food preparations and beverages 11 280 9.7% 49 439 35.9% 38 159
Non-edible 12 500 10.7% 14 882 10.8% 2 382
SELECTED COUNTRIES          
Argentina 5 138 4.4% 265 0.2% -4 871
Brazil 11 910 10.2% 1 784 1.3% -10 126
China 5 711 4.9% 11 101 8.1% 5 390
India 3 153 2.7% 849 0.5% -2 304
Indonesia 4 341 3.7% 772 0.6% -3 569
Japan 350 0.3% 6 642 4.8% 6 292
Russia 1 630 1.4% 6 624 4.8% 4 994
Switzerland 4 593 4.0% 8 254 6.0% 3 661
Ukraine 5 617 4.8% 2 064 1.5% -3 553
United States of America 12 078 10.4% 22 256 16.2% 10 178
SELECTED COUNTRIES (TOTALS) 54 521 46.9% 60 611 44.0% -6 090

Source: European Commission (DG AGRI), Agri-Food Trade Statistical Factsheet. EU — Extra EU-28, March 2019; Monitoring EU Agri-Food Trade: Agri-food trade in 2018; Trade Statistics 2018 — DG AGRI (Trade picture files by country — Main EU partners).

 

[1]‘Forest’: land spanning more than 0.5 ha with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ.
[2]‘Other wooded land’: land not classified as ‘forest’, spanning more than 0.5 ha, with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5-10%, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ; or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10%.

Albert Massot