The migration crisis has exposed shortcomings in Europe’s asylum system, compelling the EU into action. Learn about Parliament’s response to the crisis.
In 2015 there were 1.83 million illegal crossings at the EU's external borders. While this number fell to 141,700 in 2019, Parliament has come up with a number of proposals in recent years to remedy shortcomings in the EU’s asylum and migration policy: from reforming the asylum system to strengthening border security and promoting the integration of refugees.
Reinforcing the asylum system and sharing responsibility between EU countries
In response to the refugee crisis in 2015, the European Commission presented proposals to reform the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) in 2016, including a reform of the Dublin System to better allocate asylum applicants among EU countries. However, member states failed to reach an agreement on the proposals how to share responsibility.
On 23 September, the Commission proposed a new a New Pact on Migration and Asylum which sets out improved and faster procedures throughout the EU’s asylum and migration system. The new pact constitutes a revision of the Dublin regulation, which determines the country responsible for processing each asylum claim.
Read more about the New Pact on Migration and Asylum and MEPs’ reaction to it
As well as a reform of the Dublin system, the European Parliament has been working to tighten border controls and improve the ability of member states to track people entering Europe.
During Parliament’s 2014-2019 legislative term, MEPs also worked on clear Europe-wide rules for distinguishing regular migrants from refugees or to ensure fair and equal treatment of asylum-seekers.
Read more about reinforcing the Common European Asylum System
Securing EU external borders and managing migration flows
The refugee influx put enormous pressure on national border authorities. Parliament called for a strengthening of the EU border agency Frontex and in December 2015 the European Commission put forward a proposal for a new European Border and Coast Guard with the aim of reinforcing the management and security of the EU's external borders and supporting national border guards. The new agency was launched in October 2016. There are plans to give the agency a standing corps of 10,000 border guards by 2027.
The new migration and asylum system proposed by the Commission in September 2020 aims to introduce a new system of flexible contributions and make solidarity with EU front line states compulsory when they are “under pressure” from arrivals. The proposal also aims to open up more channels for legal migration, facilitate cooperation with non-EU countries and ensure a faster asylum process at the borders, including swift returns for rejected asylum seekers. The Parliament and member states (Council) will have to find agreement on those new proposals as co-legislators.
Members have also backed a proposal to strengthen the current European Asylum Support Office (EASO) that will become the EU Agency for Asylum. The agency would facilitate the functioning of the Common European Asylum System and help ensure convergence in the assessment of asylum applications across the EU.
In a resolution adopted in 2019, Parliament backed a substantial increase in funding for migration and border management over the period 2021-2027 compared to the 2014-2020 budget. The share of the EU budget that will be allocated to the fund for the next seven years is currently under negotiations.
Read our page on EU border control and the management of migrants.
Fostering refugees’ integration in Europe
The EU is also taking steps to help migrants integrate into societies in their new home countries. The Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund, set up for the period 2014-2020 with a total of €3.137 billion, promotes the efficient management of migration flows and the implementation and strengthening of a common EU approach to asylum and immigration.
With the new Pact on Migration and Asylum, the Commission foresees a new comprehensive action plan on integration and inclusion for 2021-2024.
Parliament is also proactive and has called for more funding for programmes to create new opportunities such as jobs and education for vulnerable groups and refugees in particular.