EU responses to climate change 

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Climate change will affect everyone. Photo by Ezra Comeau-Jeffrey on Unsplash  

Fighting climate change is a priority for the Parliament. Below you will find details of the solutions the EU and the Parliament are working on.

Limiting global warming: a matter of 2°C increase


Average global temperatures have risen significantly since the industrial revolution and the last decade (2010–2019) was the  warmest decade on record. Of the 20 warmest years, 19 have occurred since 2000.


Data from the Copernicus Climate Change Service shows that 2020 was also the warmest year on record for Europe. The majority of evidence indicates that this is due to the rise of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) produced by human activity.


The average global temperature is today 0.94 to 1.03 °C higher than at the end of the 19th century. Scientists consider an increase of 2°C compared to pre-industrialised levels as a threshold with dangerous and catastrophic consequences for climate and the environment.


This is why the international community agrees that global warming needs to stay well below a 2°C increase.


Why is an EU response important?


According to the European Environment Agency, the EU is the world's third biggest greenhouse gases emitter after China and the US.

EU efforts are paying off. In 2008, the EU set the target to cut emissions by 20% compared to 1990 levels by 2020. By 2019, emissions had dropped by over 28%.


Check out our infographics about climate change in Europe

What are the EU’s targets?


Under the Paris agreement, the EU committed to cutting greenhouse gas emissions in the EU by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030.In addition, the EU has pledged to reach net-zero emissions by 2050 under the European Green Deal. It has put several measures in place to reach this target.

In June 2021, Parliament approved the EU climate law making climate neutrality by 2050 legally binding in the EU and setting an interim target of 55% emission reduction by 2030.

Cutting greenhouse gas emissions

The EU has put in place different types of mechanisms depending on the sector.

To cut emissions from power stations and industry, the EU has put into place the first major carbon market. With the Emissions Trading System (ETS), companies have to buy permits to emit CO2, so the less they pollute, the less they pay. This system covers 40% of total EU greenhouse gas emissions.


For other sectors such as construction or agriculture, reductions will be achieved through agreed national emissions targets, which are calculated, based on countries' gross domestic product per capita.

Regarding road transport, in early 2019, the European Parliament backed legislationsto reduce CO2 emissions by 37.5% for new cars, 31% for vans and 30% for new trucks by 2030.

So far there have been no EU requirements for ships to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In September 2020, MEPs voted in favour of including maritime transport in the ETS as of 2022 and of setting binding requirements for shipping companies to reduce their CO2 emissions by at least 40% by 2030.

The EU also wants to use the CO2 absorption power of forests to fight climate change. In 2017, MEPs voted in favour of a regulation to prevent emissions resulting from deforestation and change of land use (LULUCF).

In addition, the European Commission is expected to come up with a proposal later this year for a carbon border adjustment mechanism, which would encourage companies in and outside the EU to decarbonise, by placing a carbon price on the imports of certain goods if they come from less climate ambitious countries. It is intended to avoid carbon leakage, which happens when industries move production to countries with less strict greenhouse gas emissions rules.


Find out more details about
EU measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions


Addressing the energy challenge


The EU also fights climate change with a clean energy policy adopted by the Parliament in 2018. The focus is on increasing the share of renewable energy consumed to 32% by 2030 and creating the possibility for people to produce their own green energy.

In addition, the EU wants to improve energy efficiency 32.5% by 2030 and adopted legislation on buildings and household appliances.

The targets for both renewable energy share and energy efficiency will be revised up in the context of the Green Deal.


Discover more about
EU measures to promote clean energy


The European Green Deal


The European Green Deal is a roadmap for Europe to become a climate-neutral continent by 2050. One of its objectives is a legal framework for climate: the EU Climate Law, which will become legally binding for all EU countries in 2021.


The concrete legislation that will allow Europe to reach the Green Deal’s targets is laid down in the Fit for 55 package that the Commission presented in July 2021. It will include the revision of legislation linked to energy efficiency, renewables, ETS, carbon border mechanism and CO₂ emissions for new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles.

Read more about the Green Deal


EU funding for climate


In order to finance the Green Deal, the European Commission presented in January 2020 the Sustainable Europe Investment Plan, which aims to attract at least €1 trillion of public and private investment over the next decade.


Under the investment plan, the Just Transition Fund is designed to support regions and communities that are most affected by a green transition, for instance regions that are heavily dependent on coal.


The EU has introduced new rules to define what qualifies as green or sustainable activities. The aim is to encourage investment in environmentally sustainable activities and prevent funding from going to so-called greenwashing projects that claim to be environmentally friendly, but in reality are not.


As part of the EU long term budget for 2021-2027, and in line with the recovery efforts, the EU will ensure funding for agriculture, Horizon Europe, the Life programme, the Environment Action programme, the Just Transition Fund, regional and cohesion funds goes to projects in line with its climate ambitious.