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Thursday, 17 November 2005 - Strasbourg Final edition
Development strategy for Africa

European Parliament resolution on a development strategy for Africa (2005/2142(INI))

The European Parliament ,

-   having regard to the United Nations Millennium Declaration of 8 September 2000, which sets out the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as criteria established jointly by the international community for the elimination of poverty,

-   having regard to the successive Human Development Reports drawn up by the United Nations Development Programme,

-   having regard to the report by the UN Millennium Project Task Force headed by Professor Jeffrey Sachs entitled "Investing in Development: a practical plan to achieve the Millennium Development Goals",

-   having regard to the March 2005 report of the Commission for Africa entitled "Our Common Interest",

-   having regard to the 2004-2007 Strategic Plan of the Commission of the African Union (AU), adopted on 7 July 2004 at the third Summit of African Heads of State and Government in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,

-   having regard to the African leaders' October 2001 document: "The New Partnership for Africa's Development" (NEPAD), which was declared a programme of the AU at the first summit of that organisation,

-   having regard to the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD),

-   having regard to the European Programme for Action to Confront HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis through external action (2007-2011) (COM(2005)0179),

-   having regard to the Coherent Policy Framework for External Action to Confront HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis,

-   having regard to the Economic Report on Africa 2004 entitled "Unlocking Africa's Trade Potential" by the UN Economic Commission for Africa,

-   having regard to G8 Africa Action Plan, released on 27 June 2002 by the Group of Eight in Kananaskis,

-   having regard to the Progress Report by the G8 Africa Personal Representatives on implementation of the Africa Action Plan, released on 1 July 2005 by the Group of Eight in London,

-   having regard to the Gleneagles Communiqué, released on 8 July 2005 by the Group of Eight in Gleneagles,

-   having regard to the European Commission's Report of 29 October 2004 on the Millennium Development Goals 2000-2004 (SEC(2004)1379),

-   having regard to the Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament and the European Economic and Social Committee of 12 April 2005 entitled "Speeding up progress towards the Millennium Development Goals - The European Union's contribution" (COM(2005)0132),

-   having regard to the European Community's Development Policy Statement adopted by the Council and the Commission on 10 November 2000 (currently under revision),

-   having regard to the Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions of 13 July 2005 entitled "Proposal for a Joint Declaration by the Council, the European Parliament and the Commission on the European Union Development Policy – "The European Consensus" (COM(2005)0311),

-   having regard to the Conclusions of the General Affairs and External Relations Council (GAERC) of 22-23 November 2004 and of 23-24 May 2005, and the conclusions of the European Council of 16-17 June 2005,

-   having regard to the successive UNCTAD reports on Economic Development in Africa,

-   having regard to the action plan drawn up at the Africa-Europe Summit held in Cairo on 3-4 April 2000 under the aegis of the Organization of African Unity and the European Union,

-   having regard to the EU-US Declaration entitled "Working Together to Promote Peace, Stability, Prosperity, and Good Governance in Africa" of 20 June 2005,

-   having regard to the document: "Why we need to work more effectively in fragile states", published in January 2005 by the UK Department for International Development,

-   having regard to the study entitled "Ending Africa's Poverty Trap"(1) ,

-   having regard to Articles 177 to 181 of the Treaty establishing the European Community,

-   having regard to its resolutions of 26 October 2000 on the Commission communication to the Council and the European Parliament on cooperation with ACP countries involved in armed conflicts(2) , of 25 April 2002 on the financing of development aid(3) , of 3 September 2002 on trade and development for poverty eradication(4) , of 15 May 2003 on capacity-building in the developing countries(5) , of 15 May 2003 on the Commission communication to the Council and the European Parliament on education and training in the context of poverty reduction in developing countries(6) , of 3 June 2003 on the implementation of macro-financial assistance to third countries(7) , of 14 January 2004 on the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)(8) , of 31 March 2004 on Governance in the European Union's development policy(9) , of 13 January 2005 on debt relief for developing countries(10) , of 24 February 2005 on action against hunger and poverty(11) , of 24 February 2005 on the Commission's legislative and work programme for 2005(12) , of 28 April 2005 on the Annual Report on Human Rights in the World 2004 and the EU's policy on the matter(13) , and of 6 July 2005 on the Global Call to Action: Making Poverty History(14) ,

–   having regard to Rule 45 of its Rules of Procedure,

–   having regard to the report of the Committee on Development and the opinions of the Committee on International Trade and the Committee on Foreign Affairs (A6-0318/2005),

A.   whereas the EU has committed itself to increasing its level of Official Development Assistance (ODA) to 0.7 % of GDP by 2015 (0.56 % by 2010), and to allocating at least 50 % of the increase to sub-Saharan Africa; and whereas such increase must go hand in hand with improved quality, effectiveness, transparency and visibility of aid,

B.   whereas the EU is by far the largest donor in Africa, but is lacking the necessary leadership and vision to build a coherent approach,

C.   whereas, in order to promote sustainable development, African governments themselves bear the primary responsibility for good governance, the fight against corruption, and investment in poverty reduction in their countries; and whereas the principle of African ownership is therefore essential in EU-Africa relations, but needs a different approach in well-performing and in fragile States,

D.   whereas the Third AU Summit of African Heads of State and Government has adopted a Strategic Plan defining 23 priority programmes to be carried out between 2004 and 2007, which constitute a comprehensive roadmap for achieving economic growth and development on the continent, covering also civil society and the continent's ties with the international community in tackling poverty, disease, unemployment and illiteracy in Africa,

E.   whereas the Commission has launched a process of consultation with African organisations around its proposed Africa strategy, but this consultation has regrettably not been extended to the ACP countries or to African civil society,

F.   whereas in March 2005 the AU Economic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC) was launched, with a general assembly representing 150 African civil society organisations at national and regional levels and representing also the African diaspora,

G.   whereas poverty reduction through the achievement of the MDGs must be the cornerstone of EU development policy, and hence of an EU Strategy for Africa, also in the areas of peace and security and economic empowerment,

H.   whereas poverty reduction strategies in Africa must address the many complex causes of poverty, some of which have to do with internal African situations, others with the way in which the international donor community functions; and whereas, therefore, the new Africa strategy should address the causes of poverty, prioritizing national efforts to eradicate poverty as part of an organised and coordinated international approach,

I.   whereas the costs of gender discrimination are highest for low-income countries as women are at the heart of development, caring for and supporting their families and playing a central role in rural economies and food production, but often have no access to education, basic health care, particularly reproductive health care, the economic system and property rights,

J.   whereas the effectiveness of EU development aid depends to a large extent on coordination and leadership in different policy areas, regions and countries, both between Member States and the Commission and between Member States themselves, and on greater coherence between other EU policy areas and development policy,

K.   whereas the 2000 Partnership Agreement between the ACP countries and the EU, signed in 2000 in Cotonou (the Cotonou Agreement) is an ongoing long-term cooperation, with a framework offering a broad range of principles, policies and instruments for poverty eradication,

L.   whereas an Africa strategy should be geared towards economic progress for the whole continent, but the majority of African States are fragile and suffer from structural instability, and will therefore neither attract investment nor develop a private sector, and whereas that Africa strategy should have a special approach to the needs of fragile states in order to avoid their further lapsing into poverty and violence and consequently destabilising their neighbours,

M.   whereas many African countries find it difficult to absorb critical developmental aid in fields such as education, health, public management and administration; and whereas there is, therefore, a need for good and effective governance, corruption eradication and effective human resource training,

N.   whereas most African countries spend more on servicing debt than on basic social services; whereas, however, debt relief alone is not a panacea and does not in itself create resources, reduce poverty or promote development,

O.   whereas there is a large diversity of African cultures and whereas development cannot be achieved without a proper understanding of those cultures, including the role of religious and ethnic communities,

P.   whereas in most African countries, the dialogue between governmental authorities and civil society remains difficult, thereby hindering the process of democratisation,

Q.   whereas, in order to be credible, accountable and transparent, a strategy for Africa must also include a detailed implementation action plan with a clear timeline, a detailed indication of the means and financial resources to be mobilized (including financial commitments by the Member States), an indication of the different levels of intervention (local, national, regional, pan-African) and their respective roles, and an indication of a genuine joint monitoring mechanism to assess progress (involving Parliament and the AU),

Principles and institutions

1.  Stresses that the EU needs to develop a differentiated approach, distinguishing between cooperation partnerships in political, social and economic stability for well-performing States and partnerships towards such structural stability for fragile States;

2.  Stresses that the EU should approach well-performing States as equal partners in a relationship based on full ownership, to enable them to maximise efforts in achieving the MDGs (e.g. through budget and sector support), and that fragile States must be approached in a relationship based on a level of ownership and using policy instruments compatible with the prevailing circumstances; notes that budget aid, especially in fragile States, must carefully be assessed on a case-by-case basis so as not to favour military expenditure, thus prolonging conflicts; wherever possible, the Commission and Member States should strive to move along the spectrum from project aid to sector-wide approaches, and from these to direct budget support;

3.  Recognises that donor community efforts should complement the shift and impact of renewed African self-confidence manifested in the newly created institutions, the AU and the regional bodies; reaffirms that political will, in donor countries as well as in Africa, is the key factor for reaching the MDGs;

4.  Welcomes, in this respect, the 2004-2007 Strategic Plan of the Commission of the AU, and urges the European Commission to direct the actions proposed in its own strategy towards supporting financially, logistically, technically and in terms of human resources the institutions of the AU and the initiatives and priorities worked out by them (such as NEPAD), rather than proposing new donor-driven initiatives and parallel structures;

5.  Emphasises that an integrated EU strategy for Africa must also address the lack of coherence between other policy areas and development policy, and indicate how other policy areas can contribute (both in terms of policy setting and in terms of financing) to the implementation of the strategic development plan, aimed at poverty eradication, for the continent;

6.  Welcomes the EU Member States' commitment to the ODA target of 0.7% of gross national income (GNI) and encourages the Commission and the Council to monitor efforts to achieve this target; further calls for a continued investigation into innovative sources of finance which could provide much needed funds beyond the 0.7% target;.

7.  Stresses that addressing the lack of coherence should also include addressing issues such as export subsidies, tied aid, debt burden, export credits and commercial use of food aid ;

8.  Calls for increased coordination of European aid between national and EU-level strategies and actions, but also between Member States themselves, to avoid aid fragmentation and duplication, and to enable the EU to assume the global leadership role it ought to play in the fight against poverty;

9.  Stresses the need for budgetisation of the European Development Fund, which would make for a better utilisation of funds and reduce the gap between commitment and payment appropriations;

10.  Stresses, in this context, that the Commission must not position itself merely as the 26th EU aid donor but must establish itself as a reference point for coordinating and ensuring the complementarity of aid, as part of a joint programme based on 'The European Consensus'; and calls for intensified efforts, as a matter of priority, to identify the value-added of Community aid, and to identify EU donor leader(s) for specific thematic issues and partner countries;

11.  Calls for the necessary mechanisms to be put in place in order to implement policies on coherence, coordination and complementarity that will enhance the effectiveness of EU development cooperation;

12.  Calls on the Commission to support fully the drive for harmonization amongst donors, according to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness of 2 March 2005 by the OECD/DAC, which stresses that a very important part of the harmonization agenda consists in aligning donors' assistance firmly behind locally set priorities; stresses that delivering aid through local systems is part of improving the local institutions and making them accountable;

13.  Welcomes the establishment of specific units within the AU secretariat that will be instrumental in speeding up and improving AU development policies and calls on the Commission to support their establishment and functioning;

Good governance and capacity building

14.  Stresses the overall needs for capacity building, especially in the fields of administration, healthcare, education, economics and democratisation, in the public as well as in the private sector;

15.  Stresses the prominent place which financial and technical support must have in order to strengthen administration, accountability and transparency at local, national, regional and pan-African levels (including in the AU and its institutions);

16.  Stresses that the construction of a functioning State must go hand in hand with support for civil society, in order to ensure the sustainability of democratisation; calls for particular attention to be given to the dialogue with religious communities and churches, considering their cultural importance in Africa;

17.  Stresses that the construction of a functioning state respecting the rule of law must go hand in hand with support for civil society, in order to ensure the sustainability of democratisation; calls for particular attention to be given to the dialogue with religious and ethnic communities, trade unions, local movements, non-governmental organisations, and international organisations;

18.  Stresses that national parliaments and civil society organisations should play an important role in planning, prioritising and scrutinising development cooperation policy,

19.  Emphasises that the guiding principles of the EU development strategy for Africa should be based on social and political dialogue determined by democratic values as enshrined in the Cotonou Agreement and in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, without which no sustainable African development is possible.

20.  Welcomes the aim of reinforcing the capacities of national and regional parliaments and stresses the role of Parliament (together with the Commission) in all EU initiatives to this effect;

21.  Supports the principles of genuine partnership, ownership and policy dialogue; underlines that Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) of partner countries should be prepared by the countries themselves with the close participation of democratically elected parliaments and civil society organisations;

22.  22 Underlines the crucial role of women in agriculture, health care and education on the way towards achievement of sustainable development, stresses the need to involve women at all stages of not only development policy but in all political decision-making processes, including planning and assessment;

23.  Recalls that respect for human rights by countries in receipt of EU development funds is essential and urges the EU players involved in development assistance, while drawing up and monitoring projects funded or co-funded by the EU, to consider the progress - or the lack of progress - made with regard to human rights by such countries;

24.  Stresses the need for the EU to work towards a democratisation of international institutions in order to achieve a stronger representation of developing countries' interests, and in particular the need to urge for democratisation of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization;

Social infrastructure

25.  Emphasises that the availability and affordability of basic health care services is an absolute condition for the successful implementation of health policies in Africa; stresses therefore the need for national African health programmes to focus on basic healthcare (both curative and preventive), availability of safe water, sanitation and sexual and reproductive health; emphasises the need for special efforts to assure access to basic services for the poorest and most vulnerable populations in Africa;

26.  Welcomes the policy proposals of the new EU Programme for Action to Confront HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and calls for effective programme implementation and adequate budget allocations; reiterates that cooperation is required with the organisations working towards these objectives, such as Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the Vaccine Fund and the Roll Back Malaria Partnership;

27.  Stresses the important role of access to sexual and reproductive health in order to attain the MDGs on maternal health and child mortality;

28.  Urges the Commission to ensure that the EU is at the forefront of efforts to ensure that basic education is free and compulsory; insists that this must be combined with substantial new resources and more targeted spending of existing resources;

29.  Calls for increased and appropriate use of information and communication technology (ICT), to be used in innovative ways to extend health care to rural and remote areas, and to introduce e-education (as called for by NEPAD's e-Africa Commission) as an alternative to traditional education delivery systems in a bid to achieve qualitative education for all;

30.  Stresses that alongside efforts in basic education, attention should be given to higher education, in order to ensure a sufficiently educated workforce in basic education and health services;

31.  Stresses the need to protect the development and ensure the social protection of children as a basic feature of the development strategy for Africa, given that more than 50% of the population of Africa are children and points out that a significant factor in combating poverty in the long term is to invest through education in the human capital;

32.  Stresses that the Commission should spend at least 20 % of the development funds it allocates to Africa on basic health and basic education;

33.  Stresses that the EU needs to implement concrete policies and programming addressed to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and its impact on children, their families and the communities they live in since the impact of HIV/AIDS threatens to undercut the development gains in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa;

34.  Calls on the Commission to support the initiative for an African Decade of Disabled Persons, which was adopted by the Organization of African Unity during its 35th session, held in Algiers in July 1999;

35.  Stresses the need, in order to break Africa's cycle of poverty, of an unprecedented level of investment in this generation of children and their survival, development and protection at the centre of policy and practice;

36.  Considers that investing in girls' education is the most effective development strategy since educated girls generate smaller an healthier families, leading to increased productivity and poverty reduction;

37.  Stresses the importance of the education of girls and women for improving health, including such aspects as sexual and reproductive health, and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as HIV/AIDS, and diseases related to the water supply and sanitation, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera and diarrhoea;

Economic growth

38.  Urges that full account be taken of the fact that most African countries are heavily dependent on primary commodities, which are particularly vulnerable to price fluctuation and tariff escalation, and stresses the importance of diversification, the development of processing industries and small and medium-sized enterprises;

39.  Asks the Commission to carry out an assessment of the effectiveness of EIB financing instruments under the Cotonou Partnership Agreement, including the new Investment Facility, in furthering the EU's development policy objectives. While performing its duties in pre-assessing EIB operations, the Commission should carry out an evaluation of EIB lending against Country Strategy Paper priorities for each ACP country;

40.  Underlines the importance of creating a stable and predictable investment climate – inter alia through respect for the law, for property rights and for rules concerning intellectual property – to achieve sufficient and sustained foreign financial inflows and thus create jobs, reduce the "brain drain" and create an environment conducive to stable economic growth; stresses the importance of micro-finance to build a strong middle class to sustain economic growth;

41.  Believes, in order to reach a level of competitiveness which could make Africa a full partner in international trade, that a sustainable development strategy should be built to combat poverty in Africa, which takes into account the real needs of the population, based on economic integration within regions to stimulate growth by the creation and sustainment of domestic and regional markets and exploiting economies of scale;

42.  Emphasises the importance of tourism as a vehicle for economic and social development; calls for tourism to be fully integrated into EU development policy;

43.  Stresses that a successful conclusion of the WTO Doha Round must contribute positively to developing countries, in particular in Africa; and believes that this includes applying Special and Differential Treatment to developing countries and abolishing all trade-distorting agricultural subsidies;

44.  Agrees with the Commission's approach to infrastructure in the widest sense of the definition, including water, energy, ICT and transport; insists, however, that large investments in infrastructure must be systematically preceded by assessment studies on their contribution to economic development and poverty reduction and must be better balanced with the funds allocated to social infrastructure such as basic education and health;

45.  Underlines that an Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) as a development-centred tool for liberalisation has the potential to promote economic growth in Africa; in this context, calls on the Commission to address concerns with regard to the lack of accompanying measures for compensation for tariff losses, support for capacity-building, technical assistance and other supply-side constraints, the continuation of non-reciprocity in market access and, if necessary, the extension of the negotiation timetable; calls, furthermore, on the Commission to actually deliver figures on the financing of accompanying measures and to strengthen technical assistance to allow a better outcome;

46.  Asks the Commission, within the ambit of the negotiations of the EPAs and WTO, to strengthen the technical assistance to ACP countries to allow a fair and transparent outcome; calls again for better technical and structural support for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) in order to help them in their global market access;

47.  Asks the Commission to support African countries in the ambit of the WTO negotiations with a strategy to protect their agriculture up to the point of self-sufficiency , in order to guarantee a decent income for small farmers, increase local production, guarantee food security and proceed to selective market openings, as has been the case in Europe;

48.  Recalls, as established in the WTO Doha Declaration, in the conclusions of the International Conference on Financing for Development (Monterrey, 2002) and of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002), that developing countries, especially African ones, should be provided with technical assistance aimed at building the institutional and regulatory capacity required to capture the benefits of international trade and preferential arrangements.

49.  Stresses that the EU should look for further possibilities in its trade and agricultural policies to give developing countries more opportunities for economic growth, and urges other countries to do likewise within the ongoing WTO negotiations, especially with regard to the LDCs;

50.  Welcomes the renewed commitment on granting 100% debt relief to 18 of the poorest and most heavily indebted countries made at the meeting of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and African Development Bank; calls for the expansion of debt relief commitments to those governments which respect human rights and the principle of good governance, and prioritise poverty eradication on the basis of MDG-needs; stresses that all debt relief should be additional to increases in ODA;

51.  Underlines the positive role that Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) can play in development and in strengthening the problem-solving capacities of countries;

Peace and security

52.  Calls on the Commission to develop a comprehensive approach to conflict prevention and reconstruction as an integral part of partnerships towards structural stability for fragile States;

53.  Underlines the importance of regional bodies in providing a ground for maintaining a peaceful environment; emphasises the need for support to the regional bodies to establish a harmonised regulatory framework to fight the proliferation of light arms and landmines;

54.  Agrees that the Africa Peace Facility, created in 2003 by the AU Heads of State at the Maputo Summit, needs to be strengthened and encourages other civilian mechanisms to contribute to conflict prevention, resolution and management in Africa, with increased, flexible and sustainable EU funding; emphasises that development policy is one of several tools for addressing the root causes of insecurity but that it should not be subordinated to security policy; notes, however, that all expenses from the Community's development cooperation budget and the European Development Fund must comply with the criteria for eligibility as ODA defined by the OECD/DAC;

55.  Emphasises the importance of EU electoral observation missions in conflict prevention and in the promotion of democracy; calls on the Council and the Commission to increase the global European Initiative for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) budget line with a view to intensifying support for the EU electoral observation missions, stresses that election observation mission conclusions must be duly reflected in the formulation of European external policies;

56.  Stresses the need for coherent regional and national strategies for disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration and reinsertion (DDRR) to support the stabilisation of post-conflict situations;

57.  Stresses that an integrated EU strategy for Africa represents a binding framework for a coherent policy of the European Union and its Member States; takes the view that the application of Article 96 of the Cotonou Agreement to a Partner State prevents any EU Member State from continuing to cooperate, in parallel, with that country's police, military or other security forces or from resuming cooperation before the measures concerned have run their course;

Environment/natural resources

58.  Underlines the need for increased EU efforts to tackle the enormous environmental challenges faced by many of the poor, who are often totally dependent on natural resources for their survival;

59.  Welcomes, in this context, recent Commission commitments - long overdue - to go from word to deed in regard to environment mainstreaming, and to put strategies for the promotion of sustainable development high on its agenda;


60.  Requests the Commission to combine its strategy for Africa with a detailed implementation action plan with a clear timeline, a detailed indication of the means and financial resources to be mobilised (including financial commitments by the Member States), an indication of the different levels of intervention (local, national, regional, pan-African) and their respective roles, and an indication of a genuine joint monitoring mechanism to assess progress (involving Parliament and the AU);

61.  Insists that this implementation plan must cover all of Africa, including north Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and South Africa, for which at present separate regulations and agreements exist (the MEDA Regulation, the Cotonou Agreement, and - for South Africa - the Trade, Development and Cooperation Agreement and the EPRD Regulation), and separate responsibilities at the level of the Commission, and requests the Commission to indicate how these will be coordinated and aligned in order to contribute to the implementation of the priorities set forward for the whole continent by the AU;

62.  Points out that the essence of the proposals contained in the Commission's above-mentioned communication depends on the implementation of existing national and regional programmes, and regrets that in this respect no new proposals have been made to improve their implementation, or to adapt their goals and programming of actions to the new priorities, and that no review of the existing Country Strategy Papers and national and regional indicative programmes has been proposed as a consequence of this new strategy document and the new developments in Africa (particularly the creation of the AU and its institutions);

63.  Expresses disappointment at the lack of ambition of the proposed financial framework: the Commission only envisages the possibility of mobilizing increased financial resources for the "post-9th EDF period" and does not discuss the possibility of using debt relief as a means for mobilizing additional financial resources for the MDGs;

o   o

64.  Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Council, the Commission, the governments of the Member States, the AU and the ACP.

(1) Sachs, J. et al.: "Ending Africa's Poverty Trap", Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2004 (1), p. 117 - 240.
(2) OJ C 197, 12.7.2001, p. 390.
(3) OJ C 131 E, 5.6.2003, p. 164.
(4) OJ C 272 E, 13.11.2003, p. 277.
(5) OJ C 67 E, 17.3.2004, p. 255.
(6) OJ C 67 E, 17.3.2004, p. 285.
(7) OJ C 68 E, 18.3.2004, p. 86.
(8) OJ C 92 E, 16.4.2004, p. 315.
(9) OJ C 103 E, 29.4.2004, p. 550.
(10) Texts Adopted, P6_TA(2005)0008.
(11) Texts Adopted, P6_TA(2005)0052.
(12) Texts Adopted, P6_TA(2005)0053.
(13) Texts Adopted, P6_TA(2005)0150.
(14) Texts Adopted, P6_TA(2005)0289.

Last updated: 2 October 2008Legal notice