3 - 4 June 1999



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Closer cooperation to boost employment andeconomic reforms in Europe

At its meeting in Cologne on 3 and 4 June 1999 the European Council

recalling the conclusions of the Vienna European Council, in particular concerning the drawing up of a European Employment Pact,

recalling the Luxembourg European Council Resolution on Economic Policy Coordination in Stage three of EMU,

recalling the Amsterdam European Council Resolutions on the Stability and Growth Pact and on Growth and Employment,

recalling the conclusions of the special meeting of the Luxembourg European Council on employment,

recalling the conclusions of the Cardiff European Council regarding economic reforms and sound public finances as the basis for growth, prosperity and employment

and in approving the Presidency's report "European Employment Pact: Closer cooperation to boost employment and economic reforms in Europe" of 31 May 1999, including the supplement "Youth and Europe - our Future",

has adopted the following Resolution :

I. More employment is the highest priority

  1. The European Council considers high employment the key to greater economic welfare, social justice and cohesion. The fight against unemployment which is far too high is, therefore, the most important objective of our economic and social policy. Achieving higher employment in the Single Market depends on improving the underlying macro-economic conditions, on the employability and qualifications of the work-force, on well functioning labour markets and on efficient, competitive markets for goods, services and capital at the level of the Member States and of the Community. The introduction of the euro has brought a significant improvement in the conditions for more growth and employment. In order to make full use of this potential and to achieve more dynamic growth and higher employment while maintaining price stability, the strategy to boost investment and innovation must be reinforced. To this end, the European Council is committed to step up efforts in the Member States and to cooperate more closely in the European Union. These are the objectives served by the European Employment Pact, which the European Council views as the foundation and the framework of a sustained process for more growth and employment and which is in accordance with the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines, the main economic policy coordination instrument in the Community. With this policy approach the Union is at the same time making a positive contribution to solving the problems of the world economy.
  2. To the coordinated employment strategy and economic reforms, the Macroeconomic Dialogue is added as the third pillar of the European Employment Pact. This new element is intended to improve the conditions for a cooperative macro-economic policy mix geared to growth and employment while maintaining price stability. With these three pillars of the European Employment Pact, which support and mutually reinforce one another, the Union is anchoring its policy for more employment in a comprehensive strategy for strengthening a dynamic development of our economies.
  3. In the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines, the Member States and the Community agree annually on the main elements of their economic policy; in the Employment Guidelines the Member States and the Community agree annually on the main elements of the coordinated employment strategy; in the Cardiff reports on economic reform the Member States and the Community refer to the economic reforms which have been launched and indicate the direction of future efforts at reform. These well established procedures provide the right context in which to give the European Employment Pact additional content adapted to continually changing requirements.

II. Coordinated employment strategy and economic reforms well underway

4. The European Council reaffirms its commitment to the coordinated employment strategy (the Luxembourg process) and to economic reform (the Cardiff process). Improving employability, in particular for those at a disadvantage in the labour market, and helping unemployed people to acquire the knowledge and skills they need, developing entrepreneurship, encouraging the adaptability of businesses and their employees and improving equal opportunities for women and men are the key elements in this strategy. The European Council considers structural reforms of labour, product and capital markets to be essential in order to ensure that European businesses can compete successfully in world markets and that growth potential of the European economies can be fully exploited. In this connection, the European Council also wishes to stress the importance of a continuing dialogue between Council, Commission and the social partners on the coordinated employment strategy in the Standing Committee on Employment.

III. Macroeconomic Dialogue for the promotion of growth and employment

5. In order to bring about strong growth in employment while maintaining price stability, fiscal policy, monetary policy and wage development must interact in a mutually supportive way. The European Council calls upon all those who decide on or influence economic and employment policy to contribute to more employment on the basis of strong, non-inflationary growth, respecting, at the same time, their independence and autonomy in their own areas of responsibility. In a macroeconomic dialogue based on mutual trust, information and opinions should be exchanged in an appropriate manner concerning the question of how to design macroeconomic policy in order to increase and make full use of the potential for growth and employment.

6. The European Council deems it necessary, in addition to the Luxembourg and the Cardiff processes, to set up a regular Macroeconomic Dialogue (the Cologne process) within the framework of the ECOFIN Council in cooperation with the Labour and Social Affairs Council and with the participation of representatives of both formations of the Council, the Commission, the European Central Bank and the social partners. This Dialogue should take place and should be prepared at technical level as described in the Presidency's report on the European Employment Pact.

7. The European Council welcomes the declaration of the European social partners on the European Employment Pact. The European Council also welcomes the willingness of the social partners and of the monetary authorities to take part in the Macroeconomic Dialogue.


Closer cooperation to boost employment and economic reforms in Europe

I. Introduction

Higher employment is Europe's top priority. Without a high level of employment there is ultimately no social justice or cohesion. In order to improve the employment situation in the Community on a lasting basis, we need to create the conditions for strong, continuing and non-inflationary growth. The removal of impediments to growth means at the same time removing impediments to employment. The introduction of the euro creates the potential for more welfare and growth. This potential must be used.

With the Luxembourg process, the European Union has made common cause of the fight against unemployment. Our renewed efforts are bearing first fruit. The employment situation in the European Community has improved considerably as a result of faster growth in 1998, and unemployment has declined. Taking the average for the year, however, the unemployment rate was still 10% of the civilian labour force. We must, therefore, not allow our joint efforts to flag; on the contrary, we must intensify them by a comprehensive approach supportive of strong internal growth. The goal of the European Employment Pact is to pave the way for a reduction in unemployment and for sustained job-creating growth by achieving growth rates which substantially exceed increases of labour productivity and labour supply.

As the Vienna European Council noted, a policy for more employment has to be embedded in a comprehensive approach encompassing macroeconomic policies directed towards growth and stability, the further development and implementation of the Employment Guidelines and of decisive structural reforms promoting efficiency and competitiveness. The Cologne European Council should agree on a strategy that meets these objectives and win over all economic policymakers in favour of participation in a European Employment Pact.

II. The approach

The European Employment Pact should help to achieve a high level of employment across Europe while preserving price stability. This involves reviewing not only concepts but also individual policy measures in order to ascertain whether they are supportive of job creation or maintaining the competitiveness of existing jobs. Moreover, there must be efficient interaction between national and European employment policies. The task of creating the conditions for more employment and growth, which is primarily a matter for Member States, must be based on a European strategy of structural reforms and a balanced macroeconomic policy mix. This is the way to make the best use of the framework for stronger economic growth set in place by European Economic and Monetary Union. This must be taken into account when Community policies and measures are adopted and implemented. In particular the support given through structural funds and the cohesion fund, which have been reformed in the framework of Agenda 2000, will have to support employment creation. The Commission communication under Article 127 of the EC Treaty, as amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam, contains important elements in this respect. The Commission's report "Europe as an economic entity" could also contribute, as an important working document, to the European Employment Pact.

The European Employment Pact must take account of three objectives in order to promote strong non-inflationary and job-creating growth:

  • mutually supportive interaction to the greatest possible extent between wage developments, fiscal policy and monetary policy;
  • the further development and even better implementation of the coordinated employment strategy within the framework of the Luxembourg process;
  • strengthening of the structural reforms in order to improve competitiveness and the functioning of the markets for goods, services, and capital in accordance with the Cardiff process.

Each of these three policy areas has significance for a coherent, sustainable and successful employment strategy on which we must work together with the social partners. The fields of activity are complementary and self-reinforcing; however, not one of them can replace either of the other two:

Firstly, it is important to make the best possible use of existing production and employment potential. At the same time, it is necessary to achieve a high level of investment so as to permit durably higher rates of growth and more jobs via the expansion of productive capacities. This requires making full use of the employment potential offered by an increase of female participation in the labour force, by a better inclusion of low-skilled workers, and by a macro- and microeconomic environment in which additional investment in real and human capital pays off.

Secondly, we must work together to implement appropriate labour market and training policies so that demand for labour is matched as closely as possible by supply.

Thirdly, strong innovation, research, training and further training, modern infrastructure, structural reforms and a favourable economic environment for innovative enterprises all help to bring about a high level of employment with high added value.

Thus it is necessary to set in place on a permanent basis conditions for a macroeconomic policy mix tailored to growth and employment while maintaining price stability and, at the same time, to promote innovation and productivity by carrying out structural reforms on the markets for goods, services and labour.

In particular, with the introduction of a single currency and a single monetary policy, new interactions between the national level and the EU level have materialised. The purpose of the European Employment Pact is to ensure that these levels work together in a consistent manner so as to boost employment while maintaining stability and to link together a cooperative macroeconomic policy mix, including a macroeconomic dialogue (Cologne process), the coordinated employment strategy and economic reforms (Luxembourg and Cardiff processes). At the same time, the single currency has increased the weight and the responsibility of Europe in the world economy. Europe must continue its efforts to achieve an open trading and financial system and must remain competitive at international level.

The necessary instruments and procedures must be used extensively for implementing the European Employment Pact. In this way, it can be ensured that the efforts at national and European level are closely dovetailed and are consistent with the treatment of corresponding issues in a broader international context. Valuable experience has already been gained from the Luxembourg process and the Cardiff process. These processes have to be continued and reinforced so that structural impediments to growth and employment are overcome in the whole Community.

However, it is equally important that the conditions for a smooth interaction of macroeconomic instruments should be improved by stepping up the exchange of information and opinions between the economic policy actors concerned. In this connection, more intensive cooperation in the interests of more growth and employment in Europe must be undertaken

without jeopardising either the independence of the European Central Bank or that of national central banks,

without questioning the autonomy of the social partners in collective bargaining,

while taking account of different systems of wage determination, the responsibility for which lies on different levels,

while complying with the Stability and Growth Pact,

and while observing the principle of subsidiarity.

III.The individual policy areas

1. Cooperative macroeconomic policy mix - the Cologne process

In order to achieve strong employment growth while maintaining price stability, it is vital that the macroeconomic instruments should interact in a smooth fashion. Such a policy mix provides an important basis for job-creating investment. The macroeconomic policy areas are independent as regards the decisions taken in each of them but they do influence one another.

In the interests of an effective and balanced policy mix, it is important that the different areas be organised in the following way:

Fiscal policy is required to respect the objectives of the Stability and Growth Pact which implies bringing budgets securely to close to balance or to a surplus over the medium term. Beyond that, public budgets should also be restructured towards higher investment and with a view to meeting forthcoming challenges such as population ageing. At the same time, it must not lose sight of macroeconomic developments.

Wages must keep to a sustainable path, with wage developments that are consistent with price stability and job creation.

The primary objective of monetary policy is to maintain price stability. For this, it is crucial that monetary policy be underpinned by fiscal polices and wage developments of the type described above. Without prejudice to the objective of price stability, monetary policy will support the general economic policies in the Community with a view to contributing to sustainable and non-inflationary growth and a high level of employment.

The Broad Economic Policy Guidelines are the central instrument for economic policy coordination in the EU. The Guidelines can provide a suitable framework for describing how the interaction between the macroeconomic decision-makers in Europe can be improved in a manner conducive to growth and employment. In the euro-area, the dialogue taking place in the Euro-11-Group also contributes to achieving a balanced policy mix. In a broader international setting, matters to do with a consistent employment strategy and its global economic correlations can be discussed inter alia in the Group of Seven (G 7) and at Economic Summits.

For a consistent policy mix to be implemented successfully, it is helpful to have a fruitful macroeconomic dialogue between social partners, fiscal and employment policymakers and monetary policymakers within existing institutions. In the course of this dialogue, the starting position and future prospects could be discussed on the basis of statistical data and analyses, and ideas could be exchanged as to how, while retaining their respective responsibilities and preserving their independence, those involved consider that a policy mix can be achieved that is conducive to growth and employment under conditions of price stability. It is the central concern of the European Employment Pact to establish such a macroeconomic dialogue on firm foundations and to make it effective. In this sense, the European Employment Pact should be understood as a sustained ongoing process.

As regards implementation of the macroeconomic dialogue, see point IV.

2. Coordinated employment strategy of the Luxembourg process

The coordination of the employment policies of the Member States within the framework of the Employment Guidelines and the National Action Plans, including supporting and supplementing measures in the area of vocational training, makes an important contribution to higher employment. Improving employability, developing entrepreneurship, encouraging the adaptability of businesses and their employees, and improving equal opportunities for women and men form the four pillars of this strategy.

Preventive strategies, as opposed to purely passive measures, help to improve the functioning of labour markets and the employability of the labour force. As part of the European Employment Pact, therefore, lifelong learning should be expanded through continuing skills and competence development in working life, investment in manpower skills should be promoted, including through use of the European Social Fund, and a contribution should be made to preventing and reducing youth unemployment. The fast pace at which the information society is developing and the continued growth of the service sector call for special efforts to improve the skills of the labour force. Low-skilled groups require particular attention as regards education.

In implementing the Employment Guidelines and in presenting the National Action Plans and evaluating them in the Joint Employment Report, even more prominence will be given to identifying and exchanging best practice. Where appropriate, supplementary verifiable quantitative objectives on a national level could be set in the National Action Plans. In order for an evaluation to be meaningful, appropriate indicators must also be defined. Any potential for creating new jobs through progress in work organisation and shorter working time should be examined within the framework of the coordinated employment strategy.

Particular significance in connection with a coherent employment strategy attaches to the review of tax and social benefits system with a view to lowering the burden on labour. On the one hand, it is important here to examine how the burden imposed in particular on low-skilled and low-paid workers could be limited. On the other, in view of the progressive ageing of the population, retirement provision should be placed on a basis characterised by responsibility towards future generations.

At around 20%, youth unemployment is more than twice as high as unemployment generally. Further efforts to reduce youth unemployment are indispensable. The German Presidency has, therefore, presented the memorandum "Youth and Europe - Our Future" with a view to improving the occupational prospects of young people in Europe. This memorandum is intended to help identify best practice, improve the supply of cross-border training programmes, practical vocational training and pre-vocational training, and step up cross-border work and training placement measures. Young people should be able to prepare themselves better for the increasingly integrated labour market in Europe. It must also be investigated how to promote the development of new services and new jobs, especially for young people.

Furthermore, under the European Employment Pact, emphasis is to be placed on measures which help avoid long-term unemployment and introduce more flexible arrangements for the participation of older employees in work. This includes improving the information and work placement activities of all employment services.

The goal of active and preventive promotion of employment includes the disabled. The Council has noted in a Resolution the Commission’s intention to make, in the framework of a coherent global policy, a proposal for a legal instrument covering equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities.

In order to improve employment trends in Europe, it is important to ensure that competitiveness, flexibility of employment and social protection of employees are in a balanced relationship with one another. To this end, it is desirable to develop further a core of minimum social standards, in accordance with the provisions of the EC Treaty relating to the improvement of living and working conditions.

With their agreements on parental leave, part-time work and, finally, fixed-term employment contracts, the social partners have made contributions which the Council has already put into practice or intends to put into practice by means of directives. The social partners should continue along this road, taking, in doing so, full account of the impact of new regulations on job creation and employment.

The social partners at European and national level play an important role in the continued development and implementation of the Employment Guidelines. The reformed Standing Committee on Employment provides a suitable forum for cooperation between the Council, the Commission and the social partners. As well as the Labour and Social Affairs Council, the Employment and Labour Market Committee should also work closely with the social partners.

3. Economic reforms - the Cardiff process

A lasting increase in employment requires a sustained growth process. In order to exploit growth potential fully, an improved macroeconomic dialogue and the coordinated employment strategy initiated as part of the Luxembourg process must be supplemented by economic reforms of the kind launched by the Cardiff process. These reforms are aimed at improving competitiveness and the functioning of the markets in goods, services and capital. They are laid down in the national structural reform reports and are the subject of the Commission's Cardiff I and Cardiff II reports which are based on Member States' contributions and intensive work within the Economic Policy Committee as well as in the Internal Market Horizontal Working Group. At issue are the further development and deepening of the European single market and how to make structural reforms as conducive as possible to employment and growth.

In its conclusions of 25 February 1999, the Internal Market Council pointed out the concrete need for action in order further to improve the competitive climate in Europe, to dismantle the remaining impediments to trade between Member States, to increase the performance of the service sector including tourism and to make the economic environment for small and medium-sized enterprises more conducive to growth and employment. Of special importance here are efficient goods and services markets, efficient capital markets and an adequate supply of risk capital, an effective competition policy and the further reduction of state aids which result in undesirable competitive distortions.

Intensive use must be made of the structural reform reports in the Cardiff process in order to identify best practice and to adopt it wherever this is possible and seems likely to be successful. Efforts to prune superfluous regulations must be systematically pursued at national and European level so as to minimise the burden on employment-intensive small firms and to facilitate business start-ups.

In Europe, the emergence of the information society should be actively pushed forward. This entails, for example, greater use of computers in schools and a more rapid dissemination of information technologies among small firms. While respecting subsidiarity, a European initiative for the information society should ensure that the potential for employment which exists in this area is exploited as widely as possible. The development of electronic commerce must not be hindered by unnecessary bureaucratic rules. National efforts to exploit the potential offered by information and communications technology should be increased, in particular by improving training opportunities ranging from basic knowledge to lifelong learning.

The European infrastructure is to be further improved by Trans-European Networks - in particular, the priority projects in the transport field as well as the development of projects in telecommunications and information technology to improve innovation and competition - and the assistance provided by the European Investment Bank. Furthermore, the innovative potential for improving the ability to react to industrial transformation processes through increased research efforts must be strengthened.

IV. Implementing the Macroeconomic Dialogue - the Cologne process

The European Employment Pact combines the macroeconomic policy mix, the coordinated employment strategy of the Luxembourg process and the economic reforms of the Cardiff process into a economic policy triad.

Both the Luxembourg process and the Cardiff process along with the preparation of the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines take place in established institutions and on the basis of established procedures. Within this framework, new priorities can be set for the European Employment Pact.

By contrast, to improve the interaction between wage developments, fiscal policy and monetary policy in the interests of growth and employment a Macroeconomic Dialogue is required to step up our efforts within the established institutional framework. Two tasks come to the fore:

Firstly, we must analyse macroeconomic developments and prospects in depth so that the Dialogue, backed by comprehensive information, can be as effective as possible.

Secondly, we must find a suitable forum in which, with the participation of the Commission and while maintaining their respective responsibilities and preserving their independence, the social partners, Council representatives and monetary policymakers can exchange ideas on how they think a policy mix can be achieved which promotes growth and employment while safeguarding price stability.

A two-stage approach is being adopted for the Macroeconomic Dialogue bearing in mind that the number of participants should be such as to ensure efficient functioning of the different fora:

Current developments and the preconditions for a smoothly operating policy mix will first be discussed at technical level. To this end, a working party will be set up in the framework of the Economic Policy Committee in collaboration with the Employment and Labour Market Committee, with the participation of representatives of both committees (including the European Central Bank), of the Commission and of the Macroeconomic Group of the Social Dialogue. In order to provide for adequate preparation of the meetings at political level, the first meeting should take place before the Commission adopts its recommendation on the Broad Economic Policy Guidelines and the second meeting after presentation by the Commission of its autumn forecast and its Annual Economic Report.

On this basis a confidence-building and confidential exchange of ideas between decision-makers will take place at political level. To this end, meetings will take place twice a year in the framework of the ECOFIN Council in collaboration with the Labour and Social Affairs Council, with the participation of representatives of both formations of the Council, of the Commission, of the European Central Bank and of the social partners. The first meeting should take place before the drawing up by the ECOFIN Council of the draft Broad Economic Policy Guidelines and the second before the adoption by the European Council of its conclusions in respect of the Employment Guidelines, for example at the meeting of the Jumbo Council.

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of 4 June 1999


Having regard to the Treaty on European Union, in particular Article 13 thereof;

Whereas the Agreement on Partnership and Cooperation (PCA) between the European Communities, their Member States and the Russian Federation entered into force on 1 December 1997,




A stable, democratic and prosperous Russia, firmly anchored in a united Europe free of new dividing lines, is essential to lasting peace on the continent. The issues which the whole continent faces can be resolved only through ever closer cooperation between Russia and the European Union. The European Union welcomes Russia's return to its rightful place in the European family in a spirit of friendship, cooperation, fair accommodation of interests and on the foundations of shared values enshrined in the common heritage of European civilisation.

The European Union has clear strategic goals:

  • a stable, open and pluralistic democracy in Russia, governed by the rule of law and underpinning a prosperous market economy benefiting alike all the people of Russia and of the European Union;
  • maintaining European stability, promoting global security and responding to the common challenges of the continent through intensified cooperation with Russia.

The Union remains firmly committed to working with Russia, at federal, regional and local levels, to support a successful political and economic transformation in Russia. The Union and its Member States offer to share with Russia their various experiences in building modern political, economic, social and administrative structures, fully recognising that the main responsibility for Russia's future lies with Russia itself.

The European Council therefore adopts this Common Strategy to strengthen the strategic partnership between the Union and Russia at the dawn of a new century. The European Council recognises that the future of Russia is an essential element in the future of the continent and constitutes a strategic interest for the European Union. The offer of a reinforced relationship, based on shared democratic values, will help Russia to assert its European identity and bring new opportunities to all the peoples of the continent. The enlargement of the Union will further increase these benefits and opportunities.

This Common Strategy sets out the objectives as well as the means to be used by the Union in taking forward this partnership. The core of the relationship between the Union and Russia remains the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA), with its aim of promoting the integration of Russia into a wider area of cooperation in Europe, as well as through creating the necessary conditions for the future establishment of a free trade area between the European Community and Russia. For their part the European Union and its Member States will develop the coordination, coherence and complementarity of all aspects of their policy towards Russia. The Union, the Community and its Member States will also work together with and within regional and other organisations and with like-minded partners to meet the objectives set out in this Common Strategy. The positions taken by the Member States in all relevant fora will conform to this Common Strategy. The European Council invites Russia to work with the Union on the basis of this Common Strategy to the benefit of both.


The European Council has identified the following principal objectives:

1. Consolidation of democracy, the rule of law and public institutions in Russia

The establishment of efficient, transparent public institutions is one of the prerequisites for confidence and wider adherence to democratic guidelines and the operation of the rule of law. It constitutes the necessary foundation for economic and social development. The situation in Russia calls for the use of appropriate mechanisms and means to strengthen such institutions in terms of efficiency and responsibility.

The Union wishes to support Russia in the consolidation of its public institutions, particularly its executive, legislative and judicial bodies and its police, in accordance with democratic principles. Institutions which are essential for the operation of the economy form the second part of this objective. The European Union will attach particular importance to regional and local administrations, within their powers. Relations between central, regional and local authorities are an essential factor in the future of the Federation.

The emergence of civil society in all areas is indispensable for the consolidation of democracy in Russia. The European Union wishes to support that process, particularly by developing direct exchanges between civil society actors in Russia and the Union.

2. Integration of Russia into a common European economic and social area

The Union and Russia both have an interest in enabling Russia to integrate into a common economic and social area in Europe. The Union is already Russia's main trading partner and Russia itself provides a significant part of the Union's energy supplies. European undertakings have also made major investments in Russia.

In the first instance, an operational market economy needs to be put in place. The recent crisis in Russia has demonstrated the need to pursue that objective with vigour. The major effort must obviously come from Russia, in the context of a comprehensive and sustainable economic programme approved by the IMF. This programme must address, inter alia, the problems of enterprise restructuring, public finance, the banking system and "corporate governance". The Union is ready to provide support in that framework.

The Union considers that the rule of law is a prerequisite for the development of a market economy which offers opportunities and benefits to all the citizens of Russia. Russia's development and future prosperity depend first and foremost on sound domestic policies and economic management, for which the establishment of a fair and transparent legislative and regulatory framework, as well as of the necessary institutions, is essential. Attracting domestic and foreign investment, which would be greatly enhanced by Russia's access to international financial markets, plays a key role in its development. The Union will therefore support Russia in developing and adopting the economic policies needed to strengthen the confidence necessary to increase domestic and foreign investment and to meet the requirements of international lenders.

The Union is committed to the integration of Russia into the European and world economy. In this context, the Union will support Russia's efforts in meeting the requirements of WTO membership. It will also examine how to create the necessary conditions, in addition to WTO accession, for the future establishment of an EU-Russia Free Trade Area. The progressive approximation of legislation and standards between Russia and the European Union, in accordance with the PCA, will facilitate the creation of a common economic area.

Finally, the establishment of a market economy must take account of the social aspects of transition and the needs of the Russian people, particularly those who are most deprived. The Union is ready to provide expertise and to step up exchanges in this area.

3. Cooperation to strengthen stability and security in Europe and beyond

Russia and the Union have strategic interests and exercise particular responsibilities in the maintenance of stability and security in Europe, and in other parts of the world.

The Union considers Russia an essential partner in achieving that objective and is determined to cooperate with her. It proposes that the strategic partnership develop within the framework of a permanent policy and security dialogue designed to bring interests closer together and to respond jointly to some of the challenges to security on the European continent. That dialogue will allow greater concertation in all the relevant fora to which both Russia and the Member States belong, particularly the UN and the OSCE.

4. Common challenges on the European continent

Geographical proximity, as well as the deepening of relations and the development of exchanges between the Union and Russia, are leading to growing interdependence in a large number of areas. Only through common responses will it be possible to find solutions to challenges which are more and more often common to both parties.

The Union and Russia have a common interest in developing their energy policies in such a way as to improve the exploitation and management of resources and security of supplies in Russia and in Europe.

Nuclear safety is an essential issue. The Union is prepared to continue providing expertise and support in that area.

The environment is the common property of the people of Russia and the European Union. The sustainable use of natural resources, management of nuclear waste and the fight against air and water pollution, particularly across frontiers, are priorities in this area.

Russia and the Union have a common interest in stepping up their cooperation in the fight against common scourges, such as organised crime, money-laundering, illegal trafficking in human beings and drug trafficking. The fight against illegal immigration is also a major preoccupation. The Union proposes to put increased cooperation in place in these areas by creating the necessary tools and forms of cooperation between the competent bodies and by developing exchanges of experts. It is also ready to offer its expertise, particularly in the development of legislation and competent institutions.

Regional cooperation, particularly in the framework of existing regional organisations, is a useful framework for putting practical cooperation in place which will allow a local response to these challenges.


1. General provisions

This Common Strategy shall be implemented in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Treaties. The European Council calls on the Council and the Commission in accordance with the responsibilities defined in Articles 3 and 13 of the Treaty on European Union to ensure the unity, consistency and effectiveness of the Union's actions in implementing this Common Strategy.

The European Union will work to achieve the objectives of this Common Strategy by making appropriate use of all relevant instruments and means available to the Union, the Community and to the Member States.

The Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the CFSP, shall assist the Council in implementing this Common Strategy in the framework of his or her obligations under the Treaties. The Commission shall be fully associated in accordance with Articles 18 and 27 of the Treaty on European Union.

2. The Council, the Commission and Member States

The European Council calls on the Council, the Commission and Member States:

  • to review, according to their competencies and capacities, existing actions, programmes, instruments, and policies to ensure their consistency with this Strategy; and, where there are inconsistencies, to make the necessary adjustments at the earliest review date.
  • to make full and appropriate use of existing instruments and means, in particular the PCA, as well as all relevant EU and Member States instruments and Member States programmes, and to develop and maintain to this end an indicative inventory of the resources of the Union, the Community and Member States through which this Common Strategy will be implemented.
3. Coordination

Member States shall make additional efforts to coordinate their actions vis-…-vis Russia, including in regional and international organisations such as the Council of Europe, the UN, the OSCE and the IFIs, and including coordination with the Community where it has competencies.

Coordination between the Member States and the Commission must also be consolidated, including through regular consultations between their respective representatives in Russia.

The Council, the Commission and Member States shall work towards more effective cooperation with regional and international organisations, and will seek with other like-minded countries to achieve the objectives of the Strategy.

The European Union will invite the candidate countries to associate themselves with actions within the framework of this Common Strategy.

4. Implementation and review

The European Council invites the Council:

  • to ensure that each incoming Presidency presents to the Council, in the framework of its general programme, a work plan for implementation of this Common Strategy, based on the areas of action in Part II and taking due account of the specific initiatives in Part III;
  • to review and evaluate the Union's action under this Strategy and to report to the European Council on progress towards its objectives not less than annually;
  • to review the situation in Russia and the state of Russia's cooperation in the implementation of this Strategy, including through periodic reports by the Heads of Mission, and make an assessment in its report to the European Council;
  • where necessary, to submit recommendations for amendments to Part II and III of this Strategy to the European Council.

The Commission will contribute to the above within its competence.

5. Cooperation with Russia

The European Union and its Member States will work closely together with Russia to implement this Common Strategy, in particular through the PCA and its institutions.

6. Specific initiatives

The Union shall pursue the specific initiatives set out in Part III of this Common Strategy which are based on the areas of action identified in Part II. These initiatives shall be adapted when necessary and do not preclude possible new initiatives during the duration of this Common Strategy. The Council, the Commission and the Member States shall, according to their competencies and capacities, support and work towards the achievement of these specific initiatives.



The European Union shall focus on the following areas of action in implementing this Common Strategy:

1. Consolidation of democracy, the rule of law and public institutions in Russia

To enhance democracy, institution-building and the rule of law in Russia, which is a prerequisite for the development of a market economy, the Union will undertake efforts to:

(a) Strengthen the rule of law and public institutions

  • by providing support for and by encouraging the necessary institutional reforms towards a modern and effective administration within Russia's Executive, Legislature, and Judiciary at federal, regional and local levels; in particular by developing the capacity of an independent judiciary, public administration and accountable law enforcement structures through the promotion of contacts between judicial authorities and law enforcement bodies of the EU Member States and Russia;
  • by developing training programmes for young politicians and civil servants;
  • by exploring, in response to a Russian request, the scope for EU action, in cooperation with international organisations such as the OSCE, in support of the efficient conduct of free and fair Presidential and Duma elections in 1999 and 2000;
  • by supporting Russian efforts to meet its international human rights commitments including those to the Council of Europe, the UN and the OSCE, and by promoting joint EU-Council of Europe activities regarding Russia in the fields of the rule of law and human rights; by giving assistance in safeguarding human rights, including those of women, children and minorities, and by enhancing programmes to promote the abolition of the death penalty.

(b) Strengthen Civic Society

  • by enhancing contacts between politicians of Russia and the EU, at federal, regional and local levels including with assemblies at all levels;
  • by promoting greater cultural and educational exchanges between Russia and the EU, and deeper contacts between societies, building on the long tradition of Russia's involvement in the formation of European civilisation, in particular by reviewing and enhancing, as necessary, scholarships and student contact programmes;
  • by supporting independent NGOs;
  • by cooperating with Russia to strengthen support for refugees and internally displaced people within Russia;
  • by contributing to the freedom of the media;
  • by promoting equal opportunities for men and women.

2. Integration of Russia into a common European economic and social area

The EU will:

(a) Consolidate the process of economic reform in Russia

  • by enhancing the impact of economic policy advice, including through high-level policy dialogue so as to promote the development of a market economy, taking fully into account the transitional problems arising from necessary structural change;
  • by undertaking additional efforts, in the competent bodies, to coordinate EU policy in the context of international financial institutions;
  • by assisting in securing and implementing a transparent and stable legislative and regulatory framework in Russia designed to promote economic activity and increased domestic and foreign investment;
  • by promoting the establishment of the necessary legislative and institutional framework for sustainable fiscal policies (e.g. taxation, accounting, and control of spending);
  • by also promoting credible banking sector reforms with fair conditions for foreign banks and effective donor coordination with full EU participation;
  • by encouraging further structural, economic and administrative reforms including further privatisation, restructuring of business, and the growth of the Russian SME sector;
  • by helping to make Russian industry, agriculture, and energy sectors more competitive;
  • by helping to provide the basis for effective land reform in Russia, allowing the introduction of private property, and providing technical assistance to this process (e.g. through a functioning land register).

(b) Support the integration of Russia into a wider area of economic cooperation in Europe:

  • by promoting progressive approximation of legislation, in particular in the field of customs as well as standards and certification, competition policy and the environment;
  • by encouraging the further integration of Russia into the multilateral trading system and by supporting Russian efforts to meet the requirements for WTO accession, including legislative and institutional reform;
  • by examining how to create the necessary conditions, in addition to Russia's WTO accession, for the future establishment of an EU-Russia free-trade area;
  • by encouraging Russia to remove obstacles to trade and investment, in particular through the improvement of border crossing procedures and facilities, and by examining, in accordance with EU rules and procedures, Russian concerns with respect to access to the EU market;
  • by exploring more concretely the scope for cooperation in areas of established Russian expertise (e.g. science, aircraft, space, energy);
  • by promoting partnership with a view to enhancing the development of the cultural industries of Russia including in the field of arts management;
  • by better coordinating and, as necessary, expanding existing European programmes to train Russian managers and entrepreneurs.

(c) Lay the basis for a social market economy

  • by favouring social dialogue through supporting the emergence of modern trade unions and employer organisations;
  • by encouraging wider adherence to core ILO labour standards;
  • by seeking to ensure the social protection of all Russia's citizens, in particular vulnerable groups, through technical support of administrative reforms of the Russian social services and health care systems.

3. Cooperation to strengthen stability and security in Europe and beyond

The EU wishes to deepen and widen cooperation with Russia and identify common responses to the security challenges in Europe and beyond through:

(a) reinforcing political dialogue

  • by considering ways to give more continuity to the existing political dialogue and render it more operational, including through the important role to be played by the Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the CFSP;
  • by working with Russia to develop joint foreign policy initiatives in support of common foreign policy objectives.

(b) Russia's place in the European Security Architecture

  • by further developing cooperation with Russia in the new European Security Architecture within the framework of the OSCE, in particular in the run-up to the Istanbul Summit;
  • by continuing cooperation with Russia in the elaboration of aspects of the European Security Charter;
  • by considering facilitating the participation of Russia when the EU avails itself of the WEU for missions within the range of the Petersberg tasks.

(c) Preventive diplomacy

  • by enhancing EU-Russia cooperation to contribute to conflict prevention, crisis management and conflict resolution, including within the OSCE and the UN;
  • by promoting arms control and disarmament and the implementation of existing agreements, reinforcing export controls, curbing the proliferation of WMD, and supporting nuclear disarmament and CW destruction.

4. Common challenges on the European continent

The European Union will, in particular, cooperate with Russia in:

(a) energy and nuclear safety

  • by enhancing the Russian commitment to energy sector reform, including nuclear safety and environmental protection; for example by working with Russia to improve energy efficiency and by providing technical assistance on energy conservation in Russia; by improving the safety of Russian nuclear power stations and by cooperation on nuclear waste and spent fuel issues in North-West Russia;
  • by encouraging Russian commitment to nuclear safety in the framework of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, through the Nuclear Safety Account Agreement and in the framework of international initiatives and by helping to strengthen the Russian nuclear safety regulatory authority (GAN);
  • by promoting Russian ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty and continuing consultations on a Multilateral Transit Framework which will enhance cooperation between Russia and its neighbours over access to the Russian pipeline system.

(b) environment and health

  • by encouraging and supporting the secure storage of nuclear and chemical waste and the safe management of spent fuel, in particular in Northwest Russia;
  • by supporting the integration of environmental considerations in economic reform and by assisting in the creation of effective systems for monitoring and ensuring compliance with multilateral environmental agreements, and supporting Russian efforts to strengthen the enforcement of national environmental legislation;
  • by working with Russia, especially in areas adjacent to the enlarging Union, to reduce water and air pollution and to improve environmental protection and by cooperating on promoting sustainable use of natural resources in particular in the various fora for regional cooperation;
  • by cooperating with Russia in order to improve precautions against infectious diseases, including by supporting vaccination programmes;
  • by cooperating also in strengthening plant-health controls.

(c) fight against organised crime, money laundering and illicit traffic in human beings and drugs; judicial cooperation

  • by enhancing the rule of law and offering assistance in developing the legal order, including by encouraging Russia to sign, ratify and implement key conventions, especially in the field of judicial cooperation in civil and criminal matters;
  • by pursuing, on the basis of existing common positions, an appropriate dialogue with Russia in the ongoing negotiations in Vienna on the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organised Crime;
  • by increasing the cooperation and exchange of experts between Member States and Russia in the context of combating organised crime, including in the field of the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts as well as in the field of drug prevention. This shall be achieved in cooperation with the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction;
  • by organising seminars on types and methods of money laundering;
  • by developing the cooperation of Europol with the competent Russian authorities as provided for under the Europol Convention, notably for improving the fight against illicit traffic in human beings and drugs as well as immigrant smuggling;
  • by intensifying cooperation between the liaison officers of the Member States in Moscow, within the limits of their respective national laws;
  • by developing cooperation mechanisms in combating transnational drug crime, and the involvement of Russia in the concertation process of the Dublin Group;
  • by carrying out information campaigns in cooperation with Russian agencies in order to prevent the traffic of human beings;
  • by improving the cooperation regarding the re-admission of own nationals, persons without nationality and third country nationals, including the conclusion of a re- admission agreement; by combating illegal migration including by continuing the basic and advanced training courses for staff members of border and migration authorities;
  • by intensifying dialogue with Russia on the adjustment of Russia's visa policy to the European Union through the introduction of visa requirements in accordance with the EC provisions and introduction of travel documents which are sufficiently fake-proof;
  • by working together with Russia with a view to the introduction of sanctions by Russia on carriers providing transfrontier transport of inadequately documented passengers and with a view to the introduction of penal provisions for combating immigrant-smuggling.

(d) regional and cross border cooperation and infrastructure

  • by working more effectively with Russia in the various fora for regional cooperation (CBSS, BSEC, Barents Euro-Arctic Council), and by enhancing cross-border cooperation with neighbouring Russian regions (including Kaliningrad), especially in view of the EU's enlargement and including in the framework of the Northern Dimension;
  • by enhancing cooperation and technical assistance in the areas of border management and customs;
  • by exploring the scope for working towards linking the Russian transportation systems (road and rail) with the Transeuropean corridors and by seeking mutually satisfactory ways to address transport issues.



The following specific initiatives shall be pursued not precluding possible new initiatives:

Political and security dialogue

The Union will consider ways to give more continuity, flexibility and substance to the existing political dialogue, as instituted under the PCA, and to render it more operational and effective:

  • the Council will examine the possibility of creating a permanent EU/Russia mechanism for political and security dialogue, bearing in mind the important role to be played by the Secretary-General of the Council, High Representative for the CFSP. One of the aims would be to work with Russia to develop joint foreign policy initiatives with regard to specific third countries and regions, to conflict prevention and to crisis management especially in areas adjacent to Russia, on the Balkans and the Middle East;
  • the Council will consider developing a consultation mechanism, in addition to existing troika expert level talks, with Russia, possibly involving third countries, on non-proliferation issues, as well as intensifying efforts, including through increased coordination/joint activities with third countries, in support of Russia's chemical weapons destruction;
  • the Council will, in addition, examine the scope for Joint Actions and Common Positions concerning the safe management of biological, and chemical materials, as well as fissile materials in Russia under IAEA verification which are designated as no longer necessary for defence purposes, notably on the basis of international conventions. Particular consideration will be given to the International Science and Technology Centre in Moscow.

Work on these actions will begin by the end of 1999.

Dialogue on economic questions

The macro-economic situation in Russia, experience in building European unity, the introduction of the euro and the process of enlargement reinforce the importance of specific consultations between the Union and Russia on economic issues.

The Union will consider the launching of a specific high-level EU/Russia dialogue to support the development by the Russian Government of measures to promote sustained economic recovery based on a comprehensive economic programme, endorsed by the IMF, leading to a functioning market economy. The Union will also consider the provision of high-level economic policy advice to the Russian Government through the involvement of eminent EU experts.

The Member States will reinforce, where necessary, their coordination in relevant international organisations and fora.

A joint Presidency/Commission report in regard to these proposals should be prepared by the competent bodies by the end of 1999.

Trade and investment

Taking into account the launch of new multilateral negotiations in the WTO and the fact that the Community has made proposals as to how Russia can continue its negotiations to accede to that organisation, the Community reaffirms its readiness to maintain and, if appropriate, enhance its existing support for Russian efforts to meet the requirements for entering the WTO at the earliest possible time.

In addition, the Commission will examine ways to deepen the investment dialogue with Russia in the framework of the PCA to improve the trade and investment climate in Russia and to facilitate two-way trade and investment, and to report to the Council by the end of 1999.

Fight against organised crime

The European Union and Russia have a major interest in setting up durable, effective cooperation in the area of justice and home affairs, not least as a means of promoting respect for human rights and the rule of law. In that respect, the fight against organised crime is an obvious priority.

For that reason, the European Union is proposing to set up a plan focused on common action with Russia to fight organised crime, including actions to fight corruption, money laundering, trafficking in drugs, human beings and illegal immigration. The Union proposes to cover, inter alia, the following areas:

  • assistance in training for members of the judiciary and law enforcement authorities, particularly with regard to investigation and intervention techniques;
  • the development of the necessary legal, institutional and judicial framework for the effective prosecution of organised crime, especially in the areas of money laundering, illegal economic activity, and trafficking in human beings;
  • the development of effective cooperation mechanisms to combat cross-border drugs crime; and
  • the development of cooperation between Europol and the competent Russian authorities as provided for under the Europol Convention.

An ongoing dialogue between the competent Russian bodies and European Union Member States' liaison officers based in Moscow will make it possible to analyse Russia's requirements in this area more precisely. In this respect, the December 1999 EU-Russia Conference on Organised Crime will be of particular importance. A report will be submitted to the Council in the first half of 2000.

Twinning programmes

The dual objective of consolidating Russian public institutions and bringing civil societies closer together involves an increase in the development of exchanges at all levels between Russia and the Member States.

To that end, the Union wishes to develop twinning programmes with Russia:

  • for the purpose of strengthening institutions: in regional and local administrations;
  • for the purpose of bringing civil societies closer together: between professional associations and trade unions, universities, NGOs, and the media. The Commission will study the possibility of bringing Community programmes into play for this purpose (TACIS, TEMPUS and DEMOCRACY). The Member States' bilateral instruments will also be used. The Member States and the Commission will coordinate their programmes; in that connection, they may draw upon the programme set up by the Union to train Russian executives.

On the basis of an inventory of instruments in existence (to be drawn up by the Commission in liaison with the General Secretariat of the Council) and an identification mission in Russia, the Commission will report to the Council by the end of 1999 and will thereafter submit proposals for action as appropriate.

Exchange programmes for students and young scientists

The Union will examine the possibility of developing EU exchange programmes for students constituting an integral part of their course of study and for young scientists working on International Science and Technology Centre contracts. In particular, this will involve:

  • inviting the Commission to draw up an overview of existing EC and Member States programmes;
  • also inviting the Commission to report, in the first half of 2000, on the means for improving complementarity among existing European programmes in this field and on the possibilities for and the modalities of an enhanced Community exchange programme.

Establishment of a viable health and welfare system

The Member States and the Commission will review their programmes designed in general to encourage Russian efforts to establish a viable system of welfare and social protection and in particular to support the reform of public health care systems in Russia and improve the coordination, efficiency and complementarity of such programmes, with a view to a Commission report by June 2000.

Cross-border and regional cooperation

The Union will support the strengthening of cross-border and regional cooperation and will prepare an inventory of relevant EC and Member States instruments and actions directed at the enhanced involvement of EU programmes in Russian regions of special interest to the EU. In this context the Council and the Commission will intensify the preparation of the November 1999 Helsinki Conference on the EU's Northern Dimension.



This Common Strategy shall apply from the date of its publication for an initial period of four years. It may be prolonged, reviewed and, if necessary, adapted by the European Council on the recommendation of the Council.


This Common Strategy shall be published in the Official Journal.

Done at Cologne,

For the Council

The President

European Council Declaration on the Common Strategy on Russia

The Council acts by qualified majority when adopting joint actions, common positions or any other decisions within the scope of Title V of the Treaty on European Union (Common Foreign and Security Policy), on the basis of the Common Strategy.

Acts adopted outside the scope of Title V of the Treaty on European Union shall continue to be adopted according to the appropriate decision-making procedures provided by the relevant provisions of the Treaties, including the Treaty establishing the European Community and Title VI of the Treaty on European Union.

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1. We, the members of the European Council, are resolved that the European Union shall play its full role on the international stage. To that end, we intend to give the European Union the necessary means and capabilities to assume its responsibilities regarding a common European policy on security and defence. The work undertaken on the initiative of the German Presidency and the entry into force of the Treaty of Amsterdam permit us today to take a decisive step forward.

In pursuit of our Common Foreign and Security Policy objectives and the progressive framing of a common defence policy, we are convinced that the Council should have the ability to take decisions on the full range of conflict prevention and crisis management tasks defined in the Treaty on European Union, the "Petersberg tasks". To this end, the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises without prejudice to actions by NATO. The EU will thereby increase its ability to contribute to international peace and security in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter.

2. We are convinced that to fully assume its tasks in the field of conflict prevention and crisis management the European Union must have at its disposal the appropriate capabilities and instruments. We therefore commit ourselves to further develop more effective European military capabilities from the basis of existing national, bi-national and multinational capabilities and to strengthen our own capabilities for that purpose. This requires the maintenance of a sustained defence effort, the implementation of the necessary adaptations and notably the reinforcement of our capabilities in the field of intelligence, strategic transport, command and control. This also requires efforts to adapt, exercise and bring together national and multinational European forces.

We also recognise the need to undertake sustained efforts to strengthen the industrial and technological defence base, which we want to be competitive and dynamic. We are determined to foster the restructuring of the European defence industries amongst those States involved. With industry we will therefore work towards closer and more efficient defence industry collaboration. We will seek further progress in the harmonisation of military requirements and the planning and procurement of arms, as Member States consider appropriate.

3. We welcome the results of the NATO Washington summit as regards NATO support for the process launched by the EU and its confirmation that a more effective role for the European Union in conflict prevention and crisis management will contribute to the vitality of a renewed Alliance. In implementing this process launched by the EU, we shall ensure the development of effective mutual consultation, cooperation and transparency between the European Union and NATO.

We want to develop an effective EU-led crisis management in which NATO members, as well as neutral and non-allied members, of the EU can participate fully and on an equal footing in the EU operations.

We will put in place arrangements that allow non-EU European allies and partners to take part to the fullest possible extent in this endeavour.

4. We therefore approve and adopt the report prepared by the German Presidency, which reflects the consensus among the Member States.

5. We are now determined to launch a new step in the construction of the European Union. To this end we task the General Affairs Council to prepare the conditions and the measures necessary to achieve these objectives, including the definition of the modalities for the inclusion of those functions of the WEU which will be necessary for the EU to fulfil its new responsibilities in the area of the Petersberg tasks. In this regard, our aim is to take the necessary decisions by the end of the year 2000. In that event, the WEU as an organisation would have completed its purpose. The different status of Member States with regard to collective defence guarantees will not be affected. The Alliance remains the foundation of the collective defence of its Member States.

We therefore invite the Finnish Presidency to take the work forward within the General Affairs Council on the basis of this declaration and the report of the Presidency to the European Council meeting in Cologne. We look forward to a progress report by the Finnish Presidency to the Helsinki European Council meeting.

Presidency Report on Strengthening of the common European policy on security and defence

1. Introduction

The Treaty of Amsterdam which entered into force on 1 May provides for the enhancement of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), including the progressive framing of a common defence policy as provided in Article 17 of the TEU. The Treaty also provides for the possibility of integrating the WEU into the EU, should the European Council so decide.

The European Council in Vienna welcomed the new impetus given to the debate on a common European policy in security and defence. It considered that in order for the EU to be in a position to play its full role on the international stage, the CFSP must be backed by credible operational capabilities. Furthermore, it welcomed the Franco-British declaration made on 4 December 1998 in St. Malo. The European Council invited the German Presidency to pursue this debate and agreed to examine the question again at the European Council in Cologne. To this end Foreign Ministers discussed the subject at their informal meeting in Reinhartshausen on 13/14 March and at the General Affairs Council on 17 May.

The NATO Washington Summit welcomed the new impetus given to the strengthening of a common European policy on security and defence by the Amsterdam Treaty and confirmed that a stronger European role will help contribute to the vitality of the Alliance for the 21st century. The NATO summit furthermore stressed that the development of a CFSP, as called for in the Amsterdam Treaty, would be compatible with the common security and defence policy established within the framework of the Washington Treaty. This process will lead to more complementarity, cooperation and synergy.

At the WEU Ministerial Council on 10 and 11 May this question was also discussed on the basis of the informal reflection which was initiated at the Rome Ministerial Council. Member States will undertake efforts in line with the conclusions of the ongoing WEU Audit of European defence capabilities.

2. Guiding Principles

The aim is to strengthen the CFSP by the development of a common European policy on security and defence. This requires a capacity for autonomous action backed up by credible military capabilities and appropriate decision making bodies. Decisions to act would be taken within the framework of the CFSP according to appropriate procedures in order to reflect the specific nature of decisions in this field. The Council of the European Union would thus be able to take decisions on the whole range of political, economic and military instruments at its disposal when responding to crisis situations.

The European Union is committed to preserve peace and strengthen international security in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter as well as the principles of the Helsinki Final Act and the objectives of the Charter of Paris, as provided for in Article 11 of the TEU.

The Amsterdam Treaty incorporates the Petersberg tasks ("humanitarian and rescue tasks, peace-keeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peace-making") into the Treaty.

The focus of our efforts therefore would be to assure that the European Union has at its disposal the necessary capabilities (including military capabilities) and appropriate structures for effective EU decision making in crisis management within the scope of the Petersberg tasks. This is the area where a European capacity to act is required most urgently. The development of an EU military crisis management capacity is to be seen as an activity within the framework of the CFSP (Title V of the TEU) and as a part of the progressive framing of a common defence policy in accordance with Article 17 of the TEU.

The Atlantic Alliance remains the foundation of the collective defence of its Members. The commitments under Article 5 of the Washington Treaty and Article V of the Brussels Treaty will in any event be preserved for the Member States party to these Treaties. The policy of the Union shall not prejudice the specific character of the security and defence policy of certain Member States.

3. Decision Making

As regards EU decision making in the field of security and defence policy, necessary arrangements must be made in order to ensure political control and strategic direction of EU-led Petersberg operations so that the EU can decide and conduct such operations effectively.

Furthermore, the EU will need a capacity for analysis of situations, sources of intelligence, and a capability for relevant strategic planning.

This may require in particular:

  • regular (or ad hoc) meetings of the General Affairs Council, as appropriate including Defence Ministers;
  • a permanent body in Brussels (Political and Security Committee) consisting of representatives with pol/mil expertise;
  • an EU Military Committee consisting of Military Representatives making recommendations to the Political and Security Committee;
  • a EU Military Staff including a Situation Centre;
  • other resources such as a Satellite Centre, Institute for Security Studies.

Further institutional questions may need to be addressed.

Decisions relating to crisis management tasks, in particular decisions having military or defence implications will be taken in accordance with Article 23 of the Treaty on European Union. Member States will retain in all circumstances the right to decide if and when their national forces are deployed.

4. Implementation

As regards military capabilities, Member States need to develop further forces (including headquarters) that are suited also to crisis management operations, without any unnecessary duplication. The main characteristics include: deployability, sustainability, interoperability, flexibility and mobility.

For the effective implementation of EU-led operations the European Union will have to determine, according to the requirements of the case, whether it will conduct:

  • EU-led operations using NATO assets and capabilities or
  • EU-led operations without recourse to NATO assets and capabilities.

For EU-led operations without recourse to NATO assets and capabilities, the EU could use national or multinational European means pre-identified by Member States. This will require either the use of national command structures providing multinational representation in headquarters or drawing on existing command structures within multinational forces. Further arrangements to enhance the capacity of European multinational and national forces to respond to crises situations will be needed.

For EU-led operations having recourse to NATO assets and capabilities, including European command arrangements, the main focus should be on the following aspects:

  • Implementation of the arrangements based on the Berlin decisions of 1996 and the Washington NATO summit decisions of April 1999.
  • The further arrangements set out by NATO at its summit meeting in Washington should address in particular:
    • assured EU access to NATO planning capabilities able to contribute to military planing for EU-led operations;
    • the presumption of availability to the EU of pre-identified NATO capabilities and common assets for use in EU-led operations.

5. Modalities of participation and cooperation

The successful creation of a European policy on security and defence will require in particular:

  • the possibility of all EU Member States, including non-allied members, to participate fully and on an equal footing in EU operations;
  • satisfactory arrangements for European NATO members who are not EU Member States to ensure their fullest possible involvement in EU-led operations, building on existing consultation arrangements within WEU;
  • arrangements to ensure that all participants in an EU-led operation will have equal rights in respect of the conduct of that operation, without prejudice to the principle of the EU's decision-making autonomy, notably the right of the Council to discuss and decide matters of principle and policy;
  • the need to ensure the development of effective mutual consultation, cooperation and transparency between NATO and the EU;
  • the consideration of ways to ensure the possibility for WEU Associate Partners to be involved.

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Protection of fundamental rights is a founding principle of the Union and an indispensable prerequisite for her legitimacy. The obligation of the Union to respect fundamental rights has been confirmed and defined by the jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice. There appears to be a need, at the present stage of the Union's development, to establish a Charter of fundamental rights in order to make their overriding importance and relevance more visible to the Union's citizens.

The European Council believes that this Charter should contain the fundamental rights and freedoms as well as basic procedural rights guaranteed by the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and derived from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, as general principles of Community law. The Charter should also include the fundamental rights that pertain only to the Union’s citizens. In drawing up such a Charter account should furthermore be taken of economic and social rights as contained in the European Social Charter and the Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers (Article 136 TEC), insofar as they do not merely establish objectives for action by the Union.

In the view of the European Council, a draft of such a Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union should be elaborated by a body composed of representatives of the Heads of State and Government and of the President of the Commission as well as of members of the European Parliament and national parliaments. Representatives of the European Court of Justice should participate as observers. Representatives of the Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions and social groups as well as experts should be invited to give their views. Secretariat services should be provided by the General Secretariat of the Council.

This body should present a draft document in advance of the European Council in December 2000. The European Council will propose to the European Parliament and the Commission that, together with the Council, they should solemnly proclaim on the basis of the draft document a European Charter of Fundamental Rights. It will then have to be considered whether and, if so, how the Charter should be integrated into the treaties. The European Council mandates the General Affairs Council to take the necessary steps prior to the Tampere European Council.

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President Ahtisaari, mandated by the European Union, reported to the Heads of State or of Government meeting in Cologne on the mission he had undertaken to Belgrade together with Mr Chernomyrdin, Special Envoy of the President of the Russian Federation.

The Heads of State or of Government congratulated the two emissaries on the success of their demarche. They took note of the Yugoslav authorities' acceptance of the peace plan setting out and detailing the international community's demands.

The Heads of State or of Government acknowledge that there is now a real possibility of achieving a political settlement, the first stage of which is to begin the verifiable withdrawal of all Yugoslav forces from Kosovo. This would enable NATO operations to be suspended. They want this process to be initiated immediately.

They therefore emphasise the urgent need for the adoption of a UN Security Council Resolution authorising the creation of the international security force and the setting up of the provisional international civil administration.

They decided that a draft Resolution will be drafted without delay so that it can be forwarded immediately to the member countries of the Security Council.

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  • Report on the European Employment Pact
  • Contribution to the Presidency report on the European Employment Pact
    — Draft memorandum of the Presidency on "Youth and Europe — Our future"
    (8288/99 + COR 1 (d))
  • Proposal for a Council Resolution on equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities
  • Commission communication on Community policies in support of employment
  • European Employment Pact
    — Member States' contributions
  • Commission report: "Europe as an Economic Entity" — 1999 report
  • Report from the Commission on progress achieved in implementing the Luxembourg Process: Common indicators and Lifelong learning
    (8745/1/99 REV 1)
  • Draft report from the Council (ECOFIN) on the broad guidelines of the economic policies of the Member States and the Community
  • Commission communication: Implementing the framework for
  • Conclusions of the Council on the Commission report on the implementation of the action plan for financial services
  • Progress report by the Council (Economic and Financial Questions) to the European Council: reinforced tax policy cooperation
    (8484/1/99 REV 1)
  • Report by the Council on improvements in the functioning of the international financial system
    (8460/1/99 REV 1)
  • Commission report: Investment in infrastructure in the European Union
  • Commission working paper: Environmental integration - mainstreaming of environmental policy
  • Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Preparing for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol
  • Note from the Presidency on human rights
  • Presidency report on the strengthening of the common European policy on security and defence
  • Commission communication to the Council and European Parliament on the stabilisation and association process for countries of South-Eastern Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Albania
  • Commission communication to the European Council on combating racism, xenophobia and anti-semitism in the applicant countries
  • Commission report: the Millennium bug: state of play as regards preparation of the EU's most important infrastructures for the beginning of the new millennium

© European Parliament: 1999