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In 2007, the EU established a set of basic rights for rail passengers, which became applicable at the end of 2009. These rights provide for all passengers, including those with reduced mobility, a harmonised minimum level of protection, information and assistance. Reports have concluded that the implementation of these rights, although relatively smooth, is not done uniformly across the EU. Moreover, other shortcomings have prevented these rights from being used to their full potential. In September ...

The European Union is expected to revise the liability regime for online intermediaries in the forthcoming digital services act. This publication describes the current liability regime set out under the 2000 E commerce Directive, highlights the implementation gaps that have been identified, and presents the main proposals for reform that have been discussed so far. Technology has evolved in the last 20 years and new societal challenges, such as the increasing use of platforms to access and distribute ...

Robotics is a wide and multi-faceted domain, which crosses boundaries between many economics sectors and legal disciplines. The perception of a need for some kind of Europe-wide legal framework to accompany the development of robotic and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is growing. A harmonised EU regulatory framework concerning specifically liability and insurance regarding robotics and AI could provide greater legal certainty and promote trust. It could also stimulate greater research ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the PETI Committee, aims at gaining deeper insights into the legal aspects of cross border nuclear safety and cooperation in the European Union. It analyses the legal framework of nuclear safety as well as the liability and insurance schemes for nuclear accidents. The study examines the current liability and insurance framework and formulates possibilities for ...

This study – commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee – analyses existing European and national legislation on the regulation of drones for civil use, discussing how they are defined and classified, whether certification and registration is required, how liability is apportioned between the subjects involved, and if compulsory insurance is provided for. Finally, on the basis of a risk-management ...

Action for damages against the EU

Briefing 07-12-2018

Most legal systems, both of states and of international organisations, provide for the liability of public administrations for damage done to individuals. This area of the law, known as 'public tort law', varies considerably from country to country, even within the European Union (EU). The EU Treaties have, from the outset, provided for liability of the EU for public torts (wrongs), in the form of action for damages against the EU, now codified in the second and third paragraphs of Article 340 of ...

This assessment of European added value finds that revision of the EU's current legislative framework is necessary, notably as regards the regulation of civil liability and insurance. Quantitative assessment of added value, at the current stage of technological development, proved difficult and inconclusive. A qualitative analysis, however, provided evidence that action at EU level would (i) promote legal certainty; (ii) reduce the transaction costs for car manufacturers and public administrations ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 27 September 2017 and referred to Parliament's Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN). The proposal aims to amend Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 in order to strengthen the rights for all EU rail passengers, and to reduce the 'burden on railway undertakings due to the inconsistent application of the regulation' (IA, p. 9). The ...

TARGET balances are the claims and liabilities of euro area national central banks (NCBs) with the ECB. TARGET balances add up to zero but the sum of the absolute value of these balances has grown substantially since 2008. The levels of TARGET balances within the Eurosystem has never been so high. In September 2017, Germany’s positive TARGET balance equalled €879 billion, which is over 25 percent of current German GDP. Luxembourg, Netherlands and Finland have also built up large claims relative to ...

This briefing prepared by the Economic Governance Support Unit gives an overview of the objectives and nature of emergency liquidity assistance that may be provided by central banks for banks facing sudden liquidity problems. It also provides a short description on how this is done by the European System of Central Banks inside the Banking Union and raises some questions on how this could evolve in the future.