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In this research paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of online advertising markets and we analyse the challenges and opportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degree to which existing and proposed legislation at EU level addresses the identified problems, and identify potential solutions, with reference to experience from EU Member States and third countries. We conclude with a synthesis and specific policy recommendations, drawing on stakeholder interviews.

Directive 2008/48/EC on credit agreement for consumers (the CCD) is part of the legal framework tackling consumer protection and the development of the internal market. Despite improvements in enforcing consumer protection policy, there are shortcomings in particular regarding the scope of application of the directive and the uneven regulatory choices made in the 27 EU Member States for implementing it. Moreover, there are new challenges – such as digitalisation and data collection, use and processing ...

Low IT spending by banks: Reason for concern?

Задълбочен анализ 24-06-2021

We collect data on IT spending as reported by banks directly supervised by the ECB in their 2020 annual reports. Slightly more than 50% of these banks report their IT spending. Our analysis, using data for those banks that do report IT expenditure, suggests that the distribution of IT expenses as share of operating income, operating expenses or total assets is uneven. We identify banks that score low on one or more of these ratios. It turns out that this group is very diverse. We argue that these ...

Recent migration flows to the EU

Накратко 03-06-2021

This infographic aims to present the latest available data on migrant flows to the EU in the year 2020. It covers the detection of illegal crossings on the EU's external borders and numbers of deaths of migrants on those crossings. This Infographic updates and complements previous editions, the most recent of which was issued in April 2020 (PE 649.329).

The European agricultural statistics system (EASS) is undergoing a major transformation, aiming to improve data quality by taking a more systemic and efficient approach. The modernisation process began some years ago with an evaluation of existing agricultural statistics. To complete the process, in February 2021, the European Commission put forward two proposals on statistics: on inputs and outputs of agricultural activities and on regional economic accounts for agriculture. The European Parliament ...

The single market programme is a new, dedicated €3.7 billion (in 2018 prices) or €4.2 billion (in current prices) programme for the 2021-2027 period supporting the single market. It is particularly aimed at empowering and protecting consumers, and enabling Europe's many small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to take better advantage of a well-functioning single market. On 3 May 2021, the Regulation establishing the programme entered into force, with retroactive application from 1 January 2021. ...

Recast Eurodac Regulation

Briefing 26-03-2021

Eurodac is a biometric database in which Member States are required to enter the fingerprint data of asylum-seekers in order to identify where they entered the European Union (EU). Established in 2000 and reviewed in 2013, its main purpose is to facilitate the application of the Dublin Regulation. The 2013 revision broadened the scope to provide law enforcement authorities with access to the Eurodac database. As part of the reform of the common European asylum system in 2016, the European Commission ...

Racial and ethnic minorities face discrimination and its consequences on a daily basis. The exact scale of the problem is hard to gauge owing to a lack of data and general under-reporting of racist incidents. The pandemic has seen a major increase in reports of racist and xenophobic incidents, however, while racial and ethnic minority groups have been disproportionately affected by the crisis, with higher death and infection rates. Although since 2000 the European Union (EU) has introduced legislation ...

Online platforms: Economic and societal effects

Проучване 10-03-2021

Online platforms such as Google, Amazon, and Facebook play an increasingly central role in the economy and society. They operate as digital intermediaries across interconnected sectors and markets subject to network effects. These firms have grown to an unprecedented scale, propelled by data-driven business models. Online platforms have a massive impact on individual users and businesses, and are recasting the relationships between customers, advertisers, workers, and employers. This has triggered ...

Disability is a complex, multidimensional and contested term for which there is no common definition, but which is generally understood as a dynamic interaction between health conditions and contextual factors, both personal and environmental. A billion people in the world, of whom over 70 million in the EU, live with disabilities today. Official sporting events for people with disabilities have existed for over a century. The Silent Games – the first competition for athletes with a disability (now ...