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Tailoring prudential policy to bank size. The application of proportionality in the US and euro area

13-10-2021

All jurisdictions tailor their prudential policies to bank size, with generally more complex – though not necessarily more stringent – requirements for larger banks. This paper compares such policies in the euro area and United States, in the context of the differences in banking system structures and legal frameworks. There are vastly more stand-alone smaller banks and credit unions in the US than in the euro area. The US approach to prudential requirements is generally more differentiated by bank ...

All jurisdictions tailor their prudential policies to bank size, with generally more complex – though not necessarily more stringent – requirements for larger banks. This paper compares such policies in the euro area and United States, in the context of the differences in banking system structures and legal frameworks. There are vastly more stand-alone smaller banks and credit unions in the US than in the euro area. The US approach to prudential requirements is generally more differentiated by bank size than the euro area’s, but the US has a more uniform framework for bank crisis management and resolution. Given the permanence of cross-border fragmentation and overbanking in the euro area, further size-based policy differentiation would be ill-advised.

Външен автор

A. Lehmann, N. Véron- Bruegel

Did the pandemic lead to structural changes in the banking sector?

11-10-2021

We discuss the main structural changes triggered by Covid19 in banking. Direct consequences include: the impact of the lockdown on remote shopping and telework, lower cash usage and a further shift towards innovative payment methods, the downturn suffered by the economy and bank borrowers. Indirect consequences (partly reinforcing pre-existing trends) include: the further development of payment services provided by non-bank competitors, an acceleration in bank digitalisation, a rise in cyber-attacks ...

We discuss the main structural changes triggered by Covid19 in banking. Direct consequences include: the impact of the lockdown on remote shopping and telework, lower cash usage and a further shift towards innovative payment methods, the downturn suffered by the economy and bank borrowers. Indirect consequences (partly reinforcing pre-existing trends) include: the further development of payment services provided by non-bank competitors, an acceleration in bank digitalisation, a rise in cyber-attacks, a drop in the value of real estate collateral.

Външен автор

Andrea RESTI

The Human Right to Drinking Water: Impact of large-scale agriculture and industry

30-09-2021

Access to safe drinking water is a human right. It is indispensable to a healthy, dignified and productive life. However, a significant proportion of the global population is not able to enjoy this human right. The purpose of this in-depth analysis is to consider the impacts of large-scale agricultural activity and industry on the progressive realisation of the human right to drinking water. In particular, it considers how the European Union and the European Parliament can better support non-EU countries ...

Access to safe drinking water is a human right. It is indispensable to a healthy, dignified and productive life. However, a significant proportion of the global population is not able to enjoy this human right. The purpose of this in-depth analysis is to consider the impacts of large-scale agricultural activity and industry on the progressive realisation of the human right to drinking water. In particular, it considers how the European Union and the European Parliament can better support non-EU countries to realise this human right. States and businesses have obligations and responsibilities towards citizens to ensure safe drinking water. However, fulfilling these obligations and responsibilities is in contention with competing water uses and economic considerations and marred by poor enabling environments and power dynamics. Achieving the human right to drinking water needs to be considered in the context of trade-offs emerging from the water-food-energy nexus where water use in one sector can have impacts on others. Virtual water embedded in the trade of agricultural goods demonstrates that demand for food can affect local water availability, posing challenges to ensuring the human right to drinking water in these places. Existing good practices focus on better recognition of obligations and responsibilities through a human rights-based approach, improved assessments of impacts, enhanced stakeholder engagement and mechanisms for due diligence. There are opportunities for the EU to extend the discussion on the human right to drinking water with other interlinked rights, noting the complex and integrated impacts of water resources.

Външен автор

• Dr Naho MIRUMACHI • Dr Aleksandra DUDA • Jagoda GREGULSKA • Joanna SMĘTEK