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Precautionary recapitalisations: time for a review

06-07-2017

The first part of the paper considers the effects of pre-empting a resolution procedure for a troubled financial institution by a precautionary recapitalization as specified in Article 32 (4) (d) of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD). Benefits are seen for the maintenance of systemically important operations of an institution with legally independent subsidiaries in multiple jurisdictions and possibly for the maintenance of lending in situations where an entire banking system is involved ...

The first part of the paper considers the effects of pre-empting a resolution procedure for a troubled financial institution by a precautionary recapitalization as specified in Article 32 (4) (d) of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD). Benefits are seen for the maintenance of systemically important operations of an institution with legally independent subsidiaries in multiple jurisdictions and possibly for the maintenance of lending in situations where an entire banking system is involved. Other systemic concerns, such as the maintenance of lending when only part of a banking system is affected, the avoidance of damage to money markets, and potential systemic effects from bailing in creditors, can be addressed in a resolution procedure under the rules of the BRRD and do not require the instrument of a precautionary recapitalization. The second part of the paper provides a critical assessment of Article 32 (4) (d) of the BRRD and finds some weaknesses that contribute to raising taxpayers’ costs or to reducing the effectiveness of the operation. The availability of precautionary recapitalization outside of resolution contributes to undue and costly delays in acknowledging and addressing problems. The conditions specified in the Directive are problematic, sometimes too tough, sometimes too lenient, most importantly because the objectives of State aid control differ from the objectives of the BRRD. The paper concludes with suggestions for reform.

Precautionary recapitalisations: time for a review

05-07-2017

Precautionary recapitalisation, a tool for public intervention in the banking sector defined in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), is consistent with the rest of BRRD and a legitimate instrument for bank crisis management. The conditions set for it by BRRD are restrictive and have so far been effective to prevent its inappropriate use on insolvent banks. Minor corrections to the legislative text are desirable to fix a few cases of poor drafting. Beyond these, there is no immediate ...

Precautionary recapitalisation, a tool for public intervention in the banking sector defined in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), is consistent with the rest of BRRD and a legitimate instrument for bank crisis management. The conditions set for it by BRRD are restrictive and have so far been effective to prevent its inappropriate use on insolvent banks. Minor corrections to the legislative text are desirable to fix a few cases of poor drafting. Beyond these, there is no immediate need for legislative change before the broader review of BRRD scheduled in late 2018. Outside of the scope of BRRD, the co-legislators should consider a reform of the EU audit framework to improve audit quality, and the European Stability Mechanism should be empowered to participate in future precautionary recapitalisations.

Precautionary recapitalisations: time for a review

05-07-2017

With the introduction of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), public capital contributions to insolvent banks should have become a thing of the past or at least an extremely unlikely eventuality. The supposedly exceptional precautionary recapitalisation of Banca Monte dei Paschi (MPS) seems to offer evidence of the contrary. Based on a review of the empirical literature and the resent resolution of Banco Popular and MPS, this paper argues that a precautionary recapitalisation facility ...

With the introduction of the Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive (BRRD), public capital contributions to insolvent banks should have become a thing of the past or at least an extremely unlikely eventuality. The supposedly exceptional precautionary recapitalisation of Banca Monte dei Paschi (MPS) seems to offer evidence of the contrary. Based on a review of the empirical literature and the resent resolution of Banco Popular and MPS, this paper argues that a precautionary recapitalisation facility can be in the taxpayers’ interest, but only under very specific circumstances and conditions. The current rules on precautionary recapitalisation and guidelines for the supervisory exercises used to determine the shortfall should therefore be revised. On the one hand, the current requirements are too flexible, leaving room for public capital injections into de facto insolvent banks, while on the other hand, the requirements imposed on the recapitalisation amounts are too rigid to allow the realisation of maximum economic returns.

Precautionary recapitalisations: time for a review

05-07-2017

The paper conducts an analysis of the precautionary recapitalisation tool of article 32.4(d)(iii) of the BRRD, which gives Member States the ability to provide support to solvent banks with a capital shortfall highlighted by stress tests and asset quality reviews, in case of a serious disturbance in the economy. In doing so, the paper examines the relationship between precautionary recapitalisation, financial stability and a serious disturbance in the economy underlying how the absence of a clear ...

The paper conducts an analysis of the precautionary recapitalisation tool of article 32.4(d)(iii) of the BRRD, which gives Member States the ability to provide support to solvent banks with a capital shortfall highlighted by stress tests and asset quality reviews, in case of a serious disturbance in the economy. In doing so, the paper examines the relationship between precautionary recapitalisation, financial stability and a serious disturbance in the economy underlying how the absence of a clear definition of ‘serious disturbance’ and ‘financial stability’ gives sufficient room for manoeuvre to determine when to provide aid. It also reviews the applicable rules on State aid and burden sharing, which allow for sufficient flexibility in case of financial stability concerns, balancing the needs of preserving financial stability but at the same time taking competition policy interests into account. Overall, precautionary recapitalisation is a necessary measure, especially given the current economic climate and its potential to facilitate the restoration of necessary capital levels.

Price volatility in agricultural markets: Risk management and other tools

07-07-2016

Farmers are often confronted with substantial changes in the prices they receive for the sale of their agricultural products, which causes financial uncertainty about their incomes. Commonly referred to as 'price volatility', this phenomenon is more evident in agriculture than in other economic sectors due to a variety of economic, natural and political factors. Data provided by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation suggest that global price volatility has been on the increase since ...

Farmers are often confronted with substantial changes in the prices they receive for the sale of their agricultural products, which causes financial uncertainty about their incomes. Commonly referred to as 'price volatility', this phenomenon is more evident in agriculture than in other economic sectors due to a variety of economic, natural and political factors. Data provided by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation suggest that global price volatility has been on the increase since 2005 and is likely to remain a major concern for farmers in the coming decades. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for the 2014–2020 period is mainly aimed at compensating farmers for the negative effects of price volatility and at tackling income volatility, rather than directly addressing price volatility itself. Indeed, market interventions have been reduced and now play the limited role of safety net measures which are only activated when prices drop below certain levels. The main policy instrument involves direct payments which provide a stable form of income for farmers regardless of market conditions. Additionally, Member States have the possibility to support three risk management tools (insurance schemes, mutual funds and an Income Stabilisation Tool) through their rural development programmes. The European Parliament has been working actively on the issue of price volatility in agricultural markets, notably by organising a hearing and launching an own-initiative report on the subject. It will also play a crucial role in determining the next CAP framework. Looking to the future, direct payments, which reduce income volatility by providing a stable form of revenue for farmers, will probably still play a role in the CAP after 2020, but a political shift towards the further development of risk management tools, especially the Income Stabilisation Tool, could be at the core of the debate on the future of the European agricultural policy. Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

Measures to address the crisis in the dairy sector

23-05-2016

The milk crisis in the EU has persisted since 2015. In light of the situation facing the dairy sector and recognising that the outlook for milk prices is not encouraging, Parliament has requested the Commission and the Council to provide an update in plenary on measures to address the situation.

The milk crisis in the EU has persisted since 2015. In light of the situation facing the dairy sector and recognising that the outlook for milk prices is not encouraging, Parliament has requested the Commission and the Council to provide an update in plenary on measures to address the situation.

Energy Union: Key Decisions for the Realisation of a Fully Integrated Energy Market

15-03-2016

This study, provided by the Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee gives an overview and analysis of the main EU policies, measures and instruments that contribute to the realisation of fully integrated and well-functioning electricity and gas markets in Europe. Detailed case studies explore capacity remuneration mechanisms, electricity market coupling, and cross-border gas trade between Hungary and its neighbours. Policy recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the integration ...

This study, provided by the Policy Department A at the request of the ITRE Committee gives an overview and analysis of the main EU policies, measures and instruments that contribute to the realisation of fully integrated and well-functioning electricity and gas markets in Europe. Detailed case studies explore capacity remuneration mechanisms, electricity market coupling, and cross-border gas trade between Hungary and its neighbours. Policy recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the integration process are formulated based on the key findings.

The ECB's Quantitative Easing: Early results and possible risks

08-12-2015

In early 2015, at a time when most indicators of actual and expected inflation in the euro area had drifted towards historic lows, the European Central Bank (ECB) announced that it would launch a new asset purchase programme, which would be similar in many respects to the 'Quantitative Easing' (QE) programmes launched earlier by the United States Federal Reserve System, the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan. Researchers have published extensively on issues relating to the programme. On one ...

In early 2015, at a time when most indicators of actual and expected inflation in the euro area had drifted towards historic lows, the European Central Bank (ECB) announced that it would launch a new asset purchase programme, which would be similar in many respects to the 'Quantitative Easing' (QE) programmes launched earlier by the United States Federal Reserve System, the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan. Researchers have published extensively on issues relating to the programme. On one hand, empirical evidence from previous QE programmes (in the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan), shows that contrary to 'textbook' theory, the ECB's Public Sector Purchase Programme is expected to have negligible direct effect on the economy, contributing more through indirect effects. On the other hand, most researchers agree that the many concerns raised – e.g. there would be insufficient liquidity in the markets for the programme to have an impact; side effects would increase risks to financial stability or worsen income inequality; or that the risk-sharing arrangements could exert pressures on euro area solidarity in the event that a Member State declared bankruptcy − have not so far materialised. And, should they eventually come about, they would neither present significant risks to the euro area economy (in terms of direct losses or financial stability), nor create tensions between Member States, or between different population classes within a Member State. However, unwinding the current programme may present significant risks, so to avoid or at least mitigate them, careful planning of the timing and speed of the exit, complementing it with micro and macro-prudential supervision, as well as fiscal policy measures are all important. This briefing updates an earlier edition from the time of the ECB announcement.

Energy Storage: Which Market Designs and Regulatory Incentives are Needed?

15-10-2015

This study analyses the current status and potential of energy storage in the European Union. It aims at suggesting what market designs and regulatory changes could foster further cost reduction and further deployment of energy storage technologies to provide services supporting the Energy Union strategy. This study was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy Committee (ITRE).

This study analyses the current status and potential of energy storage in the European Union. It aims at suggesting what market designs and regulatory changes could foster further cost reduction and further deployment of energy storage technologies to provide services supporting the Energy Union strategy. This study was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy Committee (ITRE).

Външен автор

Sergio UGARTE, Julia LARKIN, Bart van der REE, Vincent SWINKELS and Monique VOOGT (SQ Consult B.V.) ; Nele FRIEDRICHSEN, Julia MICHAELIS, Axel THIELMANN and Martin WIETSCHEL (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI) ; Roberto VILLAFÁFILA (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)

Exceptional measures: The Shanghai stock market crash and the future of the Chinese economy

31-08-2015

This summer has been a dramatic one for China's stocks markets, with most indices registering losses of more than 40 % from their annual high. European markets have also suffered, and many observers across the globe are now nervously focused on the Asian giant whose economy drove so many other countries' in recent years. Yet the real economic significance of the drama in China may not stem from its bourses' losses; those who lost money on China's stock market are only a small percentage of its citizens ...

This summer has been a dramatic one for China's stocks markets, with most indices registering losses of more than 40 % from their annual high. European markets have also suffered, and many observers across the globe are now nervously focused on the Asian giant whose economy drove so many other countries' in recent years. Yet the real economic significance of the drama in China may not stem from its bourses' losses; those who lost money on China's stock market are only a small percentage of its citizens, and many are simply shaving their precipitous profits, rather than facing calamitous losses. A more significant economic outcome may result from the Chinese government's efforts to intervene in its stocks markets. The measures adopted by Beijing since the sell-off began – in some cases, measures that were quickly abandoned – would be unthinkable in a fully market economy. Many measures largely contradict the government's commitments to open and transparent financial exchanges. As the liquidity that a slowing Chinese economy badly requires is frozen, it could be Beijing's heavy-handed involvement in local markets – and not their pared prices – that determines the economic fallout from the summer losses.

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