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Study in focus: Competition issues in the Area of Financial Technology (FinTech)

22-11-2018

This note summarises the main points presented in the study on Competition issues in the Area of Financial Technology (FinTech).

This note summarises the main points presented in the study on Competition issues in the Area of Financial Technology (FinTech).

Road charges for private vehicles in the EU

25-05-2016

Road charges are fees for the use of a particular road network or section of road. Since the 1990s, the focus of European transport policy has shifted from the application of road pricing purely as a means to generate revenue towards the use of charges as an instrument against pollution and congestion. Charging for road infrastructure is an option to implement basic principles of EU policy such as the 'user-pays principle' or the 'polluter-pays principle'. It can serve different functions such as ...

Road charges are fees for the use of a particular road network or section of road. Since the 1990s, the focus of European transport policy has shifted from the application of road pricing purely as a means to generate revenue towards the use of charges as an instrument against pollution and congestion. Charging for road infrastructure is an option to implement basic principles of EU policy such as the 'user-pays principle' or the 'polluter-pays principle'. It can serve different functions such as financing, managing traffic flow or making all costs perceptible so as to influence the behaviour of road users. As the transport of goods is linked with the functioning of the Single Market, the charging of heavy goods vehicles is regulated at European level. In contrast, there is no regulation at European level on the road charging of private vehicles, though Member States establishing such schemes are obliged to apply the basic principles of the Treaties, in particular the principles of proportionality and of non-discrimination on grounds of nationality. As a consequence of the regulation at national level, many different charging schemes are applied in the EU. These vary, principally according to the way they are levied: distance-based schemes levied by means of tolls, or time-based schemes, levied using vignettes. All schemes are associated with considerable levying costs. Technological developments such as electronic charging can offer opportunities to reduce these costs. However, lack of interoperability between the various systems generates additional costs and hindrances for European mobility.

Competition Policy: Delivering for Consumers, Proceedings of the Workshop

10-08-2015

Allowing consumers to have a fair share of the benefits resulting from effective competition is one of the targets of competition policy. Better quality and innovative products, more choice and lower prices are the most prominent practical results. However, distortion of competition by antitrust infringements or an inefficient enforcement of competition rules still causes consumer harm. This workshop aims to examine in which areas consumers actually benefit from competition and where there is still ...

Allowing consumers to have a fair share of the benefits resulting from effective competition is one of the targets of competition policy. Better quality and innovative products, more choice and lower prices are the most prominent practical results. However, distortion of competition by antitrust infringements or an inefficient enforcement of competition rules still causes consumer harm. This workshop aims to examine in which areas consumers actually benefit from competition and where there is still room for improvement. This workshop and the respective document were prepared by the Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

The Services Directive

24-06-2011

Services make up the biggest part of the EU economy, but their free movement across borders encounters numerous barriers.

Services make up the biggest part of the EU economy, but their free movement across borders encounters numerous barriers.

Liberalisation of the postal market

04-02-2010

The European Union started a process of gradual reform of the postal market in the 1990s. The Postal Directive adopted in 1997 and its amendments in 2002 and 2008 will achieve full market opening for postal services by 31 December 2010 or, for eleven Member States, by 31 December 2012. Six Member States have already fully liberalised their markets. Although not imposed by the Postal Directive, many Member States also combined their national postal market liberalisation with the transformation of ...

The European Union started a process of gradual reform of the postal market in the 1990s. The Postal Directive adopted in 1997 and its amendments in 2002 and 2008 will achieve full market opening for postal services by 31 December 2010 or, for eleven Member States, by 31 December 2012. Six Member States have already fully liberalised their markets. Although not imposed by the Postal Directive, many Member States also combined their national postal market liberalisation with the transformation of the state-owned post operator into independent, some-times privatised, legal entities.

Trade in Raw Materials and Primary Commodities Recent Trends and Options For eu Trade Policy

11-09-2007

The study analyses variations in prices and their impact on the evolution of primary commodity markets over several decades. Three case studies illustrate the markets dynamics of primary commodities (aluminium, natural gas and cotton). It underlines the dependency of developing countries on primary commodity markets and demonstrates how trade liberalisation and globalisation of primary commodity markets has modified the relationships between developed and developing countries in two directions: - ...

The study analyses variations in prices and their impact on the evolution of primary commodity markets over several decades. Three case studies illustrate the markets dynamics of primary commodities (aluminium, natural gas and cotton). It underlines the dependency of developing countries on primary commodity markets and demonstrates how trade liberalisation and globalisation of primary commodity markets has modified the relationships between developed and developing countries in two directions: -On the one hand, private firms are now free to develop diverse strategies on international markets within new trade rules based on free competition; -On the other hand, South-South trade is increasing thanks to higher per capita incomes and faster industrialisation of emerging countries such as China, South Korea, India and Brazil. It concludes with the fact that the European Union, as a major importer and exporter, is in a position to play a leading role both in supporting European firms acting in primary commodity markets and in supporting actions to help Commodity Dependent Developing Countries (CDDCs) to strengthen their production capacities and to reduce poverty and unemployment

Външен автор

Hadj Saadi Project Leader Hadj.Saadi@upmf-grenoble.fr Jean-Pierre Angelier Ivan Samson Faculté Economie, Stratégies, Entreprise Université Pierre Mendès France, Grenoble (France)

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