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Own resources of the European Union: Reforming the EU's financing system

09-06-2021

On 1 June 2021, the decision that reforms the financing system of the EU budget entered into force, following its ratification by all Member States. It introduces three significant innovations in the own resources system, applying retroactively from 1 January 2021. The maximum level of resources that can be called from Member States permanently rises from 1.20 % to 1.40 % of EU gross national income (GNI). A temporary increase in the own resources ceiling, worth a further 0.60 % of EU GNI, is devoted ...

On 1 June 2021, the decision that reforms the financing system of the EU budget entered into force, following its ratification by all Member States. It introduces three significant innovations in the own resources system, applying retroactively from 1 January 2021. The maximum level of resources that can be called from Member States permanently rises from 1.20 % to 1.40 % of EU gross national income (GNI). A temporary increase in the own resources ceiling, worth a further 0.60 % of EU GNI, is devoted exclusively to the financing of Next Generation (NGEU), enabling the Commission to borrow resources on an unprecedented scale on the capital markets, with a view to financing the recovery. A national contribution linked to non-recycled plastic packaging waste is introduced, the first new EU own resource to be created since 1988. In addition, Parliament pushed for a broader reform of the financing system underlining that the introduction of a basket of new own resources should cover at least the repayment costs of NGEU (for both principal and interest). Parliament managed to include a detailed roadmap for the introduction of various additional new own resources by 2026 in the interinstitutional agreement on budgetary matters with the Council and the European Commission. Envisaged resources are linked to EU policies on climate and the single market. Fourth edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

National ratification of the Own Resources Decision: Procedure completed on 31 May 2021

02-06-2021

The Own Resources Decision (ORD) establishes how the EU budget is financed. Its entry into force requires approval by all EU Member States according to their constitutional requirements. In a majority of Member States, national parliaments are responsible for ratifying the decision. In the others, the government alone decides on the approval. Completion of the ratification procedure by all Member States has generally required more than two years. However, there was a greater sense of urgency for ...

The Own Resources Decision (ORD) establishes how the EU budget is financed. Its entry into force requires approval by all EU Member States according to their constitutional requirements. In a majority of Member States, national parliaments are responsible for ratifying the decision. In the others, the government alone decides on the approval. Completion of the ratification procedure by all Member States has generally required more than two years. However, there was a greater sense of urgency for the ORD adopted by the Council in December 2020, since its entry into force is a pre-condition for the launch of the Next Generation EU (NGEU) recovery instrument. The objective was to complete the ratification procedure before summer 2021, with a view to ensuring the timely launch of NGEU. All Member States have now ratified the ORD, and notified the Council accordingly before the end of May. Therefore, on 1 June 2021, the new ORD entered into force, enabling the Commission to start borrowing resources for the recovery instrument. This is a further update of a Briefing of which the previous edition was published on 20 May 2021.

Implementing the Own Resources Decision

22-03-2021

During its March II plenary session, the European Parliament is scheduled to vote on three Council regulations that complete the architecture of the revenue system of the EU budget. The consent procedure applies to the implementing measures, while legislative opinions (consultation procedure) are to be adopted on the operational provisions. Prior to the votes, Parliament will hold a joint debate on the broader reform of EU own resources, for which a roadmap and guiding principles have recently been ...

During its March II plenary session, the European Parliament is scheduled to vote on three Council regulations that complete the architecture of the revenue system of the EU budget. The consent procedure applies to the implementing measures, while legislative opinions (consultation procedure) are to be adopted on the operational provisions. Prior to the votes, Parliament will hold a joint debate on the broader reform of EU own resources, for which a roadmap and guiding principles have recently been established in the interinstitutional agreement on budgetary matters between Parliament, Council and the Commission.

Reform of the EU own resources

01-03-2021

This document was prepared by Policy Department for Budgetary Affairs for the Committee on Budgets as a background paper for the Public Hearing on ‘Financing the EU budget: new own resources and possible other revenue’. It provides a summary of the system of EU own resources in the light of the agreement on its revision reached during the negotiations of the 2021-27 MFF. It shows the rationale for the reform including the need to find sources to finance the repayment of the EU borrowing in the framework ...

This document was prepared by Policy Department for Budgetary Affairs for the Committee on Budgets as a background paper for the Public Hearing on ‘Financing the EU budget: new own resources and possible other revenue’. It provides a summary of the system of EU own resources in the light of the agreement on its revision reached during the negotiations of the 2021-27 MFF. It shows the rationale for the reform including the need to find sources to finance the repayment of the EU borrowing in the framework of the New Generation EU initiative. The paper gives a description of each new own resource listed in the Interinstitutional Agreement of 2020, and shows their probable policy and budgetary effects.

Financing the European Union

15-12-2020

Responding to requests for a common recovery plan to complement national efforts to tackle the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, substantial new EU financial instruments have been rapidly introduced such as temporary support to mitigate unemployment risks in an emergency (SURE). The European Council meeting on 17-21 July agreed a recovery package based on a 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) of €1 074.3 billion, topped up with €750 billion in extra resources for EU programmes, financed ...

Responding to requests for a common recovery plan to complement national efforts to tackle the impact of the coronavirus pandemic, substantial new EU financial instruments have been rapidly introduced such as temporary support to mitigate unemployment risks in an emergency (SURE). The European Council meeting on 17-21 July agreed a recovery package based on a 2021-2027 Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) of €1 074.3 billion, topped up with €750 billion in extra resources for EU programmes, financed by borrowing on financial markets under the Next Generation EU (NGEU) instrument (the so-called 'recovery fund') backed by an increase in own resources. The package also included agreement on a regulation to protect the EU budget in case of deficiencies in the rule of law. In line with its resolution of 23 July 2020, the European Parliament swiftly took the steps needed to allow the launch of the recovery fund, and to improve on the European Council agreement to ensure that the EU finances respond to needs and expectations now and in the future. These improvements included top-ups to priority programmes and more flexibility in the use of the MFF, a legally binding place for the introduction of new own resources, better scrutiny of the mobilisation of the NGEU instrument, and enhancements in the application of the rule of law mechanism. Final agreements within and between the institutions, secured in December 2020, enable the new MFF to be in place as of 1 January 2021. This paper describes reforms already secured by the European Parliament and suggests further ideas that could be considered to improve the financing of the European Union, restore the link between EU strategy and financing, and better communicate the benefits of spending at EU level.

Amending Budget No 7/2020: Update of revenue (own resources)

30-09-2020

The purpose of Draft Amending Budget No 7/2020 (DAB 7/2020) is to update the revenue side of the budget, taking into account the latest economic developments. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the outlook for the European economy has changed significantly since the budget was adopted. DAB 7 proposes the following adjustments on the revenue side of the 2020 budget: an update of the estimates for traditional own resources, the own resources based on the value added tax and gross national income. Further ...

The purpose of Draft Amending Budget No 7/2020 (DAB 7/2020) is to update the revenue side of the budget, taking into account the latest economic developments. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, the outlook for the European economy has changed significantly since the budget was adopted. DAB 7 proposes the following adjustments on the revenue side of the 2020 budget: an update of the estimates for traditional own resources, the own resources based on the value added tax and gross national income. Further updates concern the United Kingdom correction, other revenue taking into account paid-up fines and penalty payments up to June 2020, as well as negative exchange rate differences. The European Parliament is expected to vote on the Council's position on DAB 7/2020 during the October I plenary session.

Plenary round-up – Brussels, September 2020

18-09-2020

The September 2020 plenary session was the sixth conducted with Members participating remotely, using the alternative voting procedure put in place in March by Parliament's Bureau, although a majority were again present in Brussels. As well as the Commission President's traditional State of the Union address, Parliament held a joint debate on the risk of breach of the rule of law and LGBTI-free zones in Poland. Parliament also debated European Commission statements on the preparation of the special ...

The September 2020 plenary session was the sixth conducted with Members participating remotely, using the alternative voting procedure put in place in March by Parliament's Bureau, although a majority were again present in Brussels. As well as the Commission President's traditional State of the Union address, Parliament held a joint debate on the risk of breach of the rule of law and LGBTI-free zones in Poland. Parliament also debated European Commission statements on the preparation of the special European Council focusing on Turkey's actions in the eastern Mediterranean, on the consequences for the single market of EU coordination of sanitary measures in the ongoing pandemic, on combatting sexual abuse and exploitation of children, and on the need for a humanitarian EU response to the situation in the Moria refugee camp. Parliament also debated statements from the Vice-President of the Commission/High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Josep Borell, on the situation in Belarus, in Lebanon and the poisoning of Alexei Navalny. Parliament also voted on legislative proposals and resolutions, including on arms exports, the Union Civil Protection Mechanism, the EU Association Agreement with Georgia, protecting world forests, EU-African security cooperation in the Sahel, type approval of motor vehicles and the importance of urban and green infrastructure.

Opinion on the EU own resources system

10-09-2020

Following the European Council’s July political agreement on the EU’s financing system, the European Parliament is expected to vote its legislative opinion on the reform during its September plenary part-session, with a view to expediting the launch of the borrowing operations of Next Generation EU. The report adopted on 1 September by the Committee on Budgets stresses that new own resources must be introduced, and finance at least the entire repayment costs of the recovery instrument. Parliament ...

Following the European Council’s July political agreement on the EU’s financing system, the European Parliament is expected to vote its legislative opinion on the reform during its September plenary part-session, with a view to expediting the launch of the borrowing operations of Next Generation EU. The report adopted on 1 September by the Committee on Budgets stresses that new own resources must be introduced, and finance at least the entire repayment costs of the recovery instrument. Parliament intends to negotiate a legally binding calendar to this end.

Future financing of the Union: MFF, Own Resources and Next Generation EU

22-07-2020

On 21 July, EU Heads of State or Government reached a political agreement on the future design of EU finances. The next step involves negotiations between Parliament, whose consent is required for the adoption of the EU’s multiannual financial framework (MFF), and Council. In an extraordinary part-session two days later, Parliament is expected to vote on a motion for a resolution that confirms Parliament’s readiness to enter immediately into negotiations to improve the deal and sets out conditions ...

On 21 July, EU Heads of State or Government reached a political agreement on the future design of EU finances. The next step involves negotiations between Parliament, whose consent is required for the adoption of the EU’s multiannual financial framework (MFF), and Council. In an extraordinary part-session two days later, Parliament is expected to vote on a motion for a resolution that confirms Parliament’s readiness to enter immediately into negotiations to improve the deal and sets out conditions for its consent to the MFF.

The EU budget and coronavirus [What Think Tanks are thinking]

06-07-2020

European Union leaders and institutions are now discussing plans to provide a major boost to the European economy to help it recover from the coronavirus crisis. They are doing so in the context of the new long-term EU budget, which would see the total ‘own resources’ ceiling for the Union more or less doubled. On 19 June 2020, the members of the European Council exchanged views by video-conference on the European Commission’s linked proposals, tabled on 27 May, for (i) a new ‘Next Generation EU’ ...

European Union leaders and institutions are now discussing plans to provide a major boost to the European economy to help it recover from the coronavirus crisis. They are doing so in the context of the new long-term EU budget, which would see the total ‘own resources’ ceiling for the Union more or less doubled. On 19 June 2020, the members of the European Council exchanged views by video-conference on the European Commission’s linked proposals, tabled on 27 May, for (i) a new ‘Next Generation EU’ recovery fund, and (ii) an updated Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) for the next seven-year financing period, from 2021 to 2027, in which the recovery fund would be embedded. The European Council will discuss these proposals again (in person) on 17-18 July in Brussels. In this context, think tankers and policy analysts have been debating the proposals and assessing their potential effectiveness. This note offers links to recent commentaries and reports from international think tanks on coronavirus and related issues. Earlier publications on financing the fight against the coronavirus can be found in a previous item in this series, published by EPRS on 8 June.

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