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The approach taken by the jurisprudence of the Polish courts, especially the Constitutional Tribunal, concerning the principle of the primacy of the EU law in relation to the Polish law and in particular to the Polish Constitution has changed substantially since Polish accession to the EU. The in-depth analysis evaluates three distinct periods in the jurisprudence of Polish Constitutional Tribunal. This study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and ...

At national level, the Dutch supreme audit institution, the Netherlands Court of Audit (Algemene Rekenkamer), is headed by three board members, who are appointed for life. However, board members can either end their term on their own initiative. They have to retire when they reach the age of 70. The Dutch Supreme Court (Hoge Raad) can also decide to end their mandate following misconduct, based on the compatibility law.

This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee. It analyses the consequences of the judgment of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal for the legal relationship between Poland and the EU, compares it to the case law of other Member States’ highest courts and makes policy recommendations on how to deal with the judgment.

As set out in Article 285 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the European Court of Auditors (ECA) shall consist of one national of each Member State. Article 286 (2) TFEU further specifies that each Member State has the right to propose its candidate. The Council then adopts the list of Members as proposed by the Member States. Often, this is a partial renewal of the Court - only one or a few Members are appointed, as the mandates of the Members may expire at different ...

This study examines the value added by the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF) funding in four specific countries: Estonia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Focusing on each country’s national plans for utilising the funding, we identify where national plans may have generated value added and where additional work is needed to make RRF funding more effective.

On 10 January 2022, Parliament's Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) held a hearing on the partial renewal of members of the European Court of Auditors (ECA). Subsequently, CONT gave a favourable opinion on three candidates: Czech nominee Jan Gregor (renewal), Latvian nominee Mihails Kozlovs (renewal) and Slovenian nominee Kristijan Petrovič (new candidate). CONT gave an unfavourable opinion, however, on the renewal of Polish nominee Marek Opioła's mandate. A plenary vote is scheduled for the January ...

The Policy Department for Budgetary Affairs in the European Parliament (EP) is about to draw up an in-house briefing on national nomination procedures for Members of the European Court of Auditors (ECA). The purpose of the briefing is to provide relevant information to the Members of the Committee on Budgetary Control (CONT) ahead of hearings of Members-designate of the ECA (of which there will be 8 in the course of 2022). In order to develop a better understanding of the national procedures, we ...

On 1 December 2021, the Commission proposed a Council decision on emergency measures to help Latvia, Lithuania and Poland face the complex migratory situation at their respective borders with Belarus. The measures provide for an extension of the registration period for asylum applications; the application of the border asylum procedure to process all asylum claims; reception conditions covering only basic needs; and simplified and quicker national return procedures for rejected asylum-seekers. The ...

From his childhood in the Warsaw Ghetto to his tragic death in a road accident while working at the European Parliament in 2008, Bronisław Geremek faced many personal, professional and political challenges during a period of constant turbulence. A world-renowned historian, he was interested in the poor, the excluded and the marginalised during the Middle Ages, mainly working as a researcher at the Sorbonne and Warsaw University. The Soviet army’s invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 marked the start ...

The EU's binding climate and energy legislation for 2030 requires Member States to adopt national energy and climate plans (NECPs) for the 2021-2030 period. In October 2020, the European Commission published an assessment of each NECP. Poland's final NECP is from December 2019. A high proportion of Poles (62 %) expect national governments to tackle climate change. The country generates 10.5 % of the EU's total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions were stable over the 2005-2019 period, with only ...