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Mode 5 refers to services which are incorporated into goods which are then traded across international borders. Unlike traditional services, Mode 5 services are not subject to the existing international trade regime under the WTO General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). Rather, they are subject to trade rules under the framework that governs trade in goods. As a consequence, trade in Mode 5 services is not fully liberalised, even though liberalisation would be in the best interest of international ...

Copernicus is the European Union's Earth observation and monitoring programme. It has a space component and a ground-based component, and provides users with data services. It is a user-driven programme under civilian control, building on existing national and European capacities, and continuing the work of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. It is based on a partnership between the EU, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the EU Member States.

The Copernicus programme is a user-driven programme which provides six free-of-charge operational services (atmosphere monitoring, marine environment monitoring, land monitoring, climate change, emergency management and security) to EU, national, and regional institutions, as well as to the private sector. The programme builds on the initiative on global monitoring for environment and security launched in 2001. It aims at filling the gaps in European earth observation capacities. Data is provided ...

This briefing provides a discussion of economic, regulatory, labor and social issues related to the sharing economy (collaborative economy). It provides a definition for the collaborative economy, placing it in the context of a range of past and current definitions, and proposing a new term, “crowd-based capitalism,” as a term that unifies changes across different industries. It outlines how this new form of commercial exchange blurs the lines between personal and commercial, elevating the importance ...

This proceedings summaries the workshop chaired by MEP Nicola DANTI on collaborative economy. The workshop is a part of the overall work done within the European Parliament in order to deal with this new form of economy in the context of the Single Market. This document was prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection.

An Economic Review on the Collaborative Economy

Podrobná analýza 15-12-2016

This paper provides an overview of the empirical evidence concerning the potential gains from collaborative economy and the economic impact some of its business models on. It discusses how we can distinguish professional and non-professional services and provides a list of 9 tentative recommendations for the better protection of the users of the collaborative platforms. It also summarises the main regulatory concerns that emerge from the operation of such platforms. This document was prepared by ...

The research paper describes the main legal challenges for regulating the collaborative economy and evaluates the definition of, and elucidates how the existing body of EU law applies to collaborative economy business models. In the last part, the paper elaborates on how a regulatory framework for non-professional provision of services and prosumers should look like and makes a few concrete proposals for future policies. This paper was commissioned by the Policy Department A for Economic, Scientific ...

TTIP - Challenges and Opportunities

Ve stručnosti 29-06-2016

This leaflet provides short compilation of papers prepared by the European Parliament’s Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy in relation to the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP).

The sharing economy (also referred to as the collaborative economy, peer-to-peer economy or collaborative consumption), is based on the sharing of human and physical resources like creation, production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. For consumers, it stresses the shift from ownership towards accessibility. The sharing economy seems to be bringing about an alternative business model to the traditional corporate one. It is taking advantage of new technologies, by using ...

Nigeria: Economic situation

Ve stručnosti 28-01-2016

After years of sustained growth, Nigeria is now Africa's biggest economy. However, with oil and gas as the main source of foreign exchange and federal government revenue, it is suffering from the fall in oil prices. Nigeria is yet to transform into a diversified and competitive modern economy. This publication updates an EPRS note of May 2015, PE 556.984.