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How artificial intelligence works

Briefing 14-03-2019

This briefing provides accessible introductions to some of the key techniques that come under the AI banner, grouped into three sections to give a sense the chronology of its development. The first describes early techniques, described as ‘symbolic AI’ while the second focusses on the ‘data driven’ approaches that currently dominate and the third looks towards possible future developments. By explaining what is ‘deep’ about deep learning and showing that AI is more maths than magic, the briefing ...

The CRISPR-Cas9 system currently stands out as the fastest, cheapest and most reliable system for ‘editing’ genes. It is seen as the biggest game changer in the field of gene editing due to its high degree of reliability, effectiveness and low cost. At the same time, the use of CRISPR has generated a series of socio-ethical concerns over whether and how gene editing should be used to make heritable changes to the human genome, to lead to designer babies, to generate potentially risky genome edits ...

Powerful new tools that have emerged in recent years have rendered DNA-editing technology more precise, more accessible and more affordable, allowing it to find new applications in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and energy. With its top-class academic institutions and strong biotechnology research, Europe is a driving force behind this 'synthetic biology revolution'. However, this innovative technology also poses serious risks arising from the unintended or intended effects of its use, and ...

V roce 2015 generální ředitelství Evropského parlamentu pro parlamentní výzkumné služby (GŘ EPRS) otevřelo novou cestu svou publikací „Deset technologií, které by mohly změnit naše životy – možné dopady a důsledky politik“, ve které každá kapitola zdůrazňuje určitou technologii, její přísliby a možné negativní důsledky a úlohu, kterou by Evropský parlament mohl a měl hrát při utváření tohoto rozvoje. Tato nová studie na tuto práci navazuje a předkládá dalších deset technologií, které budou stále ...

'Personalised medicine' refers to a medical approach that uses molecular insights into health and disease to guide decisions with regard to the prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of illnesses. Genetic factors play a role in most human diseases, with gene variations contributing to their incidence or course. New tools harnessed by personalised medicine include '-omics' technologies, which seek to define and explain the molecular mechanisms of the human body, and biomarkers, allowing us ...

The report describes four fields of bio-engineering: engineering of living artefacts (chapter 2), engineering of the body (chapter 3), engineering of the brain (chapter 4), and engineering of intelligent artefacts (chapter 5). Each chapter describes the state of the art of these bio-engineering fields, and whether the concepts “biology becoming technology” and “technology becoming biology” are helpful in describing and understanding, from an engineering perspective, what is going on in each R&D terrain ...

The developmental impact of intellectual property rights (IPRs) on genetic resources (GR) and associated traditional knowledge (TK) has been intensely discussed internationally for more than a decade. In this respect, plant GR for food and agriculture, GR for health as well as the related rights of indigenous and local communities possess particular importance for poverty reduction. The EU can play an important role in advancing regulatory action in this field that enhances the effectiveness of the ...

The report describes four fields of bio-engineering: engineering of living artefacts (chapter 2), engineering of the body (chapter 3), engineering of the brain (chapter 4), and engineering of intelligent artefacts (chapter 5). Each chapter describes the state of the art of these bio-engineering fields, and whether the concepts “biology becoming technology” and “technology becoming biology” are helpful in describing and understanding, from an engineering perspective, what is going on in each R&D terrain ...

Human Enhancement

Studie 15-05-2009

The study attempts to bridge the gap between visions on human enhancement (HE) and the relevant technoscientific developments. It outlines possible strategies of how to deal with HE in a European context, identifying a reasoned pro-enhancement approach, a reasoned restrictive approach and a case-by-case approach as viable options for the EU. The authors propose setting up a European body (temporary committee or working group) for the development of a normative framework that guides the formulation ...

The aim of this study has been to conduct research to establish the ethical issues and concerns that are currently considered significant by researchers within the European Union and to map the European research effort to see what expertise is being applied, in which countries and by whom. In accordance with the call for tenders, the CPE has sought to conduct this research using a ‘bottom up’ approach surveying the opinion of experts and individuals interested in this field through a series of questionnaires ...