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In June 2018, the European Commission presented a legislative proposal on a European Defence Fund, including a budget allocation of €11.5 billion in constant 2018 prices for the 2021-2027 period. The proposal aimed to streamline and simplify the set-up in place at the time by integrating the Preparatory Action on Defence Research (research window) and the European Defence Industrial Development Programme (as one part of the capability window) into a single Fund. The main aims of the Fund would be ...

The EU’s Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB) has been a key focus of EU policy efforts in recent years, not just for security reasons, but also for economic ones. There have been a host of funds to strengthen and reinforce the EDTIB, and to ensure deeper cooperation, avoid duplication and underscore the interoperability of equipment. These funding streams have not been fully evaluated, but they are important symbols of the energy and commitment with which the EU has attempted to create ...

This policy brief provides an overview of what the EU has done through its Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions and operations since 2003, and which achievements and challenges it faces at the end of EU High Representative/Vice-President (HR/VP) Federica Mogherini’s mandate. It evaluates how the overall political context and the EU’s approach have evolved over time, and how this has affected the launch and implementation of CSDP actions. It looks at a range of criteria for evaluating ...

One of a number of MFF-related impact assessment reports, this IA provides a comprehensive overview of the problems facing European defence development, as well as the general objectives that the proposed European Defence Fund is meant to address. It would nevertheless have gained by including a more detailed explanation behind the merger of the two financing windows, as well as a more detailed analysis of impacts. Finally, the lack of more specific objectives appears to have weakened the analysis ...

The US President, Donald Trump, will meet with the other leaders of the NATO member states at a summit in Brussels on 25 May 2017. Among issues on the table are the new US Administration's commitment to Europe's security, and the levels of military spending in Europe, which Washington considers too low. President Trump’s early statements created doubts in Europe about the future of transatlantic relations, but he and his officials have since reassured both NATO and the European Union that such ties ...

Against the backdrop of growing security challenges, the debate regarding the future of European defence cooperation has grown in relevance. While the Lisbon Treaty introduced significant possibilities with regard to the future of EU defence policy, and while there has been consistent EU Member State public support for further cooperation in this area, progress has been slow. The impact of the economic crisis on defence budgets, fears concerning the effects of more integration on national defence ...

The end of the Cold War and the 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA changed the face of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The alliance has developed, with interventions both within and outside Europe (the Balkans, Afghanistan, the African Horn, and Sub-Saharan Africa). More recently, the alliance has increasingly organised exercises in Europe, in order to reassure its members in the face of military build-up to the East of its borders.

The 2016 Warsaw Summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) will convene on 8–9 July, bringing together member countries' heads of state or government in order to facilitate dialogue, and establish new policies and strategies for the Alliance. The main issues on the agenda will include balancing the Alliance's policies towards the east and the south; EU-NATO relations; and ensuring that Allies are fulfilling their defence budget commitments. In the face of emerging and complex threats ...

There is an increasing demand for the EU to become a ‘Security Provider’. This demand comes from Europe’s best ally, namely the U.S., but also from Member States themselves. For the first time ever the defence solidarity clause of article 42.7 of the Treaty on European Union was invoked in November 2015. Ultimately the demand to put ‘more defence in the Union’ comes from European citizens who wonder why Europe does not protect them in the current turmoil. From the answer to this question depends ...

Against the backdrop of the long-term decline in European defence budgets, the deteriorating security context just beyond Europe's borders and the worsening relationship with Russia have been seen as providing a wake-up call to European leaders regarding the necessity to adapt the EU's foreign and security policy to the new challenges and deepen their defence cooperation. At the major debate on defence scheduled to take place at the June 2015 European Council meeting, the EU's Heads of State or Government ...