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Area of freedom, security and justice: Cost of Non-Europe

08-05-2019

Substantial progress has been made since creating an area of freedom, security and justice became a major political objective for the EU 20 years ago. Still, there is a lack of consistent monitoring and enforcement of EU values and norms as well as outstanding gaps in the EU’s framework in certain areas. These deficiencies have a significant impact at individual level, notably in terms of preventing the effective exercise of fundamental rights by EU citizens and third country nationals alike. They ...

Substantial progress has been made since creating an area of freedom, security and justice became a major political objective for the EU 20 years ago. Still, there is a lack of consistent monitoring and enforcement of EU values and norms as well as outstanding gaps in the EU’s framework in certain areas. These deficiencies have a significant impact at individual level, notably in terms of preventing the effective exercise of fundamental rights by EU citizens and third country nationals alike. They also have a negative effect on budgetary spending, growth and tax revenue, which is estimated at at least €180 billion annually, with the lack of enforcement of EU values still to be assessed in more detail. Further EU action in four main areas: 1. monitoring and enforcement; 2. the creation of safe legal pathways for migrants and asylum seekers to enter the EU; 3. ingraining a European law enforcement culture; and 4. completing the Union’s fundamental rights framework, would have significant benefits. In particular, it could allow individuals to fully enjoy their fundamental rights and make EU society more secure, open, fair and prosperous. This would also foster trust in the EU on the basis of its ability to deliver on its aims

Digital technology in elections: Efficiency versus credibility?

10-09-2018

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting ...

Digital technology brings greater efficiency in many walks of life, and elections are no exception. Online databases hugely facilitate the task of creating and managing accurate and up-to-date electoral rolls. In less developed countries, whose citizens often lack reliable identity documents, biometric technology can help to identify voters, thus preventing fraud in the form of multiple voting. However, for some aspects of election management, digitalisation is more controversial. Electronic voting machines count votes quickly and accurately. First used in the United States, they have spread to several Latin American and Asian countries. However, the intangible nature of digital processes makes detecting tampering more difficult; as a result, most European countries are sticking to tried-and-trusted conventional paper ballots. Even more controversial is the idea of internet voting. On the one hand, allowing citizens the convenience of casting their vote online without the need to visit polling stations could help to reverse a worrying decline in voter turnout across the world. On the other hand, current technology does not allow internet voting systems to be fully secured against hackers, a major concern given the growing sophistication of cyber-attacks (for example, from Russia). To date, only Estonia gives all voters the option of online voting in national elections.

EU strategy on cooperative intelligent transport systems

31-08-2017

Digital technologies, and systems based on them, are being rapidly introduced in transport all over the world. Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) in road transport are part of this development, and one element in a wider drive towards vehicle automation. These systems use technologies allowing road vehicles to communicate with other vehicles or road users and roadside infrastructure. By increasing the quality and reliability of information, C-ITS can improve road safety and traffic ...

Digital technologies, and systems based on them, are being rapidly introduced in transport all over the world. Cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) in road transport are part of this development, and one element in a wider drive towards vehicle automation. These systems use technologies allowing road vehicles to communicate with other vehicles or road users and roadside infrastructure. By increasing the quality and reliability of information, C-ITS can improve road safety and traffic efficiency as well as reduce energy consumption and emissions from transport, provided that cyber security and data protection are ensured. The European Commission has put forward a strategy outlining the path towards commercial deployment of C-ITS in the EU by 2019, seeking to avoid market fragmentation and maintain EU competitiveness. The main steps proposed are to adopt a legal framework for providing investors with legal certainty, to make EU funding available for projects, and to continue cooperation with EU stakeholders and international partners. The strategy addresses key issues such as data protection and cyber-security, systems interoperability and technical specifications. In the meantime, several ongoing pilot projects are consolidating the experience to be shared. The European Parliament, a long-time supporter of C-ITS and defender of personal data protection, is preparing a report on the strategy.

Research for TRAN Committee - Passenger night trains in Europe: the end of the line?

05-05-2017

The number of passenger night trains offering sleeping accommodation operated within Europe has declined rapidly since around 2010. This paper presents findings on what drives the financial, economic, social and environmental viability of services and hence decisions on whether to operate them or subsidise them. It presents conclusions and recommendations for the monitoring, management and regulation of the sector.

The number of passenger night trains offering sleeping accommodation operated within Europe has declined rapidly since around 2010. This paper presents findings on what drives the financial, economic, social and environmental viability of services and hence decisions on whether to operate them or subsidise them. It presents conclusions and recommendations for the monitoring, management and regulation of the sector.

Externí autor

Steer Davies Gleave: Gordon Bird, Jim Collins, Niccolò Da Settimo, Dick Dunmore, Simon Ellis, Mohammad Khan, Michelle Kwok, Tom Leach, Alberto Preti, Davide Ranghetti, Christoph Vollath ; Politecnico di Milano for Steer Davies Gleave: Paolo Beria, Antonio Laurino, Dario Nistri

Summary of the External Paper - Estimating the Bridge Financing Needs of the Single Resolution Fund: How Expensive Is It to Resolve a Bank?

24-11-2015

This external paper (authors Willem Pieter De Groen, Daniel Gros, Center for European Policy Studies, November 2015), requested by the ECON Committee, assesses whether further bridge financing could potentially be needed for the Single Resolution Fund during the transitional period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2023.

This external paper (authors Willem Pieter De Groen, Daniel Gros, Center for European Policy Studies, November 2015), requested by the ECON Committee, assesses whether further bridge financing could potentially be needed for the Single Resolution Fund during the transitional period from 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2023.

Estimating the Bridge Financing Needs of the Single Resolution Fund: How Expensive is it to Resolve a Bank?

20-11-2015

The Single Resolution Board (SRB) will be responsible for the resolution of banks in the euro area from 1 January 2016. However, the resources of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF) at the disposal of the SRB will only gradually be built up until 2023. This paper provides estimates of the potential financing needs of the SRF, based on the euro area bank resolutions that actually occurred between 2007 and 2014. We find that the SRF would have been asked to put a total amount of about €72 billion into ...

The Single Resolution Board (SRB) will be responsible for the resolution of banks in the euro area from 1 January 2016. However, the resources of the Single Resolution Fund (SRF) at the disposal of the SRB will only gradually be built up until 2023. This paper provides estimates of the potential financing needs of the SRF, based on the euro area bank resolutions that actually occurred between 2007 and 2014. We find that the SRF would have been asked to put a total amount of about €72 billion into these failing banks, which is more than the target for the SRF (€55 billion) but less than the amount the SRF could draw on, if the ex post levies are also taken into account. As this sum would have been required over eight years the broad conclusion is that bridge financing, in addition to the existing alternative funding, would only have been needed in the early years of the transition.

Externí autor

Willem Pieter De Groen and Daniel Gros

High-speed rail in the EU

29-09-2015

High-speed rail (HSR) started developing in Europe in the late 1970s, first in France and Italy, and subsequently in Germany, Spain and the UK, among others. In the early stages, its development took place largely at national level. The EU started providing specific support to European rail projects with the establishment of the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) in the early 1990s, some priority projects of which concern HSR. The EU also promotes HSR development through other means, including ...

High-speed rail (HSR) started developing in Europe in the late 1970s, first in France and Italy, and subsequently in Germany, Spain and the UK, among others. In the early stages, its development took place largely at national level. The EU started providing specific support to European rail projects with the establishment of the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) in the early 1990s, some priority projects of which concern HSR. The EU also promotes HSR development through other means, including technical harmonisation measures, security systems and funding instruments. The importance of high-speed rail has increased over time in the EU in terms of network length, number of passengers carried and modal share. Nevertheless, EU Member States each have their own specific characteristics in this regard. The impact of HSR on economic growth and sustainable regional and urban development is not easily measurable, each project having to be analysed individually. HSR can contribute significantly towards meeting some of the objectives – notably on energy efficiency and reduction of emissions – set by the 2011 European Commission White Paper on Transport. To this end, specific targets for developing the HSR network are set out in the Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area. Worldwide, the development of HSR lines could also provide commercial opportunities for the technological know-how of the EU rail industry on foreign markets. However, the sector's future depends on a diverse range of political, economic and technical factors or challenges, among them the increasing costs of rail works and infrastructure, varying rates of investment returns, and the adverse impacts of the recent economic crisis. In the context of budgetary constraints, public authorities in some EU countries have questioned HSR's overall added value.

The Cost of Non-Europe of an incomplete Economic and Monetary Union

12-12-2014

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the robustness of a strong economic and monetary union faced with a new crisis scenario. Based on the results of an empirical statistical model devised to analyse the distinctive features of financial markets, macroeconomic indicators and the accounting data of financial institutions in the 28 countries of the European Union, this study suggests that, with a new sovereign debt crisis on the horizon, better European budgetary cooperation could generate savings ...

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the robustness of a strong economic and monetary union faced with a new crisis scenario. Based on the results of an empirical statistical model devised to analyse the distinctive features of financial markets, macroeconomic indicators and the accounting data of financial institutions in the 28 countries of the European Union, this study suggests that, with a new sovereign debt crisis on the horizon, better European budgetary cooperation could generate savings of some EUR 85 billion, i.e. 0.65 per cent of the EU's GDP, and a functioning banking union would make it possible to save EUR 222.3 billion, mainly generated by a reduced need to recapitalise the EU's financial institutions.

Externí autor

Auteur: Marius-Christian Frunza, docteur en économie et habilité à diriger les recherches, est chercheur sénior au Laboratoire d'excellence sur la régulation financière, Labex ReFi d’heSam Université, et directeur de recherche at Schwarzthal Kapital.

Cost of Non-Europe in the Single Market for transport and tourism: road transport and railways (Annex I)

28-10-2014

Cost of Non-Europe Reports identify the possibilities for economic or other gains and/or the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors. This Cost of Non-Europe Report seeks to analyse the costs for citizens, businesses and relevant stake-holders of remaining gaps and barriers in the Single Market in transports, as well as to examine the benefits from further action in the tourism sector. This particular study - the first in a series - focuses ...

Cost of Non-Europe Reports identify the possibilities for economic or other gains and/or the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors. This Cost of Non-Europe Report seeks to analyse the costs for citizens, businesses and relevant stake-holders of remaining gaps and barriers in the Single Market in transports, as well as to examine the benefits from further action in the tourism sector. This particular study - the first in a series - focuses on the potential benefits of completing the single market in the rail and road sectors. First, it highlights what the progress has been to date in terms of legislative actions. Secondly it seeks to evaluate in a qualitative and (where possible) quantitative manner the impact of filling the remaining gaps in legislation. The study focuses, in particular, on those areas where liberalisation has started but has not been completed, and those where markets are not functioning effectively – that is, where legislation is not currently being envisaged, but where it is likely that intervention will be needed in future.

Externí autor

This study has been written by Francesco Dionori, Roberta Frisoni, Simon Ellis, Lydia Rooney, Davide Ranghetti, Federico Spano and Elisa Tejedor of Steer Davies Gleave at the request of the European Added Value Unit, of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for European Parliamentary Research Services of the European Parliament.

Cost of Non-Europe in the Single Market for transport and tourism: air and maritime transport (Annex II)

28-10-2014

Cost of Non-Europe Reports identify the possibilities for economic or other gains and/or the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors. This Cost of Non-Europe Report seeks to analyse the costs for citizens, businesses and relevant stake-holders of remaining gaps and barriers in the Single Market in transports, as well as to examine the benefits from further action in the tourism sector. This particular study - the second in a series - reviews ...

Cost of Non-Europe Reports identify the possibilities for economic or other gains and/or the realisation of a ‘public good’ through common action at EU level in specific policy areas and sectors. This Cost of Non-Europe Report seeks to analyse the costs for citizens, businesses and relevant stake-holders of remaining gaps and barriers in the Single Market in transports, as well as to examine the benefits from further action in the tourism sector. This particular study - the second in a series - reviews European air and water transport policy and regulation, and identifies areas, where further legislative action is necessary to complete the Single Market in these sectors. In addition, the paper looks at the impact of the completion of the Single market in relation to intercontinental transport. Based on that, it quantifies the “Cost of non-Europe” by giving an estimate of the net benefits that rebalancing European intercontinental gateways, which would stem from the completion of the Single Market in these air and maritime transport areas, would produce for the whole European economy.

Externí autor

This study has been written by Andreu Ulied, Oriol Biosca and Efraín Larrea (MCRIT) with relevant contributions from Julia Rzepecka (VVA) and Stephanie Kirchmayr-Novak (OIR), coordination and review by Giovanni Familiari (T33), at the request of the European Added Value Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services of the European Parliament.

Chystané akce

21-06-2021
Ensuring effective protection of European consumers in the digital economy
Slyšení -
IMCO
22-06-2021
AFCO ICM on the Reform of European Electoral Law & Parliament's Right of Inquiry
Další akce -
AFCO
22-06-2021
The development of new tax practices:what new schemes should the EU pay attention to?
Slyšení -
FISC

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