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Regulating targeted and behavioural advertising in digital services. How to ensure users’ informed consent

31-08-2021

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee...

Regulating targeted and behavioural advertising in digital services. How to ensure users’ informed consent

30-08-2021

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee.

The European Commission’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum. Horizontal substitute impact assessment

12-08-2021

This ‘Horizontal Substitute Impact Assessment of the European Commission’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum’ was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). The impact assessment focuses on the main proposed changes implied by the European Commission’s New Pact, with a particular focus on the following four proposals: 1) Asylum and Migration Management Regulation (RAMM); 2) Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation; 3) Amended Asylum Procedure Regulation ...

This ‘Horizontal Substitute Impact Assessment of the European Commission’s New Pact on Migration and Asylum’ was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). The impact assessment focuses on the main proposed changes implied by the European Commission’s New Pact, with a particular focus on the following four proposals: 1) Asylum and Migration Management Regulation (RAMM); 2) Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation; 3) Amended Asylum Procedure Regulation (APR); and 4) Screening Regulation. The horizontal substitute impact assessment critically assesses the ‘system’ and underlying logic of the proposed New Pact with the aim to analyse how the four Commission proposals would work and interact in practice. The impact assessment also assesses whether and to what extent the proposed New Pact addresses the identified shortcomings and implementational problems of the current EU asylum and migration law and policy. Moreover, the impact assessment identifies and assesses the expected impacts on fundamental rights, as well as economic, social and territorial impacts of the proposed New Pact.

Externí autor

This study has been written by Ecorys in collaboration with Dr Galina Cornelisse of Free University of Amsterdam and Dr Giuseppe Campesi of University of Bari at the request of the Ex-ante Impact Assessment Unit of the Directorate for Impact Assessment and European Added Value, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament. The Quality Review has been conducted by Lina Vosyliute, Roberto Cortinovis and Sergio Carrera.

The European Commission's legislative proposals in the New Pact on Migration and Asylum

30-07-2021

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs on request of the Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties and Justice, aims to provide a detailed mapping and analysis of the central legal changes and issues characterising the five main legislative proposals accompanying the Pact on Migration and Asylum, presented by the Commission in September 2020. The legislative instruments under consideration include a new Screening Regulation ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs on request of the Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties and Justice, aims to provide a detailed mapping and analysis of the central legal changes and issues characterising the five main legislative proposals accompanying the Pact on Migration and Asylum, presented by the Commission in September 2020. The legislative instruments under consideration include a new Screening Regulation, an amended proposal for an Asylum Procedures Regulation, an amended proposal revising the Eurodac Regulation, a new Asylum and Migration Management Regulation, and a new Crisis and Force Majeure Regulation. As a second step, the study provides a critical assessment of the five proposals as to their legal coherence, fundamental rights compliance, and application of the principle of solidarity and fair sharing of responsibility enshrined in Article 80 TFEU.

Externí autor

Evelien BROUWER; Giuseppe CAMPESI ; Sergio CARRERA, Roberto CORTINOVIS, Eleni KARAGEORGIOU, Jens VEDSTED-HANSEN, Lina VOSYLIŪTĖ

Improving corporate sustainability reporting

27-07-2021

The European Commission proposed to improve sustainability reporting by revising the non-financial reporting directive 2014/95/EU. The accompanying impact assessment (IA) provides a well-defined problem that is substantiated with evidence, a clear set of objectives that correspond to the problems identified and makes effort to cover SMEs in the consultation strategy. Overall, the evidence used in the IA seems recent and reliable. However, the IA has not set any concrete targets, indicators or timelines ...

The European Commission proposed to improve sustainability reporting by revising the non-financial reporting directive 2014/95/EU. The accompanying impact assessment (IA) provides a well-defined problem that is substantiated with evidence, a clear set of objectives that correspond to the problems identified and makes effort to cover SMEs in the consultation strategy. Overall, the evidence used in the IA seems recent and reliable. However, the IA has not set any concrete targets, indicators or timelines for achieving its objectives. The range of options in the IA appears rather imbalanced, the analysis has been predominantly economic and has focused on the effectiveness of meeting the specific objectives and their costs, while the discussion of benefits has remained rather descriptive. Environmental impacts seem to have been completely excluded, the costs of indirect effects on SMEs in the supply chains of large companies have not been quantified and the benefits for listed SMEs have not been elaborated on.

Artificial intelligence act

26-07-2021

The Commission is proposing a new Artificial Intelligence Act laying down rules harmonised rules on AI. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal notes how the impact assessment the impact assessment banks on a wealth of available research on the topic at hand and uses numerous sources to underpin the discussion. It observes that the impact assessment offers a diverse and realistic range of options and traces a clear intervention logic connecting the problems and ...

The Commission is proposing a new Artificial Intelligence Act laying down rules harmonised rules on AI. This initial appraisal of the Commission’s impact assessment on the proposal notes how the impact assessment the impact assessment banks on a wealth of available research on the topic at hand and uses numerous sources to underpin the discussion. It observes that the impact assessment offers a diverse and realistic range of options and traces a clear intervention logic connecting the problems and their drivers with the specific objectives and the policy options.

Strengthening Europol’s mandate

20-07-2021

Europol has been at the forefront of fighting serious and organised crime in the EU. However, with digital transformations and a global interconnectedness emerging, security threats have become more complex. Against this background, the Commission has published a recast proposal of the Europol Regulation with the objective of, inter alia, (1) enabling Europol to support Member States and their investigations through big data analysis; (2) enabling Europol to directly exchange data with private parties ...

Europol has been at the forefront of fighting serious and organised crime in the EU. However, with digital transformations and a global interconnectedness emerging, security threats have become more complex. Against this background, the Commission has published a recast proposal of the Europol Regulation with the objective of, inter alia, (1) enabling Europol to support Member States and their investigations through big data analysis; (2) enabling Europol to directly exchange data with private parties; and (3) strengthening Europol's role on research and innovation. While the Commission made efforts to analyse the problems at hand in the accompanying Impact Assessment, more detailed information on the scale and size of the different problems would have been useful. The Commission conducted several targeted consultations for this initiative, but did not carry out a mandatory 12-week open public consultation. The IA assesses relevant impacts, including fundamental rights impacts.

Tackling distortions of foreign subsidies

19-07-2021

The IA underpinning the proposal to tackle foreign subsidies is based on solid internal and external research, which compensates an admitted lack of data. It is transparent about methods, underlying assumptions and certain limitations. The intervention logic of the IA is clear, even if the complex set-up of the policy options and their assessment could have been more structured and coherent. The IA does not present operational objectives and few, yet pertinent, monitoring provisions. While the mostly ...

The IA underpinning the proposal to tackle foreign subsidies is based on solid internal and external research, which compensates an admitted lack of data. It is transparent about methods, underlying assumptions and certain limitations. The intervention logic of the IA is clear, even if the complex set-up of the policy options and their assessment could have been more structured and coherent. The IA does not present operational objectives and few, yet pertinent, monitoring provisions. While the mostly qualitative assessment is thorough and contains selective quantitative information, total cost and benefits could not be estimated. Potential negative effects in case of a significant drop of foreign investments, for instance on employment or prices, could have been addressed in more detail.

Revising the Machinery Directive

02-07-2021

This briefing checks the quality of the Commission impact assessment (IA) accompanying the regulation proposal on machinery products. It finds that the assessment, which is based on various data sources, is mostly qualitative, and explains openly the analytical methods and data limitations. Furthermore, the scale of all problems and the efficiency aspect in the comparison of the options could have been further explained. The briefing also stresses that the IA could have been more informative in terms ...

This briefing checks the quality of the Commission impact assessment (IA) accompanying the regulation proposal on machinery products. It finds that the assessment, which is based on various data sources, is mostly qualitative, and explains openly the analytical methods and data limitations. Furthermore, the scale of all problems and the efficiency aspect in the comparison of the options could have been further explained. The briefing also stresses that the IA could have been more informative in terms of the stakeholder consultations. It also finds it questionable whether the SME Test has been duly conducted.

EU partnership on metrology

09-06-2021

The IA underpinning the proposal on the EU partnership on metrology is based on solid sources. The relatively narrow range of options is pre-determined by the Horizon Europe provisions, and the mostly qualitative and comparative assessment gravitates early on towards the preferred option. While subsidiarity, competitiveness and coherence with the overarching political priorities are consistently addressed, the consideration of benefits and costs of the options could have been more complete and precise ...

The IA underpinning the proposal on the EU partnership on metrology is based on solid sources. The relatively narrow range of options is pre-determined by the Horizon Europe provisions, and the mostly qualitative and comparative assessment gravitates early on towards the preferred option. While subsidiarity, competitiveness and coherence with the overarching political priorities are consistently addressed, the consideration of benefits and costs of the options could have been more complete and precise. The role of the actors in the metrology ‘value chain’ under both the current and the future scheme could have been better explained. The IA does not include budgetary implications nor effects of the Covid-19 pandemic (justified by the ongoing negotiations at the time of drafting the IA), nor does it assess certain novelties of the Horizon Europe partnerships, such as additionally and directionality.

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