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Health impact of 5G

22-07-2021

Recent decades have experienced an unparalleled development in wireless communication technologies (mobile telephony, Wi-Fi). The imminent introduction of 5G technology across the EU is expected to bring new opportunities for citizens and businesses, through faster internet browsing, streaming and downloading, as well as through better connectivity. However, 5G, along with 3G and 4G, with which it will operate in parallel for several years, may also pose threats to human health. This STOA report ...

Recent decades have experienced an unparalleled development in wireless communication technologies (mobile telephony, Wi-Fi). The imminent introduction of 5G technology across the EU is expected to bring new opportunities for citizens and businesses, through faster internet browsing, streaming and downloading, as well as through better connectivity. However, 5G, along with 3G and 4G, with which it will operate in parallel for several years, may also pose threats to human health. This STOA report aim to take stock of our present understanding of health effects of 5G.

Externí autor

This study has been written by Dr Fiorella Belpoggi, BSC, PhD, International Academy of Toxicologic Pathology Fellow (IATPF), Ramazzini Institute, Bologna (Italy), at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament. The scoping review search was performed by Dr Daria Sgargi, PhD, Master in Biostatistics, and Dr Andrea Vornoli, PhD in Cancer Research, Ramazzini Institute, Bologna.

New EU regulatory framework for batteries: Setting sustainability requirements

12-07-2021

Given the important role they play in the roll-out of zero-emission mobility and the storage of intermittent renewable energy, batteries are a crucial element in the EU's transition to a climate neutral economy. The proposal presented by the European Commission is designed to modernise the EU's regulatory framework for batteries in order to secure the sustainability and competitiveness of battery value chains. It would introduce mandatory requirements on sustainability (such as carbon footprint rules ...

Given the important role they play in the roll-out of zero-emission mobility and the storage of intermittent renewable energy, batteries are a crucial element in the EU's transition to a climate neutral economy. The proposal presented by the European Commission is designed to modernise the EU's regulatory framework for batteries in order to secure the sustainability and competitiveness of battery value chains. It would introduce mandatory requirements on sustainability (such as carbon footprint rules, minimum recycled content, performance and durability criteria), safety and labelling for the marketing and putting into service of batteries, and requirements for end-of-life management. The proposal also includes due diligence obligations for economic operators as regards the sourcing of raw materials. In Parliament, the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, responsible for the file, is expected to consider its rapporteur's draft report at a meeting in October 2021. In Council, ministers took stock of the progress made on the file at the June Environment Council. The Slovenian Presidency of the Council aims to reach agreement on a general approach.

Regulating targeted and behavioural advertising in digital services. How to ensure users’ informed consent.

01-07-2021

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee.

Revision of Directive 2008/48/EC on credit agreements for consumers

30-06-2021

Directive 2008/48/EC on credit agreement for consumers (the CCD) is part of the legal framework tackling consumer protection and the development of the internal market. Despite improvements in enforcing consumer protection policy, there are shortcomings in particular regarding the scope of application of the directive and the uneven regulatory choices made in the 27 EU Member States for implementing it. Moreover, there are new challenges – such as digitalisation and data collection, use and processing ...

Directive 2008/48/EC on credit agreement for consumers (the CCD) is part of the legal framework tackling consumer protection and the development of the internal market. Despite improvements in enforcing consumer protection policy, there are shortcomings in particular regarding the scope of application of the directive and the uneven regulatory choices made in the 27 EU Member States for implementing it. Moreover, there are new challenges – such as digitalisation and data collection, use and processing – that require immediate attention. This implementation appraisal looks at the practical implementation of the CCD in light of the expected Commission proposal for its revision. According to the Commission work programme 2021, the proposal will be submitted in the second quarter of 2021, after having been initially part of the 2020 refit programme (see Legislative Train Schedule, EPRS).

Environmental impacts of 5G

30-06-2021

Telecommunication networks use radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to enable wireless communication. These networks have evolved over time, and have been launched in successive generations. The fifth generation of telecommunication networks will operate at frequencies that were not commonly used in previous generations, changing the exposure of wildlife to these waves. This report reviews the literature on the exposure of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants to radio-frequency electromagnetic ...

Telecommunication networks use radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to enable wireless communication. These networks have evolved over time, and have been launched in successive generations. The fifth generation of telecommunication networks will operate at frequencies that were not commonly used in previous generations, changing the exposure of wildlife to these waves. This report reviews the literature on the exposure of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in anticipation of this change. The review shows that dielectric heating can occur at all considered frequencies (0.4-300 GHz) and for all studied organisms. Summarising and discussing the results of a series of studies of radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure of wildlife, the review shows that several studies into the effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure on invertebrates and plants in the frequency bands considered demonstrate experimental shortcomings. Furthermore, the literature on invertebrate and plant exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields above 6 GHz is very limited. More research is needed in this field.

Externí autor

This study has been written by Arno Thielens, Ghent University, Belgium, at the request of the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA) and managed by the Scientific Foresight Unit, within the Directorate-General for Parliamentary Research Services (EPRS) of the Secretariat of the European Parliament.

Revision of the General Product Safety Directive

28-06-2021

Two decades after the entry into force of the General Product Safety Directive, the internal market is witnessing an increasing presence of products made with the use of or involving new technologies, online marketplaces are mushrooming, and a growing amount of products are entering the internal market from outside the European Union through these online marketplaces. Since the General Product Safety Directive does not have any provisions to guarantee that these products are safe for use, there are ...

Two decades after the entry into force of the General Product Safety Directive, the internal market is witnessing an increasing presence of products made with the use of or involving new technologies, online marketplaces are mushrooming, and a growing amount of products are entering the internal market from outside the European Union through these online marketplaces. Since the General Product Safety Directive does not have any provisions to guarantee that these products are safe for use, there are concerns that consumer protection on the internal market might be compromised. In order to keep guaranteeing the safety of all products, the European Commission's forthcoming proposal will aim to deal with these new challenges for product safety and to find a balance between ensuring unhindered trade and guaranteeing the safety of all products on the internal market.

The Digital Services Act and the Digital Markets Act - A forward-looking and consumer-centred perspective - Workshop Proceedings (At A Glance - Study In Focus)

24-06-2021

This At A Glance summarises the original workshop proceedings, which presented the discussions that took place during the IMCO online workshop held on 26 May 2021 on the Digital Services Act (DSA) and the Digital Markets Act (DMA). The workshop was structured in two panels, each consisting of three presentations and two Q&A sessions. The first panel focused on the DSA. The second panel was devoted to the DMA. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality ...

This At A Glance summarises the original workshop proceedings, which presented the discussions that took place during the IMCO online workshop held on 26 May 2021 on the Digital Services Act (DSA) and the Digital Markets Act (DMA). The workshop was structured in two panels, each consisting of three presentations and two Q&A sessions. The first panel focused on the DSA. The second panel was devoted to the DMA. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Externí autor

Lukas WIEWIORRA and Ilsa GODLOVITCH

The Digital Services Act and the Digital Markets Act - a forward-looking and consumer-centred perspective - Workshop Proceedings

24-06-2021

These proceedings summarise the presentations and discussions that took place during the IMCO online workshop held on 26 May 2021 on the Digital Services Act (DSA) and the Digital Markets Act (DMA). The workshop was structured in two panels, each consisting of three presentations and two Q&A sessions. The first panel focused on the DSA. The second panel was devoted to the DMA. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the committee ...

These proceedings summarise the presentations and discussions that took place during the IMCO online workshop held on 26 May 2021 on the Digital Services Act (DSA) and the Digital Markets Act (DMA). The workshop was structured in two panels, each consisting of three presentations and two Q&A sessions. The first panel focused on the DSA. The second panel was devoted to the DMA. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the committee on Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Externí autor

Lukas WIEWIORRA and Ilsa GODLOVITCH

Studies with a ‘Covid 19 angle’

23-06-2021

When the pandemic loomed over us in spring 2020, we asked experts to analyze whether it was possible to introduce a Covid angle into their studies. In many cases, it seemed prima facie a bit far-fetched. However, it soon became apparent that even in our area of work there were interesting aspects to investigate. This publication groups together the most relevant parts of the studies published so far and in which a Covid 19 angle has been presented and discussed.

When the pandemic loomed over us in spring 2020, we asked experts to analyze whether it was possible to introduce a Covid angle into their studies. In many cases, it seemed prima facie a bit far-fetched. However, it soon became apparent that even in our area of work there were interesting aspects to investigate. This publication groups together the most relevant parts of the studies published so far and in which a Covid 19 angle has been presented and discussed.

Online advertising: the impact of targeted advertising on advertisers, market access and consumer choice

21-06-2021

In this research paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of online advertising markets and we analyse the challenges and opportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degree to which existing and proposed legislation at EU level addresses the identified problems, and identify potential solutions, with reference to experience from EU Member States and third countries. We conclude with a synthesis and specific policy recommendations, drawing on stakeholder interviews. This document ...

In this research paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of online advertising markets and we analyse the challenges and opportunities concerning digital advertising. We review the degree to which existing and proposed legislation at EU level addresses the identified problems, and identify potential solutions, with reference to experience from EU Member States and third countries. We conclude with a synthesis and specific policy recommendations, drawing on stakeholder interviews. This document was provided by the Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies for the committee on the Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO).

Externí autor

Niklas FOURBERG, Serpil TAŞ, Lukas WIEWIORRA, Ilsa GODLOVITCH, Alexandre DE STREEL, Hervé JACQUEMIN, Jordan HILL, Madalina NUNU, Camille BOURGUIGON, Florian JACQUES, Michèle LEDGER and Michael LOGNOUL.

Chystané akce

07-09-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable: What is the future of (European) sovereignty?
Další akce -
EPRS
08-09-2021
EPRS online policy roundtable: Statistics, Data and Trust: Why figures matter [...]
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EPRS
21-09-2021
EPRS online Book Talk with David Harley: Matters of Record: Inside European Politics
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EPRS

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