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While the UN Human Development Index, which assesses progress in the standard of living, health and education, ranks Russia among the 'very high human development' countries, other data suggest a more nuanced reality. Russia has gone from Soviet-era egalitarianism to extremes of wealth and poverty. Economic growth during the first decade under Vladimir Putin's leadership slightly reduced the gap between rich and poor, but inequality is still higher than in most developed countries. Factors such as ...

The ongoing structural transformation and the rapid spread of the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution are challenging current democratic institutions and their established forms of governance and regulation. At the same time, these changes offer vast opportunities to enhance, strengthen and expand the existing democratic framework to reflect a more complex and interdependent world. This process has already begun in many democratic societies but further progress is needed. Examining these ...

After a delayed response to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus in late 2019, China has expanded its sophisticated digital surveillance systems to the health sector, linking security and health. It has apparently successfully contained the virus, while most other countries still face an uphill battle with Covid-19. China emerged first from lockdown, and its economy rapidly entered a V-shaped recovery. As in 2008, China is driving the global recovery and will derive strategic gains from this role ...

This note provides an overview of the Economic Dialogues with the President of the Eurogroup held in the competent Committee of the European Parliament during the 8th legislative term. It provides a summary of the issues raised during the nine dialogues that took place between autumn 2014 and spring 2019, and presents the main topic discussed at each dialogue.

This study analyses the Eastern Partnership (EaP) in the year of its 10th anniversary. The Eastern Partnership was set up in 2009 as a joint policy initiative aiming at deepening and strengthening relations between the European Union, its Member States and the six EaP countries of Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. While each of these countries shares a past in the former Soviet Union, they have developed over time in different directions. Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia have ...

Regional economic and political leader, G20 member, and elected to a United Nations Security Council seat in 2019 for the third time since the end of apartheid, South Africa is a strategic EU partner. Recognised as one of only two full democracies on its continent in the 2018 Democracy Index, South Africa nevertheless faces considerable problems, affecting both the economy and a fragile social fabric still affected by its apartheid history. The governing party's election success comes as no surprise ...

Dette uddrag stammer fra en undersøgelse, der samler det igangværende arbejde på et langsigtet projekt om at kortlægge og analysere omkostningerne ved "ikke at virkeliggøre EU" inden for en række politikområder. Dette begreb, som første gang blev anvendt af Europa-Parlamentet i 1980'erne, bruges i denne forbindelse til at kvantificere de potentielle effektivitetsgevinster i nutidens europæiske økonomi ved at forfølge en række politiske initiativer, som Parlamentet for nylig har slået til lyd for ...

The EU and its Member States have reshaped their external policies, including development cooperation, to place more focus on migration-related issues. Widely used in this context, political rhetoric on 'addressing root causes of migration' has been questioned by academics as creating unrealistic expectations. Indeed, a positive correlation between migration and narrowly understood economic development persists until countries reach middle-income country level. However, several key drivers of migration ...

The study investigates the effects of Cohesion Policy (CP) which occur in a country other than the one in which CP resources were actually spent. The study estimates that macroeconomic spillovers significantly contribute to the impact of CP. Spillovers directed to EU countries represent around 9% of the total annual CP expenditure. Other spillovers to Non-EU countries are around 8% of the CP expenditure. Macro and micro spillovers together arrive at the 21% of the annual CP expenditure 67% of which ...

Past reforms of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) have improved its economic rationale, but this progress has come at the expense of simplicity, transparency and, possibly, enforceability. This study surveys and evaluates reform models that could reduce complexity without compromising the SGP’s indispensable flexibility. From a holistic perspective, the greatest potential for simplification will result from a shift of discretionary power to an independent fiscal institution. Independence is a substitute ...