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The United States has contributed greatly to the post-war reconstruction of the Western Balkans and remains a key player. While the region is not as high on the US foreign policy agenda as in the 1990s, the USA has consistently shown commitment to its Euro-Atlantic integration. US engagement is seen as crucial in this historically volatile region, weakened by unresolved past and emerging challenges.

The European Economic Area (EEA) was set up in 1994 to extend the EU’s provisions on its internal market to the European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries. Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein are parties to the EEA. Switzerland is a member of EFTA but does not take part in the EEA. The EU and EEA partners (Norway and Iceland) are also linked by various ‘northern policies’ and forums which focus on the rapidly evolving northern reaches of Europe and the Arctic region as a whole.

Sandwiched between Russia to the east and an expanding NATO to the west, Ukraine's relations with NATO are closely interlinked with the country's ties to Russia – and Russia's relations with NATO. Ukraine's NATO aspirations remain a key sticking point in this tense geopolitical situation. Please click here for the full publication in PDF format

In May 2016, Montenegro signed its accession protocol with NATO, entering the final phase of becoming its 29th member. Although joining NATO has long been a strategic priority for the Montenegrin government, the issue is far from uncontroversial. Low public support in the country and the threat of Russian counter-measures remain major challenges to be addressed.

Section 15 of China’s Protocol of Accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) allows importing WTO members to determine, under their national law, whether China is considered to be a market economy for the purpose of price comparability and of calculating dumping margins. Some provisions of this section expire on 11 December 2016, leaving uncertainty as to how China should be treated in antidumping investigations thereafter. The European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade (INTA) organised ...

Market economy status (MES) – a technical term used in antidumping investigations – has come to the top of the international agenda, bringing heated discussions on whether or not China will soon be granted this status. China argues that its WTO accession documents foresee an automatic acquisition of MES after 11 December 2016. Yet for many other WTO members, the text in question – Section 15 of China's Protocol of Accession – is subject to interpretation. The issue is sensitive for a number of reasons ...

The Energy Community Treaty (ECT) was signed in 2005. Its principal objective is to expand the EU internal energy market to neighbouring countries ('Contracting States') that are willing to adopt the EU energy acquis. The Energy Community (EnC) includes a permanent secretariat based in Vienna and a set of decision-making institutions. The Ministerial Council meets annually and makes all key strategic decisions. Detailed preparatory work is carried out by the Permanent High-Level Group, which meets ...

With China, Russia, and four Central Asian states – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – as its founding members, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is one of the world's biggest regional organisations in terms of population represented. To date, the SCO has largely concentrated on regional non-traditional security governance and specifically its fight against regional terrorism, ethnic separatism and religious extremism. But the SCO Charter sets out a broad range of other ...

Summary of the development of the CSCE from 1972 to 1990, describing its structure and methods of work while stressing the institutionalization in terms of organization since the Paris Charter. The analytical part concentrates on the CSCE's crisis mechanisms and the prospects for its development.