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This study analyses recent developments in data related practice, law and policy as well as the current legal framework for data access, sharing, and use in the European Union. The study identifies particular issues of concern and highlights respective need for action. On this basis, the study evaluates the Commission’s proposal for a Data Act. The study is commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the Committee ...

The European Parliament, the Council and the European Commission have committed to listen to Europeans and to follow up, within their sphere of competences, on the recommendations made. In this framework, four European Citizens’ Panels have been organized to allow citizens to jointly think about the future they want for the European Union • Panel 1 - "Stronger economy, social justice, jobs, education, culture, sport, digital transformation" • Panel 2 - "EU democracy, values, rights, rule of law ...

Sunset clauses in International Treaties account for numerous benefits. However, their entrenchment effect disproportionally burdens future policymakers. This is the case of the Energy Charter Treaty, which poses unique challenges for two main reasons. First, compared to other treaties, the ECT contains a 20-year sunset clause. Second, the treaty is a multilateral with a rigid amendment procedure, which empowers the entrenchment effect of that treaty. Within this context, the study explores the ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, provides an in-depth analysis of the policy and legal state-of-the-art concerning gender pay discrimination in the European Union. To this end, it builds on a comprehensive comparative study covering European countries (i.e., Italy, France, Germany, Denmark, Iceland, and Spain), in order to conclusively design and develop specific policy recommendations ...

Structured analysis of the current scientific evidence on the effects of sustainability reporting including non-financial performance indicators, stand-alone sustainability reporting as well as integrated reporting. It discusses the benefits and challenges particularly related to internal decision-making, external transparency as well as financial and non-financial/environmental, social and governance effects. Further, it offers policy recommendations in view of the European Commission’s proposal ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI and PETI Committees, analyses the use of biometric techniques from an ethical and legal perspective. Biometric techniques raise a number of specific ethical issues, as an individual cannot easily change biometric features, and as these techniques tend to intrude into the human body and ultimately the human self. Further issues are more generally associated ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...

The study addresses the regulation of targeted and behavioural advertising in the context of digital services. Marketing methods and technologies deployed in behavioural and target advertising are presented. The EU law on consent to the processing of personal data is analysed, in connection with advertising practices. Ways of improving the quality of consent are discussed as well as ways of restricting its scope as a legal basis for the processing of personal data. This study is commissioned by ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI and PETI Committees, analyses the use of biometric techniques from an ethical and legal perspective. Biometric techniques raise a number of specific ethical issues, as an individual cannot easily change biometric features, and as these techniques tend to intrude into the human body and ultimately the human self. Further issues are more generally associated ...

With online platforms and markets enmeshed in our societies and economies, the need to revisit and update existing digital regulations is becoming increasingly apparent. The debate around these reforms in the US, the EU and elsewhere touches on fundamental questions of privacy, transparency and free speech and the dynamic between private firms and governmental oversight is complex. While online platforms play a salient role in daily life, both the US and the EU continue to operate with regulations ...