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Japan's Parliament and other political institutions

15-12-2020

Japan is a constitutional monarchy, with a parliamentary system of government based on the separation of powers. The Emperor is the symbol of the state and does not hold political functions, only performing ceremonial duties. Nevertheless, he can play a relevant diplomatic role. With Emperor Naruhito's enthronement in 2019, following his father's abdication, Japan has entered the Reiwa (beautiful harmony) age. The 2001 administrative reform strengthened the Prime Minister's leadership in the cabinet ...

Japan is a constitutional monarchy, with a parliamentary system of government based on the separation of powers. The Emperor is the symbol of the state and does not hold political functions, only performing ceremonial duties. Nevertheless, he can play a relevant diplomatic role. With Emperor Naruhito's enthronement in 2019, following his father's abdication, Japan has entered the Reiwa (beautiful harmony) age. The 2001 administrative reform strengthened the Prime Minister's leadership in the cabinet. The Chief Cabinet Secretary also plays a relevant role. Suga Yoshihide, leader of the Liberal-Democratic Party, is the country's Prime Minister, succeeding Abe Shinzō, Japan's longest-serving prime minister, in 2020. The Supreme Court is at the top of the judicial system. It is not a constitutional court, despite handling appeals arising from actual disputes. The appointment of its Justices is reviewed by the people at the first general election of the Lower House following their appointment. Japan is a unitary state divided into 47 prefectures. A Metropolitan Government administers the capital, Tokyo. Japan's 1947 Constitution recognises 'local self-government.' Local governments carry out many of the national policies and programmes. They have limited autonomy, also because of their dependence on financial resources from the central government. Japan has a bicameral parliament − the Diet. Although the two chambers share legislative powers, the Lower House (House of Representatives) prevails in the legislative process and is empowered to adopt the final decision on the budget and on the approval of international treaties. Changes in the regional geopolitical environment and in the country's demographic structure have prompted debates on issues such as the revision of the 'pacifist' Article 9 of the Constitution and the seat distribution among electoral constituencies. This is an update of a briefing published in June 2020.

India's parliament and governing institutions

11-03-2020

India is the biggest democracy in the world. With a population of 1.35 billion in 2018, India was also the world's second most populous country, and is projected to overtake China by 2027. Like the European Union (EU), it is a pluralistic, multi-faith, multilingual (with 22 recognised languages), and multi-ethnic country. Secularism has been enshrined in the Constitution. India's 1950 Constitution provides for a quasi-federal setup: powers are separated between the central union and the 28 state ...

India is the biggest democracy in the world. With a population of 1.35 billion in 2018, India was also the world's second most populous country, and is projected to overtake China by 2027. Like the European Union (EU), it is a pluralistic, multi-faith, multilingual (with 22 recognised languages), and multi-ethnic country. Secularism has been enshrined in the Constitution. India's 1950 Constitution provides for a quasi-federal setup: powers are separated between the central union and the 28 state governments. Competences are allocated according to administrative level, between the Union, states or 'concurrently'. The prime minister possesses the country's effective executive power. As 'Leader of the House' in the lower chamber, the prime minister also holds decisive power in deciding the House's agenda. However, the real power of initiating legislation belongs to the government, and the Parliament has no say on foreign affairs. India's Parliament is bicameral: it includes the Lok Sabha – the lower house – and the Rajya Sabha – the upper house. The two houses are equal, but the Lok Sabha dominates in deciding certain financial matters and on the collective responsibility of the Council of Ministers. General elections take place for Lok Sabha members every five years. The last elections took place in May 2019, when Narendra Modi was re-elected as Prime Minister. The Rajva Sabha is a permanent body consisting of members indirectly elected by the states, and it is not subject to dissolution. India has a common law legal system. The Supreme Court is the final court of appeal, headed by the Chief Justice of India. It arbitrates on any dispute between the Union and the states, as well as between states, and on the enforcement of fundamental rights. It has powers of judicial review over legislation adopted by both the Union and the states.

Economic Dialogue with Spain - ECON on 22 January 2019

21-01-2019

This note presents selected information on the current status of the EU economic governance procedures and related relevant information in view of an Economic Dialogue with Nadia Calviño, Minister of Economía y Empresa in Spain, in the ECON committee of the European Parliament. The invitation for a dialogue is in accordance with the EU economic governance framework. The last Economic Dialogue with the Spanish authorities took place in January 2014 and an exchange of views took place in November 2016 ...

This note presents selected information on the current status of the EU economic governance procedures and related relevant information in view of an Economic Dialogue with Nadia Calviño, Minister of Economía y Empresa in Spain, in the ECON committee of the European Parliament. The invitation for a dialogue is in accordance with the EU economic governance framework. The last Economic Dialogue with the Spanish authorities took place in January 2014 and an exchange of views took place in November 2016.

The US Congress in 2019: What to expect

20-12-2018

Following the mid-term elections of 6 November 2018, the new United States Congress will start work on 3 January 2019 with a Republican majority in the Senate and a Democratic majority in the House of Representatives. The shift of power in the House is likely to affect key issues including oversight and immigration.

Following the mid-term elections of 6 November 2018, the new United States Congress will start work on 3 January 2019 with a Republican majority in the Senate and a Democratic majority in the House of Representatives. The shift of power in the House is likely to affect key issues including oversight and immigration.

The Brexit Negotiations: An Assessment of the Legal, Political and Institutional Situation in the UK

16-03-2017

Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned an in-depth analysis on the political and institutional situation in the United Kingdom following the referendum on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. The research analyses the post-Brexit political developments in the UK, the various parameters that should be taken into account, by both the UK government and the 27, in view of the Article 50 negotiations and the possible shape of ...

Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs commissioned an in-depth analysis on the political and institutional situation in the United Kingdom following the referendum on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. The research analyses the post-Brexit political developments in the UK, the various parameters that should be taken into account, by both the UK government and the 27, in view of the Article 50 negotiations and the possible shape of the final deal and the future economic relationship, taking into account the EU obligations and the constraints of Theresa May’s government.

Brexit and the European Union: General Institutional and Legal Considerations

25-01-2017

This study was requested by the Committee on Constitutional Affairs of the European Parliament. It examines the political and institutional steps taken, or to be taken, both by the UK and by the EU in the context of the Brexit referendum vote, and into how matters may evolve in the coming months and years from a legal and institutional perspective. It will analyses, in broad terms, the possibilities for a future relationship between the Union and its departing member and the consequences that the ...

This study was requested by the Committee on Constitutional Affairs of the European Parliament. It examines the political and institutional steps taken, or to be taken, both by the UK and by the EU in the context of the Brexit referendum vote, and into how matters may evolve in the coming months and years from a legal and institutional perspective. It will analyses, in broad terms, the possibilities for a future relationship between the Union and its departing member and the consequences that the departure of a large Member State may entail for the rest of the policies of the Union and for the Union itself. The study also briefly examines the potential for institutional progress that opens with the departure of the United Kingdom.

Priority dossiers under the Dutch EU Council Presidency

16-12-2015

From January to June 2016, The Netherlands will hold the Presidency of the EU Council for the 12th time, kicking off the Dutch-Slovak-Maltese Trio Presidency. For the first semester of 2016, the Commission's soon ending 2015 work programme will largely determine the legislative agenda as nearly all major proposals will have been put on the table by the end of this year. As of 16 December 2015, there are 140 active ordinary legislative procedures, of which 23 have been agreed by the co-legislators ...

From January to June 2016, The Netherlands will hold the Presidency of the EU Council for the 12th time, kicking off the Dutch-Slovak-Maltese Trio Presidency. For the first semester of 2016, the Commission's soon ending 2015 work programme will largely determine the legislative agenda as nearly all major proposals will have been put on the table by the end of this year. As of 16 December 2015, there are 140 active ordinary legislative procedures, of which 23 have been agreed by the co-legislators at political level and around 30 are being negotiated in view of a first or (early) second reading agreement. The Dutch EU Presidency will pursue the following priorities: (i) improving quality and simplification of legislation; (ii) growth and jobs (internal market, innovation and digital economy); and (iii) active involvement of citizens and civil society in policymaking. This note aims to present the state of affairs in the policy fields of Dutch priority, as well as the most important related dossiers to be addressed by the Dutch Presidency.

Economic, Social and Territorial Situation in Croatia

22-10-2015

This in-depth analysis was written upon request of the Committee on Regional Development. The aim is to inform Members about the political, socio-economic and administrative system of Croatia, and in particular Istria County and the City of Zagreb. The analysis also provides an overview of cohesion policy in Croatia, including the arrangements in place for the 2014-2020 programming period and the European Territorial Cooperation programmes.

This in-depth analysis was written upon request of the Committee on Regional Development. The aim is to inform Members about the political, socio-economic and administrative system of Croatia, and in particular Istria County and the City of Zagreb. The analysis also provides an overview of cohesion policy in Croatia, including the arrangements in place for the 2014-2020 programming period and the European Territorial Cooperation programmes.

Japan's politics in the run-up to the elections

11-12-2014

Japan's Liberal Democratic Party has been in power alone almost uninterruptedly for nearly four decades. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, elected in 2013, is actively pursuing an economic growth strategy, widely known as 'Abenomics'. He decided to dissolve the lower house and call an election on 14 December 2014 to ask voters' support for his proposal of a consumption tax increase.

Japan's Liberal Democratic Party has been in power alone almost uninterruptedly for nearly four decades. Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, elected in 2013, is actively pursuing an economic growth strategy, widely known as 'Abenomics'. He decided to dissolve the lower house and call an election on 14 December 2014 to ask voters' support for his proposal of a consumption tax increase.

Handbook on the Incompatibilities and Immunity of the Members of the European Parliament

07-08-2014

Upon request by the Legal Affairs Committee, this handbook describes the national rules on the composition of the governments and parliaments of each of the Member States of the European Union and provides an overview of the national rules on parliamentary immunities. It further lists the national authorities that are competent to request the waiver of MEPs immunity, as identified after consultation with the Member States. This text will be updated regularly, on the basis of information received ...

Upon request by the Legal Affairs Committee, this handbook describes the national rules on the composition of the governments and parliaments of each of the Member States of the European Union and provides an overview of the national rules on parliamentary immunities. It further lists the national authorities that are competent to request the waiver of MEPs immunity, as identified after consultation with the Member States. This text will be updated regularly, on the basis of information received; please hold as reference the date of edition.

Kommende begivenheder

25-01-2021
Public Hearing on "Gender aspects of precarious work"
Høring -
FEMM
26-01-2021
Public hearing on Co-management of EU fisheries at local level
Høring -
PECH
26-01-2021
The impact of Brexit on the level playing field in the area of taxation
Høring -
FISC

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