6

resultat(er)

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Type af publikation
Politikområde
Forfatter
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Dato

Regulating digital gatekeepers: Background on the future digital markets act

08-12-2020

The EU has unveiled an ambitious plan to regulate online platforms, and the European Commission is proposing to introduce ex ante regulation to ensure that markets characterised by large platforms acting as digital gatekeepers remain fair and competitive for innovators, businesses, and new market entrants. The introduction of an ex ante regulatory framework that could limit online platforms' commercial freedom and give wide-ranging enforcement powers to regulators would be a far-reaching step. Against ...

The EU has unveiled an ambitious plan to regulate online platforms, and the European Commission is proposing to introduce ex ante regulation to ensure that markets characterised by large platforms acting as digital gatekeepers remain fair and competitive for innovators, businesses, and new market entrants. The introduction of an ex ante regulatory framework that could limit online platforms' commercial freedom and give wide-ranging enforcement powers to regulators would be a far-reaching step. Against this background, this briefing explains the rationale for regulating digital gatekeepers in the EU and provides an overview of the key policy questions currently under discussion. Recent reports and studies have shown how a few large platforms have the ability to apply a range of practices that raise significant competition issues. The limitation of competition law – essentially applied ex-post after the anti-competitive practices have been implemented – has sparked a debate on whether EU competition rules are still fit for purpose and whether such platforms should not instead be regulated ex ante so as to provide upfront clarity about what behaviour towards users and competitors is acceptable. In this respect, the policy discussion focuses on a number of issues, in particular, how to identify online gatekeepers that should be subject to ex ante regulation, what conduct should be outlawed for those gatekeepers, what obligations should be placed on them (such as data portability and interoperability), and how such innovative regulations should be enforced. Finally, the briefing highlights the initial views of a number of stakeholders.

Fairness and transparency for business users of online services

12-04-2019

The European Parliament and the Council reached an agreement on the proposed regulation on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services in February 2019. Providers of online intermediation services (e.g. Amazon and eBay) and online search engines (e.g. Google search) will be required to implement a set of measures to ensure transparency and fairness in the contractual relations they have with online businesses (e.g. online retailers, hotels and restaurants ...

The European Parliament and the Council reached an agreement on the proposed regulation on promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services in February 2019. Providers of online intermediation services (e.g. Amazon and eBay) and online search engines (e.g. Google search) will be required to implement a set of measures to ensure transparency and fairness in the contractual relations they have with online businesses (e.g. online retailers, hotels and restaurants businesses, app stores), which use such online platforms to sell and provide their services to customers in the EU. The regulation, which, inter alia, harmonises transparency rules applicable to contractual terms and conditions, ranking of goods and services and access to data, is considered to be the first regulatory attempt in the world to establish a fair, trusted and innovation-driven ecosystem in the online platform economy. Now that Member States' and Parliament's negotiators have endorsed the compromise text, the political agreement must be voted in plenary by the European Parliament and formally adopted by the Council to complete the legislative procedure.

Promoting fairness and transparency in the online platform environment

21-09-2018

How to promote fairness and transparency in the online platform environment? The Commission's answer to this question can be found in its recent legislative proposal. It stipulates that providers of online intermediation services (e.g. Amazon) and online search engines (e.g. Google search) have to implement certain measures to ensure transparency and fairness in the contractual relations they have with online businesses which use such platforms to provide their services to customers in the EU. This ...

How to promote fairness and transparency in the online platform environment? The Commission's answer to this question can be found in its recent legislative proposal. It stipulates that providers of online intermediation services (e.g. Amazon) and online search engines (e.g. Google search) have to implement certain measures to ensure transparency and fairness in the contractual relations they have with online businesses which use such platforms to provide their services to customers in the EU. This briefing provides you with an appraisal of the quality of the impact assessment, which accompanies the Commission's proposal.

Role of wholesalers and distribution groups in international trade

11-06-2015

In this briefing, we assess the role of intermediaries and wholesalers in international trade based on the existing theory and empirical evidence. In all countries examined, a relevant share of international trade (on average more than 10%) occurs through intermediaries. Especially small and less efficient firms can export thanks to the presence of intermediaries operating on a larger scale and exploiting economies of scale. Intermediaries therefore can increase the amount of exports and the extent ...

In this briefing, we assess the role of intermediaries and wholesalers in international trade based on the existing theory and empirical evidence. In all countries examined, a relevant share of international trade (on average more than 10%) occurs through intermediaries. Especially small and less efficient firms can export thanks to the presence of intermediaries operating on a larger scale and exploiting economies of scale. Intermediaries therefore can increase the amount of exports and the extent of economic integration of a country, especially when there are relevant obstacles to access a foreign market. Many firms in emerging markets have access to foreign markets thanks to the presence of intermediaries. Because of the role played in an increasingly complex global market, wholesalers tend to have a large size and a significant market power. Therefore competition needs to be maintained in this sector, in order for countries to truly benefit from the presence of wholesalers and intermediaries.

Ekstern forfatter

Lucia TAJOLI, Chiara TOMAS

Package Travel and Assisted Travel Arrangements: Initial Appraisal of the Commission's Impact Assessment

15-10-2013

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment accompanying its proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on package travel and on assisted travel arrangements, amending Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Directive 2011/83/EU and repealing Council Directive 90/314/EEC (COM (2013) 512), submitted on 9 July 2013. It analyses whether the principal criteria ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's Impact Assessment accompanying its proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on package travel and on assisted travel arrangements, amending Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Directive 2011/83/EU and repealing Council Directive 90/314/EEC (COM (2013) 512), submitted on 9 July 2013. It analyses whether the principal criteria laid down in the Commission’s own Impact Assessment Guidelines, as well as additional factors identified by the Parliament in its Impact Assessment Handbook, appear to be met by the IA. It does not attempt to deal with the substance of the proposal.

Implementation of the Package Travel Directive

15-03-2012

This study provides an updated evaluation of the Package Travel Directive. Firstly, the implementation of the Directive – especially though the current state of play in the new Member States – is analysed. Particular aspects of the Directive are treated, such as the problem of the travel provider becoming insolvent, issues relating to intermediaries and travel not regulated by the Directive. Secondly, proposals are treated. The Directive is evaluated from the perspectives of stakeholders and consumers ...

This study provides an updated evaluation of the Package Travel Directive. Firstly, the implementation of the Directive – especially though the current state of play in the new Member States – is analysed. Particular aspects of the Directive are treated, such as the problem of the travel provider becoming insolvent, issues relating to intermediaries and travel not regulated by the Directive. Secondly, proposals are treated. The Directive is evaluated from the perspectives of stakeholders and consumers. An update is given on the latest relevant legislative developments. This includes, specifically, the Consumer Rights Directive and the proposal for a European Sales Law in e-commerce. As a result, specific overarching proposals are made which may remedy the issues addressed.

Ekstern forfatter

Hans Schulte-Nölke, Anne-Kathrin Barutta, Shaun Charlton, Julia Henning and Elisabeth Spiecker gen. Döhmann (European Legal Studies Institute Osnabrück)

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