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Roma and Sinti Holocaust

23-01-2020

On 27 January 1945, the Red Army liberated the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp. Held on this date since 2002, the International Holocaust Remembrance Day is a solemn occasion to commemorate the Jewish, Roma and Sinti victims of Nazi terror. The Roma and Sinti Holocaust is still largely unknown to the public.

On 27 January 1945, the Red Army liberated the Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp. Held on this date since 2002, the International Holocaust Remembrance Day is a solemn occasion to commemorate the Jewish, Roma and Sinti victims of Nazi terror. The Roma and Sinti Holocaust is still largely unknown to the public.

The European Union and Holocaust remembrance

23-01-2020

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary ...

The term Holocaust refers to the mass murder of 6 million European Jews, Roma and other persecuted groups, whom the Nazi regime and its collaborators sought to annihilate. The expropriation, state-sponsored discrimination and persecution of the Jews by the Nazi regime began in 1933, followed by pogroms and their mass incarceration in concentration camps. Ultimately, this policy was extended to all Nazi-controlled European territories and countries during World War II, culminating in mass summary executions ('Holocaust by Bullets') and extermination in death camps. The perpetrators were prosecuted at the Nuremberg trials in 1945-1946; however, the tribunal preferred to indict them on charges of crimes against humanity rather than genocide. It was not until 2005, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz that a United Nations resolution designated 27 January the day for international commemoration of the Holocaust, to be known as 'International Holocaust Remembrance Day'. In the European Union, numerous programmes seek to preserve the memory of these tragic events in the history of the continent. Since 1995, the European Parliament has adopted resolutions drawing attention to the obligation to remember not only through commemorations but also through education. In November 2018, the EU became a permanent international partner of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA). This is a further updated version of a briefing from January 2018.

Supporting Holocaust survivors

24-01-2019

Between 1933 and 1945, millions of Europeans suffered from Nazi crimes and the Holocaust. Today, the remaining survivors often live in difficult social conditions.

Between 1933 and 1945, millions of Europeans suffered from Nazi crimes and the Holocaust. Today, the remaining survivors often live in difficult social conditions.

Universal jurisdiction and international crimes: Constraints and best practices

17-09-2018

This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop organised by the European Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI), in association with the Committee on Legal Affairs (JURI) and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). Academics and practitioners discussed international trends as regards the concept of universal jurisdiction and the EU’s approach to promoting universal jurisdiction through its external relations, as well as practical experience in applying universal ...

This report summarises the proceedings of a workshop organised by the European Parliament’s Subcommittee on Human Rights (DROI), in association with the Committee on Legal Affairs (JURI) and the Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE). Academics and practitioners discussed international trends as regards the concept of universal jurisdiction and the EU’s approach to promoting universal jurisdiction through its external relations, as well as practical experience in applying universal jurisdiction in the fight against impunity in Europe. The experts agreed that universal jurisdiction can play a role as part of a wider accountability strategy, complementary to international courts and prosecutions on other jurisdictional bases. They recommended more specialised training for investigators, prosecutors, judges and law enforcement staff for universal jurisdiction cases and more cooperation at EU and international level. Speakers supported the initiative for a multilateral treaty on mutual legal assistance and extradition. Special attention in universal jurisdiction cases must be given to victims seeking justice, including for sexual and gender-based crimes.

Ekstern forfatter

Julia KREBS, Cedric RYNGAERT, Florian JEßBERGER

International Criminal Court: Achievements and challenges 20 years after the adoption of the Rome Statute

13-07-2018

Adopted on 17 July 1998, the Statute of Rome is the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court, which was set up to deal with the most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Its establishment has inspired much hope that the most horrendous crimes will no longer go unpunished and that its deterrent effect will significantly reduce their occurrence. The EU has been a strong supporter of the ICC system from the outset. Since it began ...

Adopted on 17 July 1998, the Statute of Rome is the founding treaty of the International Criminal Court, which was set up to deal with the most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Its establishment has inspired much hope that the most horrendous crimes will no longer go unpunished and that its deterrent effect will significantly reduce their occurrence. The EU has been a strong supporter of the ICC system from the outset. Since it began operating in 2003, the Court has conducted investigations and trials in connection with some of the world's most brutal conflicts and has not shied away from investigating individuals at the highest level of power, such as presidents in office. It has developed extensive tools to protect its most important asset – the witnesses, who in many cases have faced intimidation, violence and even death. However the Court has also encountered difficulties and inherent limitations. The atrocities committed by groups such as ISIL/Da'esh have been out of reach for the Court's jurisdiction, which is limited to states parties' territories and their nationals, unless the Security Council specifically asks it to investigate. The refusal by some major powers such as the US, China and Russia to join, the lack of cooperation by some states parties such as South Africa, as well as recent defections or the threat thereof have also put strains on its global authority. The Court's effectiveness cannot be judged solely on the convictions it passes. The ICC is a court of last resort, and its impact on national judicial systems has also been significant. The Rome Statute itself has evolved. At the end of last year, the jurisdiction of the Court was extended to cover the crime of international aggression and new war crimes taking into account the latest technological developments. This briefing updates a previous briefing on the International Criminal Court, from May 2017.

International Criminal Court at 15: International justice and the crisis of multilateralism

10-05-2017

The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) on 1 July 2002 was heralded at the time as a major breakthrough for ending impunity for most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Fifteen years later, the record of the Court is mixed and criticism from both supporters and opponents has abounded. The challenges and the criticism it is currently facing are typical of many other multilateral institutions today. The Court has conducted ...

The establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) on 1 July 2002 was heralded at the time as a major breakthrough for ending impunity for most serious crimes of international concern, namely genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Fifteen years later, the record of the Court is mixed and criticism from both supporters and opponents has abounded. The challenges and the criticism it is currently facing are typical of many other multilateral institutions today. The Court has conducted investigations and trials on some of the world's most brutal conflicts, but it has faced criticism that it was politicised and biased against the African continent. The atrocities committed by groups such as ISIL/Da'esh have unveiled the ICC's limitations, since it is unable to investigate in Syria and Iraq, which are not parties to the Rome Statute, without UN Security Council authorisation. As a multilateral institution with universal ambitions, the Court is also limited in its effectiveness by the refusal of major powers such as the US, China and Russia to join it. Lack of cooperation by some states parties has also severely constrained its effectiveness. Yet the Court has had positive effects on the capacity of some states to deal themselves with crimes under their jurisdiction. The Court has taken its role seriously, not shying away from indicting persons of the highest rank, such as heads of state, and proving that it is committed to the principle of universal responsibility. Shortcomings in the prosecutorial investigations, for example in relation to witness interference and protection, have been addressed in a transparent and firm way.

International Roma Day

28-03-2017

Since 1990, 8 April has been marked every year as International Roma Day, providing an opportunity both to discuss the situation of Roma, and to celebrate Romani culture.

Since 1990, 8 April has been marked every year as International Roma Day, providing an opportunity both to discuss the situation of Roma, and to celebrate Romani culture.

European Historical Memory: Policies, Challenges and Perspectives

15-04-2015

This note seeks to provide some reflections on the challenges, current policies and possible future prospects of 'historical memory' in a European context. Based on acknowledging the complex nature of collective memories in general and shared European historical remembrance in particular, including their susceptibility to political instrumentalisation, it is argued that a critical 'culture of remembering' needs to be developed. Such a culture requires increased efforts for nation states to come to ...

This note seeks to provide some reflections on the challenges, current policies and possible future prospects of 'historical memory' in a European context. Based on acknowledging the complex nature of collective memories in general and shared European historical remembrance in particular, including their susceptibility to political instrumentalisation, it is argued that a critical 'culture of remembering' needs to be developed. Such a culture requires increased efforts for nation states to come to terms with their own respective pasts in an unbiased way, yet at the same time embracing common European principles and values. In this context, the vital role of education as a tool to create an informed historical consciousness is emphasised, which provides the basis for dealing confidently not only with Europe’s past, but also present and future.

100th anniversary of the Armenian genocide: Building bridges in Turkish-Armenian relations

10-04-2015

A day of remembrance is held every year on 24 April, to mark the Armenian genocide. The relocation of the Ottoman Armenians in 1915, now a century ago, remains one of the most significant and controversial issues in Turkish-Armenian relations. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were relocated under extremely harsh conditions. The numbers of casualties among them were high, and the underlying causes make it the object of considerable controversy still today. How can the two countries establish effective ...

A day of remembrance is held every year on 24 April, to mark the Armenian genocide. The relocation of the Ottoman Armenians in 1915, now a century ago, remains one of the most significant and controversial issues in Turkish-Armenian relations. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians were relocated under extremely harsh conditions. The numbers of casualties among them were high, and the underlying causes make it the object of considerable controversy still today. How can the two countries establish effective communication, cooperation and mutual confidence, 100 years on?

The Peshawar Army Public School Attack: From Nightmare to Greater Darkness?

18-12-2014

Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) terrorists killed at least 130 children, ostensibly in retaliation for a counter-terrorist military campaign that has targeted the war-struck region since June 2014. The TTP has clashed with the Pakistani army since 2002. Since October 2013, the group has declared war against the ‘un-Islamic’ Pakistani state. Operation Zarb-e-Azb – the military campaign in northwest Pakistan, was supposed to compensate for NATO’s drawdown in Afghanistan; yet it has fuelled the war ...

Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) terrorists killed at least 130 children, ostensibly in retaliation for a counter-terrorist military campaign that has targeted the war-struck region since June 2014. The TTP has clashed with the Pakistani army since 2002. Since October 2013, the group has declared war against the ‘un-Islamic’ Pakistani state. Operation Zarb-e-Azb – the military campaign in northwest Pakistan, was supposed to compensate for NATO’s drawdown in Afghanistan; yet it has fuelled the war in Pakistan. Pakistan is crucial for the US’s ‘war on terror’. The EU offers the country preferential trade conditions and substantial direct support. The EU may wish to emphasise the potentially counterproductive effect of Pakistani operations.

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