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The study unveils the weaknesses in the application of the Dublin Regulation, which aim at determining which Member State is responsible for examining an asylum application. It shows that the initial aim of the Regulation (i.e., a swift and fair access to asylum procedure in the EU) has not been achieved and that the rights of asylum seekers are not fully guaranteed throughout the procedures entailed by the Regulation.

This study focuses on the issue of trafficking in human beings in the specific context of hotspots. It analyses the processes in place to facilitate the detection of victims when they arrive by sea on Greek and Italian shores, as well as the protection they are granted.

This briefing looks at the risks of exploitation faced by people leaving their countries in search of safety or better lives and arriving in Europe by sea. It gives an overview of the processes related to early identification of victims of trafficking in first reception facilities (hotspots) and the related challenges.

This study analyses the state of play and issues surrounding citizenship and residency by investment schemes (so-called ‘golden passports’ and ‘golden visas’) in the EU. It looks at the economic social and political impacts of such schemes and examines the risks they carry in respect of corruption, money laundering and tax evasion.

Union Customs Code

Studie 26-09-2018

The study examines whether the Union Customs Code is being properly implemented for the benefit of the European consumers, businesses and EU budget. It covers the complex legislative and administrative framework of the UCC and its governance structure. It assesses the impact of the transitional measures attached to the UCC. It moreover addresses the specific challenges raised in the area of E-Commerce.

Preventing irregular migration to the EU is a central component of the EU approach to migration. The posting of immigration liaison officers (ILOs) in third countries by Member States to facilitate contacts with the authorities there is part of a multi-layered framework that combines external and internal policies. Although ILOs are a bilateral instrument used by the Member States, the ambition to create a stronger European dimension to their work led to the adoption, in 2004, of a regulation establishing ...

Since the Syrian conflict began in 2011, thousands of EU nationals have travelled or attempted to travel in conflict zones in Iraq and Syria to join insurgent terrorist groups, such as ISIL/Da'esh ('Islamic State'). Of those, it has been estimated that around 30 % have already returned to their home countries. The issue of foreign fighters has been high on the political agenda at both Member State and EU level for the last five years and touches upon a wide range of policies: policies related to ...

Access to financial data by law enforcement authorities is seen as critical for preventing crime. This briefing looks at the specific provisions contained in EU instruments that have facilitated this access, and examines the exchange of financial data at EU level but also with non-EU countries. It shows that such access has significantly broadened in the last decades. The private sector, which collects most of these data, has been increasingly regulated; as a result, the sources of information available ...

Revision of the visa code

Briefing 06-03-2018

The EU common visa code (the Visa Code) was adopted in 2009 by means of Regulation 810/2009. It establishes the procedures and conditions for issuing short-stay visas for entry into and transit through the Schengen area. This type of visa is valid for up to three months, whereas long-term visas (or residence permits) remain subject to national procedures. Regulation 767/2008 on the Visa Information System (VIS) defines the purpose and functionalities of the VIS, the computerised system aimed at facilitating ...

Directive 2012/29/EU establishing minimum standards for the rights, support and protection of victims of crime is an instrument of harmonisation that sets basic standards to be applied across the EU. It makes important procedural provisions regarding, for instance, the right to be heard, to understand and be understood, and the right to receive information, make a complaint and access support services. This study assesses the implementation of the directive and various aspects of its application: ...