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Decentralisation, and implementation of the principle of subsidiarity, are at the heart of both EU accession negotiations with the Western Balkan countries and their accession-related reforms. As the region's six countries differ in population size, territory and history, their decentralisation models differ from each other as well. The European Commission and the European Parliament are closely monitoring these countries' overall progress in multi-level governance and in the implementation of the ...

In November 2021, the European Parliament's Committee on Foreign Affairs (AFET) requested an own-initiative annual report on the implementation of the association agreement between the EU and Georgia (2021/2236(INI)). Sven Mikser (S&D, Estonia) is the appointed rapporteur. The Ex-Post Evaluation Unit (EVAL) within the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) has prepared this European implementation assessment (EIA) to accompany the scrutiny work of AFET. This EIA is an update of a European ...

The European Union has decentralised a number of functions, locating agencies across the European Union. The are many factors influencing the choice of the seat(s) of an agency, including the political aim to evenly distribute the agencies. However, the location of an agency has an impact on its capacity to perform its duties effectively and efficiently. This report analyses whether the agency locations fulfil the necessary criteria.

The Management Boards of the EU decentralised agencies have a key role in ensuring the agencies’ good governance. This study examines the established practices of the Management Boards. In particular, it assesses how effective and efficient the Boards’ working methods are and the main factors affecting their performance. The study investigates key governance issues including the size and composition of the Boards, the representation of different interests, the decision-making rules, the effectiveness ...

Until his downfall in 1998, General Suharto ruled Indonesia with an iron fist. Since then, a series of reforms have transformed his authoritarian 'New Order' into the world's third largest democracy (and largest Muslim democracy). Indonesia has a presidential system in which a directly elected president serves as both head of state and of government. A maximum two-term limit on the presidency helps to ensure a peaceful alternation of power. Also directly elected, the House of Representatives (the ...

Signing and ratifying Association Agreements with Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine has proven to be an impressive affirmation of Brussels’ soft power. The EU’s overtures have persuaded elites and mobilised societies despite the fact that the Agreements come neither with a membership promise nor with the kind of financial assistance that has been given to the EU’s new member states. EU assistance has been effective in restoring macro-financial stability in all three countries. While costs of compliance ...

This study is part of a wider project seeking to investigate, from a comparative law perspective, judicial proceedings available to individuals before the highest courts of different states, and before certain international courts. The aim of this study is to examine the various judicial proceedings available to individuals in Canadian law, and in particular before the Supreme Court of Canada. To this end, the text is divided into five parts. The introduction provides an overview of Canadian constitutional ...

Policy decentralization at the ECB

Eingehende Analyse 15-09-2017

The decentralized implementation of ECB policy to national central banks has raised concerns about the transparency of policy operations. We argue that these concerns are misplaced: first, the sharp monetary easing under the assets purchase programme is actually allocated according to the capital key of the ECB; second, this allocation may feed divergences between the different Eurozone member states. Though the latter point is not part of the ECB mandate, we argue that another policy may well be ...

Monetary policy in the Eurosystem is ‘one and indivisible’, an exclusive EU competence. However, there remains an operational distinction: while the decision-making stage is centralized at the ECB, the implementation stage is decentralized at the level of the National Central Banks (NCBs). In response to the crisis the Eurosystem operational framework has undergone major changes with the introduction of non-standard monetary policy instruments as well as the recourse to emergency liquidity assistance ...

Upon request by the AFCO Committee, the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs has commissioned this in-depth analysis on the impact of Brexit on the devolved territories of Scotland and Wales as well as the Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It examines the economic and political implications of Brexit on these territories, the consequences of the possible return to devolved administrations of formerly ‘Europeanised’ competencies and looks at how Brexit might affect their ...