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International trade influences biodiversity through scale, composition and technique effects. Land and sea use change alter natural habitats, while emissions from production and transportation contribute to climate change. Among exports, animal-based agri-food products are particularly land-intensive. Trade policy can play a role in tackling these problems through stronger enforcement of biodiversity-related provisions in trade agreements. The EU Biodiversity Strategy 2030 commits to better assessing ...

This brief provides a legal analysis of existing rules in digital trade regarding the various components of artificial intelligence (‘AI’), in particular (personal and nonpersonal) data, computer code in the form of algorithms, and computing power (including cloud computing). To do so, the first part of this analysis will map various international trade rules that affect cross-border flows of data, computer code and computing power to determine their respective advantages and disadvantages. This ...

WTO e-commerce negotiations

Auf einen Blick 05-10-2020

While e-commerce represents an increasing portion of the economy, international regulation of e-commerce is lagging behind. In 2017, the WTO Ministerial Conference issued a Joint Statement Initiative signalling the intention to launch plurilateral e-commerce talks. In January 2019, in the margins of the World Economic Forum in Davos, 76 of 164 WTO members, among them the EU, Australia, China, Japan, and the USA launched e commerce negotiations. Members seek a high-standard outcome building on WTO ...

Using trade policy to tackle climate change

Auf einen Blick 08-10-2019

The recent forest fires in the Amazon highlight the need for greater measures worldwide to attenuate tensions between resource needs, for example mining or grazing, that cause deforestation. European leaders have called for urgent action, including through trade policy. Policy-makers argue, for instance, for leveraging the negotiated European Union (EU)-Mercosur Trade Agreement to achieve compliance with the Paris Agreement. Since the Paris Agreement is binding only in part and aspirational concerning ...

International aviation agreements

Auf einen Blick 04-10-2019

To tackle international air transport challenges in the European Union, particularly increased competition from third countries, the European Commission adopted a new aviation strategy for Europe in December 2015, placing strong emphasis on international aviation agreements. After obtaining negotiating mandates from Council, a number of EU-level comprehensive agreements are coming to fruition, with some now awaiting signature or ratification. This is an updated and expanded edition of an ‘at a glance ...

The USMCA is a new trade agreement due to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The United States, Mexico and Canada signed the agreement on 30 November 2018. While the text of the agreement may still change, if approved, certain USMCA provisions on rules of origin, geographical indications and voluntary export restraints could have implications for EU companies trading with or present in North America, in particular carmakers, food and drink exporters, and dairy producers. The ...

The year 2017 was good for the EU, politically and economically. For the first time in almost a decade, the EU was not beset by crises, although Brexit posed a difficult challenge. The European Council met the Brexit challenge by approving guidelines for the negotiations in April, and agreeing to move to a new stage in December, while convening in a new format: Article 50 (TEU) meetings of the EU-27. The European Council launched another new formal in 2017: Leaders’ Meetings, held under the auspices ...

International trade agreements have the potential to help breaking the vicious circle of corruption in economies based on privileged connections rather than fair competition. They increase competition in the removal of tariffs and so diminish the power of rentier companies which influence domestic regulation in their favour. They also contribute to a fairer business environment through their transparency provisions. Trade openness, red tape reduction and fiscal transparency, especially transparency ...

This Cost of Non-Europe Report, prepared for the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade, analyses the economic added value of international trade. Aimed at feeding into on-going debates about the roles of globalisation and the rules-based multilateral trade system, it presents an overview of key trade theories, global trade patterns and the arguments for opening and restricting international trade. It analyses distributional consequences of such trade, the role of global value chains ...

Brexit negotiations - Progress to date

Auf einen Blick 15-09-2017

Since their official launch in June 2017, three rounds of negotiations on the United Kingdom's (UK) withdrawal from the European Union (EU) have been held. So far, the EU and UK have discussed the priority issues of citizens' rights, the financial settlement and the Irish border, but disagreements and ambiguities persist. After the third round, 'no decisive progress' was reached, according to Michel Barnier, the EU chief negotiator, which is likely to impede any advance to the second phase of talks ...