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Critical raw materials are essential to sustain Europe's economic and environmental ambitions. As geoeconomic aggression and geopolitical tensions rise, the EU is re-thinking its reliance on certain imports. Can the EU secure its supply of critical materials?

The six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo,* Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) are all countries with substantial economic catch-up potential. The EU-led Berlin Process estimated an annual investment need of some €7.7 billion, which would provide the region with an additional 1 % GDP growth and a positive employment effect of up to 200 000 people. However, quality investments are scarce, or often attached to political, environmental and social conditionalities ...

EPRS invites leading experts and commentators to share their thinking and insights on important topics of relevance to debate in the European institutions. In this paper, Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and the German Marshall Fund of the United States, looks at the current state of the Chinese economy, and at the various factors likely to influence its evolution in the coming years. He argues that Chinese growth will slow to below the levels ...

EU officials say that the 23rd summit between the European Union and China on Friday 1 April will focus on Russia’s war on Ukraine, the engagement of the international community to support Ukraine, the dramatic humanitarian crisis created by the conflict, its destabilising nature for the international order and its inherent global impact. The meeting, to be conducted by video-conference, is also expected to discuss bilateral issues and areas of shared interest, such as climate change, biodiversity ...

Hours before the Beijing Winter Olympics officially opened on 4 February 2022, Chinese President Xi Jinping had a long meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. In the joint statement issued after the meeting, the Chinese leader for the first time voiced his country's outright opposition to NATO enlargement and support for Russia's 'proposals to create long-term legally binding security guarantees' in Europe. This stance might be seen as the culmination of a relationship, formed in 1992, between ...

US Congress and trade policy tackling China

Auf einen Blick 04-03-2022

In the first year of the 117th US Congress (2021-2022), members of both the House and the Senate saw an urgent need both for a trade policy offensive specifically for the Indo-Pacific region to maintain US leadership in setting international standards and norms, and for an upgrade of defensive trade policy tools to address China's unfair trade practices. Congressional initiatives have coincided with debates in the European Parliament on the EU's Indo-Pacific strategy and on legislative proposals ...

China's meteoric economic and military rise, authoritarian political system and non-market economic model, and growing US-China strategic competition, have had a significant impact on how bilateral research ties are perceived in the US, and on how the US Congress and the Trump and Biden administrations have shaped the US research ecosystem in response to China's 'Thousand Talents' programme.

US Congress approach to US-Taiwan relations

Auf einen Blick 01-03-2022

The first year of the 117th US Congress (2021-2022) under a 'unified government', where President Biden's party holds a majority of Democrats in the House of Representatives and the Senate, saw strong bipartisan support for shaping closer security, economic and political ties with Taiwan. Perceived as a vibrant democracy, worth protecting to secure peace and security in the Indo-Pacific region, the Biden administration invited Taiwan to the 2021 US Summit for Democracy, defining shared values rather ...

In recent years, the US has taken a range of steps to strengthen US legislation and enforcement practice from a human rights, trade and foreign policy perspective in the fight against the widespread use of forced labour in the increasingly complex global supply chains of the 21st century. A prominent example is the Uyghur Forced Labour Prevention Act of 2021. It bans imports from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) in the north-west of China, except where importers can rebut the presumption ...

The EU published its ‘Joint Communication on the EU strategy for cooperation in the Indo-Pacific’ on 16 September 2021. This Indo-Pacific Strategy lays out five crucial security issues in the region that directly affect the EU’s own security and prosperity. These are maritime security, nuclear security and non-proliferation, cyber security, trafficking, and terrorism. In order to deal with these security issues, the EU has CSDP missions and the CSDP toolbox at its disposal. In fact, the long-standing ...