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Looking back on the implosion of the Soviet Union in late 1991, this Briefing reflects on the debate in the Parliament about its possible consequences at the time. It shows that a clear majority of MEPs initially remained keen on the transformation of the Soviet Union into some kind of 'new Union'. They were concerned both about the dire economic situation in several Soviet republics, and about the maintenance of effective control over the Soviet Union's huge nuclear arsenal. Since 1988 the EP, like ...

The Sustainable Development Goals were established in 2015 as part of the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The signatories adopted a policy framework with 17 goals, addressing issues such as poverty, hunger, health and wellbeing, education, gender equality, environment and climate, strong institutions, peace and justice. Sustainable development aims at balancing social, economic and environmental aspects, seeing them as interconnected. The European Union (EU) has contributed ...

This briefing provides an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above-mentioned proposal, submitted on 30 March 2022 and referred to the European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). The proposal aims to repeal the Ecodesign Directive 2009/125/EC, which establishes a framework for adopting product-specific requirements set out in implementing measures (usually regulations) by the ...

Czechia is a parliamentary republic with a head of government – the prime minister – and a head of state – the president. The current Prime Minister is Petr Fiala, from the Civic Democratic Party (ODS). He has been in office since November 2021 and was preceded by Andrej Babiš (2017-2021), the founder of the party ANO 2011. Czech President Miloš Zeman was first elected to the post in 2013 and had previously served as prime minister, from 1998 to 2002. The supreme executive body is the government. ...

Russia’s war on Ukraine has sent global food prices soaring. It has fuelled inflation in the European Union, the United States and many other countries, while threatening hunger in some poorer regions. Russia and Ukraine play a major role in food and fertiliser supply. They export about 30 per cent of the world’s wheat and 75 per cent of its sunflower oil. Some countries in Africa and the Middle East are nearly 100-per cent dependent on Russian or Ukrainian food. According to the United Nations Food ...

This briefing, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, provides recommendations for better regulation in the EU by improving quality and reducing delays. It points at significant actual and potential benefits from EU legislative initiatives amounting to over €2,200bn as well as costs of slow Europe of €319 billion in lost annual benefits.

The European Council brings together the Heads of State or Government of the 27 EU Member States in regular 'summit' meetings which seek to define the overall political direction and priorities of the European Union. This Briefing offers a selection of key facts and figures about this institution, detailing its membership, role, work and development over time.

Since its adoption, EU legislation on blood, tissues and cells has ensured an upward convergence in the quality and safety of these substances from donation to human application. Following an evaluation of the legislation, shortcomings have become apparent, primarily in light of scientific and technical developments in this area. Socio-demographic trends and new epidemiological risks have further consolidated the view that certain provisions of this legislation need to better reflect the current ...

Covering some 52 000 large agro-industrial installations EU-wide, the Industrial Emissions Directive is the main EU instrument regulating pollutant emissions from industry. The proposal for a revision tabled by the European Commission on 5 April 2022 aims to bring it into line with the EU's zero pollution ambition, energy, climate and circular economy policy goals under the European Green Deal. The main changes include expanding the scope (in terms of sectors covered and thresholds), strengthening ...

The European Green Deal envisages a review of measures addressing pollution from large industrial installations, with a view to aligning existing legislation with the EU's zero pollution ambition, as well as its energy, climate and circular economy policy goals. On 5 April 2022, the European Commission tabled a proposal to revise the Industrial Emissions Directive, the main European Union instrument regulating pollutant emissions from industry, together with a proposal to revise the Regulation establishing ...