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Jacques Delors: Der Architekt der modernen Europäischen Union

13-07-2020

Die meisten Historiker und Politikwissenschaftler, die sich mit der europäischen Integration beschäftigen, sind sich darin einig, dass Jacques Delors, der von 1985 bis 1995 Präsident der Europäischen Kommission war, der bisher erfolgreichste Inhaber dieses Amtes ist. Zu seiner Agenda und seinen Leistungen zählen der EU-Binnenmarkt, die Einheitliche Europäische Akte, die Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion (WWU) sowie die schnelle Integration der früheren Deutschen Demokratischen Republik in die Europäische ...

Die meisten Historiker und Politikwissenschaftler, die sich mit der europäischen Integration beschäftigen, sind sich darin einig, dass Jacques Delors, der von 1985 bis 1995 Präsident der Europäischen Kommission war, der bisher erfolgreichste Inhaber dieses Amtes ist. Zu seiner Agenda und seinen Leistungen zählen der EU-Binnenmarkt, die Einheitliche Europäische Akte, die Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion (WWU) sowie die schnelle Integration der früheren Deutschen Demokratischen Republik in die Europäische Gemeinschaft. Aufgrund Delors‘ Kombination aus kohärentem Vorgehen bei der Festlegung der Agenda und starkem Verhandlungsgeschick, das er sich durch langjährige Erfahrung bei Verhandlungen mit Gewerkschaften und jahrelange Verantwortung in unruhigen Zeiten auf Ministerebene angeeignet hatte, rangiert er vor allen anderen Kommissionspräsidenten, sei es in Bezug auf institutionelle Innovationen oder die Erarbeitung neuer europaweiter politischer Strategien. Er verfügte auch über die Fähigkeit, schnell auf externe Ereignisse zu reagieren, insbesondere den Zusammenbruch des sowjetischen Blocks, während er gleichzeitig die Glaubwürdigkeit Europas auf der internationalen Bühne stärkte. In diesem Briefing werden die entscheidenden Abschnitte des Lebens von Delors dargestellt, vom Gewerkschaftsaktivisten, leitenden Beamten, französischen Politiker und Mitglied des Europäischen Parlaments bis an die Spitze der Europäischen Kommission, wo er die bisher größte individuelle Wirkung in der Geschichte der europäischen Integration erzielte. Es werden auch die wichtigsten Ideen nachgezeichnet, die für Delors in seinen nationalen und europäischen Rollen maßgeblich waren. Abschließend werden die politischen Ereignisse und die wichtigsten Akteure beschreiben, die das Jahrzehnt, in dem Delors im Amt war, zu einer Zeit bedeutender Entscheidungen und Fortschritte im Prozess der europäischen Integration machten. Zu diesem Zweck wird auf die neueste wissenschaftliche Literatur und die Reden aufgebaut, die Delors vor dem Europäischen Parlament gehalten hat.

Schuman Declaration: 70 years on

07-05-2020

Aiming to secure peace in Europe after the horrors of the Second World War, the Schuman Declaration proposed cooperation among European countries in two key economic areas central to rearmament and warfare: coal and steel. As an institutional framework for this cooperation, the Schuman Declaration proposed the creation of the first supranational organisation in Europe, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Established in 1952, the ECSC laid the foundations for today's European Union (EU). ...

Aiming to secure peace in Europe after the horrors of the Second World War, the Schuman Declaration proposed cooperation among European countries in two key economic areas central to rearmament and warfare: coal and steel. As an institutional framework for this cooperation, the Schuman Declaration proposed the creation of the first supranational organisation in Europe, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). Established in 1952, the ECSC laid the foundations for today's European Union (EU). The Schuman Declaration is therefore seen as the EU’s founding act. Presented by the French Foreign Minister, Robert Schuman, on 9 May 1950, this year marks the 70th anniversary of the Schuman Declaration.

Global Trendometer 2019

18-12-2019

The new Global Trendometer examines topics ranging from deliberative democracy and the future of social policy in Europe, to scenarios for Northern Africa, China's social credit system, the auditing of algorithms and space as a new frontier.

The new Global Trendometer examines topics ranging from deliberative democracy and the future of social policy in Europe, to scenarios for Northern Africa, China's social credit system, the auditing of algorithms and space as a new frontier.

European Parliament and the path to German reunification

05-11-2019

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, set in motion by the events of 9 November 1989, which led to Germany’s full reunification within less than a year. The accession of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to the Federal Republic of Germany (Federal Republic) completed the reunification process on 3 October 1990. Moreover, with the accession of the former GDR to the Federal Republic, the GDR integrated into the European Economic Community (EEC) of the time via a special ...

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, set in motion by the events of 9 November 1989, which led to Germany’s full reunification within less than a year. The accession of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) to the Federal Republic of Germany (Federal Republic) completed the reunification process on 3 October 1990. Moreover, with the accession of the former GDR to the Federal Republic, the GDR integrated into the European Economic Community (EEC) of the time via a special procedure. As the GDR's status as a subject of international law ended with its accession to the Federal Republic, a normal EEC Treaty accession procedure was not possible. The European Parliament followed the chain of profound political developments triggered by the fall of the Berlin Wall closely.

Walter Hallstein: First President of the Commission and visionary of European integration

11-07-2019

When Walter Hallstein became the first President of the European Economic Community Commission, in 1958, a long career already lay behind him: legal scholar, university professor, research manager, diplomat and German government representative at the conferences drafting the founding treaties of the European Coal and Steel Community and then the European Economic Community. The federalist ideas he developed and the emphasis he placed on supranational institutions remain among his most important legacies ...

When Walter Hallstein became the first President of the European Economic Community Commission, in 1958, a long career already lay behind him: legal scholar, university professor, research manager, diplomat and German government representative at the conferences drafting the founding treaties of the European Coal and Steel Community and then the European Economic Community. The federalist ideas he developed and the emphasis he placed on supranational institutions remain among his most important legacies. Equally significant was his administrative capacity to build an institution of a completely new type and to anticipate policies that seemed utopian at the time but turned out to be necessary many years later. This impetus to push for further integration earned Hallstein strong opposition from several national leaders, and eventually led to his precipitous departure. This briefing recalls three principal aspects of Hallstein's life: as a scholar and research administrator, as a protagonist of German foreign policy and, of course, as a crucial architect of the early period of European integration.

The ECSC Common Assembly's decision to create political groups: Writing a new chapter in transnational parliamentary history

12-06-2019

Political groups in the European Parliament contribute greatly to the institution's supranational character and are a most important element of its parliamentary work. Moreover, the Parliament's political groups have proven to be crucial designers of EU politics and policies. However, when the forerunner of today's Parliament, the Common Assembly of the Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), was established in 1952, the creation of political groups was not envisaged at all. Making use of its autonomy with ...

Political groups in the European Parliament contribute greatly to the institution's supranational character and are a most important element of its parliamentary work. Moreover, the Parliament's political groups have proven to be crucial designers of EU politics and policies. However, when the forerunner of today's Parliament, the Common Assembly of the Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), was established in 1952, the creation of political groups was not envisaged at all. Making use of its autonomy with regard to writing its rules of procedures, the ECSC Common Assembly unanimously decided, at its plenary session in June 1953, to allow the creation of political groups. With this decision, the ECSC Common Assembly became the world's first international assembly organised in political groups. This briefing analyses the decision of the ECSC Common Assembly to create political groups by bringing together political and historical science literature on the topic, as well as original sources from the Parliament's Historical Archives that record considerations and motives for the decision to create political groups. It will illustrate the complementary cultural, historical, organisational and financial reasons for this decision. Furthermore, it will demonstrate that, for the first ECSC Common Assembly members, it was highly important to take account of political affiliations in order to highlight the supranational character of the newly emerging Assembly. Finally, the briefing highlights that common work within the political groups was essential in helping to overcome early difficulties between the Assembly's members with different national backgrounds.

Political groups in the European Parliament since 1979: Key facts and figures

12-06-2019

This study seeks to fill a gap in research on the development of political groups, which have become a crucial component of the European Parliament. In fact, the creation of political groups can be traced back to a June 1953 decision of the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Parliament’s forerunner, to allow members to establish three political groups – Christian Democrats, Socialists and Liberals – and thus begin the formation of supranational links among Members ...

This study seeks to fill a gap in research on the development of political groups, which have become a crucial component of the European Parliament. In fact, the creation of political groups can be traced back to a June 1953 decision of the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community, the European Parliament’s forerunner, to allow members to establish three political groups – Christian Democrats, Socialists and Liberals – and thus begin the formation of supranational links among Members. The paper focuses on the period from the first direct elections, in 1979, to the end of the eighth parliamentary term, and includes data on group membership, on committee chairs by group, on political groups’ staffing and on the funding allocated to political groups and the linked European political foundations.

Die Europawahl: eine historische Perspektive

05-06-2019

Vom 23. bis 26. Mai 2019 haben 350 Millionen Bürgerinnen und Bürger der Europäischen Union (EU) die Möglichkeit, die Mitglieder des Europäischen Parlaments zu wählen. Dies ist das neunte Mal, dass sie unmittelbar die politischen Entscheidungsträger wählen können, die sie in der EU-Politik vertreten sollen. Die Europawahl ist somit eines der wichtigsten Ereignisse im politischen Zyklus der Europäischen Union. Der diesjährigen Europawahl messen viele EU-Beobachter angesichts der bevorstehenden Herausforderungen ...

Vom 23. bis 26. Mai 2019 haben 350 Millionen Bürgerinnen und Bürger der Europäischen Union (EU) die Möglichkeit, die Mitglieder des Europäischen Parlaments zu wählen. Dies ist das neunte Mal, dass sie unmittelbar die politischen Entscheidungsträger wählen können, die sie in der EU-Politik vertreten sollen. Die Europawahl ist somit eines der wichtigsten Ereignisse im politischen Zyklus der Europäischen Union. Der diesjährigen Europawahl messen viele EU-Beobachter angesichts der bevorstehenden Herausforderungen für das anschließend neu zu konstituierende Parlament eine besondere historische Bedeutung bei. Blickt man zurück, so war es ein langer und komplizierter Weg bis zur Durchführung der allerersten Europawahl vor vierzig Jahren im Jahr 1979.

Major sporting events versus human rights: Parliament's position on the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and the 1980 Moscow Olympics

13-06-2018

Major sports events and politics are closely intertwined. Well-known historical examples of major sporting events that were used by regimes for political propaganda purposes are the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. The 1978 World Cup took place around two years after the Argentinian military regime's right-wing coup and its violent repression of critics, and was then the most political World Cup in the history of the International Federation of Association ...

Major sports events and politics are closely intertwined. Well-known historical examples of major sporting events that were used by regimes for political propaganda purposes are the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina and the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow. The 1978 World Cup took place around two years after the Argentinian military regime's right-wing coup and its violent repression of critics, and was then the most political World Cup in the history of the International Federation of Association Football (Fédération Internationale de Football Association: FIFA). The 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow were the first to take place in eastern Europe and the first to be held in a socialist country. In addition, the 1980 Summer Olympic Games unleashed a hitherto, in the history of major sporting events, unprecedented boycott by 60 countries, in protest against the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. The European Parliament's involvement in the debates on the political reaction to these two major sporting events is a largely unknown aspect of the history of the 1978 World Cup and the 1980 Summer Olympic Games. This Briefing will reconstruct these debates and the policy action that followed, based on new analysis of sources held in the Parliament's Historical Archives, and demonstrates that the EP's leitmotiv was the violation of human rights in both countries. Furthermore, the Briefing shows that these debates set the basis for the EP's current policy action when it comes to major sports events in countries with a poor track record of human rights.

The added value of the European Citizens' Initiative (ECI), and its revision

13-04-2018

The European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) is aimed at bringing the EU closer to its citizens, by enabling them to invite the European Commission to make a proposal for a legal act. Introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, the ECI should provide every citizen with the right to participate in the democratic life of the Union. However, the ECI in practice has had various procedural hurdles, preventing the fulfilment of the regulation's objectives. The ECI is thus not fulfilling its potential with regard to ...

The European Citizens' Initiative (ECI) is aimed at bringing the EU closer to its citizens, by enabling them to invite the European Commission to make a proposal for a legal act. Introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon, the ECI should provide every citizen with the right to participate in the democratic life of the Union. However, the ECI in practice has had various procedural hurdles, preventing the fulfilment of the regulation's objectives. The ECI is thus not fulfilling its potential with regard to bringing the EU closer to its citizens. Against this background, the present study outlines the weaknesses in the existing ECI procedure. Moreover, it assesses, with a view to their added value, the main reform proposals that have been put forward to improve the ECI's functioning.

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