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Women in parliaments

25-02-2020

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the 2019 EP elections. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous edition ...

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the 2019 EP elections. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous edition was published in December 2019, PE 646.110.

Australia: Economic indicators and trade with EU

24-02-2020

Australia was the world's 13th largest economy in 2018, with growth in gross domestic product (GDP) at 2.9 %. It has a strong and dynamic relationship with the EU. Negotiations for a free trade agreement between Australia and the EU were formally launched in June 2018. In 2018, Australia was the EU's 19th largest trading partner, with a 1.2% share of the EU's total trade. Further information on EU-Australia trade relations, such as the composition of trade between the two partners, can be found in ...

Australia was the world's 13th largest economy in 2018, with growth in gross domestic product (GDP) at 2.9 %. It has a strong and dynamic relationship with the EU. Negotiations for a free trade agreement between Australia and the EU were formally launched in June 2018. In 2018, Australia was the EU's 19th largest trading partner, with a 1.2% share of the EU's total trade. Further information on EU-Australia trade relations, such as the composition of trade between the two partners, can be found in this infographic, which also provides an economic snapshot of Australia.

UK: Economic indicators and trade with EU

21-02-2020

The UK withdrew from the European Union on 31 January 2020. From 1 February, it is a third country and therefore considered as such in this publication. The trade figures shown concern a period in which the UK was an EU Member State, whereas the future picture could vary significantly depending on the outcome of trade negotiations between the EU and the UK.

The UK withdrew from the European Union on 31 January 2020. From 1 February, it is a third country and therefore considered as such in this publication. The trade figures shown concern a period in which the UK was an EU Member State, whereas the future picture could vary significantly depending on the outcome of trade negotiations between the EU and the UK.

Externe Autor

Olga Griaznova, Globalstat, EUI

Size of Political Groups in the EP - February 2020

21-02-2020

Our table shows the number of MEPs in each group, broken down by Member State, as well as the non-attached (NI) Members not in any group. The figures are supplied by our colleagues from the Members’ Administration Unit. This infographic updates an earlier edition, of 5 July 2019, PE637.970.

Our table shows the number of MEPs in each group, broken down by Member State, as well as the non-attached (NI) Members not in any group. The figures are supplied by our colleagues from the Members’ Administration Unit. This infographic updates an earlier edition, of 5 July 2019, PE637.970.

The net operating balances or the "Juste retour" approach

19-02-2020

Operating budgetary balances (OBBs) are calculated and published annually by the European Commission as an attempt to document the differences between a Member State’s financial contribution to and its allocated expenditure from the EU budget. OBBs have become a highly politicised concept, with substantial shortcomings. Calculating Operating budgetary balances (OBB) is purely an accounting exercise. This is most convincingly demonstrated by the zero-sum assumption inherent in the Operating budgetary ...

Operating budgetary balances (OBBs) are calculated and published annually by the European Commission as an attempt to document the differences between a Member State’s financial contribution to and its allocated expenditure from the EU budget. OBBs have become a highly politicised concept, with substantial shortcomings. Calculating Operating budgetary balances (OBB) is purely an accounting exercise. This is most convincingly demonstrated by the zero-sum assumption inherent in the Operating budgetary balances concept, as a positive OBB of one country must necessarily be offset by a negative OBB of equal size by another Member State. Evidently, such a perspective stands in sharp contrast with the idea of an EU budget that is not primarily meant as a system of fiscal redistribution, but rather as a means to generate European added value..

Externe Autor

Zareh Astryan, Annika Havlik, Friedrich heinermann, Justus Nover, Marta Pilati

Net operating balances indicator: A distorted indicator of a Member's benefit from the EU budget

19-02-2020

Operating budgetary balance (OBB) calculations imply that EU spending is a zero-sum game. This feature is inconsistent with the main argument that EU spending creates European added value. Thus, taking simple net operating balances as an indicator of a Member State’s ‘net benefit’ from the Union’s fiscal activities can lead to misleading results, as demonstrated in the following points of argument.

Operating budgetary balance (OBB) calculations imply that EU spending is a zero-sum game. This feature is inconsistent with the main argument that EU spending creates European added value. Thus, taking simple net operating balances as an indicator of a Member State’s ‘net benefit’ from the Union’s fiscal activities can lead to misleading results, as demonstrated in the following points of argument.

Externe Autor

Zareh Astryan, Annika Havlik, Friedrich heinermann, Justus Nover

EU membership benefits: Not measured by net operating balances

19-02-2020

National operating budgetary balances (OBBs) do not take into account all of the economic and non-monetary benefits that Member States gain from EU membership. In many policy areas with cross-border characteristics and demand for critical mass, common action at the EU level may lead to better results than fragmented national initiatives. Several studies show that the Single Market has increased employment and growth. The effect of the Single Market deepening since 1990 has been quantified by 3.6 ...

National operating budgetary balances (OBBs) do not take into account all of the economic and non-monetary benefits that Member States gain from EU membership. In many policy areas with cross-border characteristics and demand for critical mass, common action at the EU level may lead to better results than fragmented national initiatives. Several studies show that the Single Market has increased employment and growth. The effect of the Single Market deepening since 1990 has been quantified by 3.6 million new jobs. Additionally, EU GDP would be 8.7% lower if there had been no Single Market integration. The average EU citizen gains €840 more per year thanks to the Single Market. While all EU citizens benefit from income gains thanks to the Single Market, these effects are higher for Western Europeans in absolute terms. Relative to GDP, gains and losses are more similar.

Externe Autor

Marta Pilati, Fabian Zuleeg

How to overcome the "Juste retour" obsession

19-02-2020

A net budgetary balance is a highly misleading indicator of the benefits from EU spending and EU membership. Budgetary decisions taken on the basis of this indicator result in poor policies as they are biased towards programmes with monetary backflows into Member States. This ‘juste retour’ mentality is a major obstacle to achieving more European added value through the EU budget. The deeper underlying cause of this misleading and detrimental net balance preoccupation is the high salience and political ...

A net budgetary balance is a highly misleading indicator of the benefits from EU spending and EU membership. Budgetary decisions taken on the basis of this indicator result in poor policies as they are biased towards programmes with monetary backflows into Member States. This ‘juste retour’ mentality is a major obstacle to achieving more European added value through the EU budget. The deeper underlying cause of this misleading and detrimental net balance preoccupation is the high salience and political appeal of backflow policies, with their easily identifiable national and regional beneficiaries. Policies whose European benefits are more dispersed and do not entail payments into Member States do receive less voter and policy support.

Externe Autor

Friedrich Heinermann, Marta Pilati, Fabien Zuleeg

"I want my money back": The history of national rebates

19-02-2020

This document is a brief overview of the history of the own resources system and its rebates.

This document is a brief overview of the history of the own resources system and its rebates.

Externe Autor

Zareh Asatryan, Annika Havlik, Frierich Heinermann, Justus Nover, Marta Pilati

Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing

17-02-2020

The IUU Regulation (1005/2008) is the core of the EU’s legal framework for action against global IUU fishing. Its primary objective is to prevent, deter and eliminate the trade of IUU-caught products into the EU. One of its key components is a multiple-step procedure for dealing with non-EU countries considered uncooperative in the fight against IUU fishing. Fourth edition. This infographic further updates an earlier one of February 2019. For more information on IUU fishing and the EU's IUU Regulation ...

The IUU Regulation (1005/2008) is the core of the EU’s legal framework for action against global IUU fishing. Its primary objective is to prevent, deter and eliminate the trade of IUU-caught products into the EU. One of its key components is a multiple-step procedure for dealing with non-EU countries considered uncooperative in the fight against IUU fishing. Fourth edition. This infographic further updates an earlier one of February 2019. For more information on IUU fishing and the EU's IUU Regulation 1005/2008 , see EPRS briefing: PE 614.598.

Externe Autor

CHAHRI, Samy

Anstehende Veranstaltungen

03-03-2020
Demographic Outlook for the EU in 2020: Understanding population trends in the EU
Andere Veranstaltung -
EPRS
05-03-2020
Has the EU become a regulatory superpower? How it's rules are shaping global markets
Andere Veranstaltung -
EPRS

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