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China [What Think Tanks are thinking]

28-09-2018

China is a major strategic partner for the European Union, despite divergences on human rights issues, as well as on some economic and foreign policies. At their 20th EU-China summit in July, the two sides agreed to further develop their partnership and to seek to avoid global trade wars, which many analysts fear could be triggered by US President Donald Trump’s protectionist policies. They agreed, in principle, to support reform of the World Trade Organization, which has been snubbed by President ...

China is a major strategic partner for the European Union, despite divergences on human rights issues, as well as on some economic and foreign policies. At their 20th EU-China summit in July, the two sides agreed to further develop their partnership and to seek to avoid global trade wars, which many analysts fear could be triggered by US President Donald Trump’s protectionist policies. They agreed, in principle, to support reform of the World Trade Organization, which has been snubbed by President Trump. However, China’s increasingly close military ties with Russia cause concern in the EU. Trade, security and connectivity will be important topics of the 12th ASEM (EU-Asia) summit in October, which will gather heads of state or government of 51 European and Asian countries. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on China, its ties with the EU and related issues. More studies on the topics can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking', published in March 2018. One of the forthcoming publications in this series will be devoted to wider EU-Asia relations.

Free and fair trade for all?

21-11-2017

With its strategy paper entitled ‘Trade for all’ in 2015, the Commission launched an EU trade policy that focussed on values such as human rights, workers’ rights, environmental protection and sustainable development. The idea was that free trade should be fair for both consumers in Europe and for citizens elsewhere. This approach was pursued in bilateral trade negotiations and in legislative proposals on, for example, conflict minerals, dual-use goods or the investment court system. But by the end ...

With its strategy paper entitled ‘Trade for all’ in 2015, the Commission launched an EU trade policy that focussed on values such as human rights, workers’ rights, environmental protection and sustainable development. The idea was that free trade should be fair for both consumers in Europe and for citizens elsewhere. This approach was pursued in bilateral trade negotiations and in legislative proposals on, for example, conflict minerals, dual-use goods or the investment court system. But by the end of 2016 the tenor of the debate on international trade had changed, shifting the focus to national interests and fairness for consumers and producers at home. The UK’s decision to withdraw from the EU and the election of President Trump in the US, together with the expiry of the clause recognising China’s non-market economy status, contributed to this shift. The European Parliament has played a crucial role in shaping the direction of EU trade policy. While its 2015 resolution on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) set the values-based trade agenda, its resolutions in 2016 and 2017 on China’s market economy status and global value chains reflected the shift in values. The Commission is seeking to balance free and fair trade but new challenges lie ahead, notably in the EU’s neighbourhood: Russia, the Eastern Partnership, Turkey and the UK’s withdrawal from the EU.

De jure versus de facto labour rights in China

20-06-2017

For China, striking the right balance between using its abundant, cheap workforce as a competitive advantage and protecting labour rights has been a major challenge. Although China has developed a considerable body of law governing labour relations, there is still a huge gap between the labour rights on the statute books and those enjoyed by workers in practice. Over-riding economic interests to attract foreign investors and to boost economic growth have seriously undermined effective labour rights ...

For China, striking the right balance between using its abundant, cheap workforce as a competitive advantage and protecting labour rights has been a major challenge. Although China has developed a considerable body of law governing labour relations, there is still a huge gap between the labour rights on the statute books and those enjoyed by workers in practice. Over-riding economic interests to attract foreign investors and to boost economic growth have seriously undermined effective labour rights enforcement. China's vanishing demographic dividend may require a new balance.

Berechnung von Dumpingspannen: Regeln und Praktiken in der EU und den USA vor dem Hintergrund der Debatte um den Marktwirtschaftsstatus fur China

31-05-2016

Die Berechnung der Dumpingspannen ist in Anti-dumpinguntersuchungen aus zwei Gründen von grund-legender Bedeutung: Erstens ist sie die Grundvoraus-setzung für die Einführung einer Antidumpingmaßnah-me; das Vorliegen von Dumping gilt dann als nachge-wiesen, wenn die Dumpingspanne über der Gering-fügigkeitsschwelle (d. h. über 2 %) liegt. Zweitens wird durch sie die Obergrenze für einen Antidumping-Zollsatz definiert, sofern es zu dessen Anwendung kommt. Die Methode zur Berechnung von Dumping-spannen ...

Die Berechnung der Dumpingspannen ist in Anti-dumpinguntersuchungen aus zwei Gründen von grund-legender Bedeutung: Erstens ist sie die Grundvoraus-setzung für die Einführung einer Antidumpingmaßnah-me; das Vorliegen von Dumping gilt dann als nachge-wiesen, wenn die Dumpingspanne über der Gering-fügigkeitsschwelle (d. h. über 2 %) liegt. Zweitens wird durch sie die Obergrenze für einen Antidumping-Zollsatz definiert, sofern es zu dessen Anwendung kommt. Die Methode zur Berechnung von Dumping-spannen unterscheidet sich je nachdem, ob das ausführende Land als Land mit Marktwirtschaft oder Nichtmarktwirtschaftsland gewertet wird. In dieser Ar-beit werden die Unterschiede betrachtet, die bei der Berechnung der Dumpingspannen und insbesondere der Normalwerte in Untersuchungen gegen Ausführer in einem Land mit Marktwirtschaft und gegen Ausfüh-rer in Nichtmarktwirtschaftsländern bestehen. Weiter-hin werden Unterschiede bei der Vorgehensweise gegenüber Nichtmarktwirtschaftsländern seitens der Europäischen Union und der Vereinigten Staaten be-trachtet und anhand empirischer Analysen wird unter-sucht, wie unterschiedliche Methoden in Untersuchun-gen gegen China angewendet werden. Abschließend werden die politischen Optionen betrachtet, die im Rahmen der für 2016 geplanten Änderung des Abschnitts 15 des Protokolls über den Beitritt Chinas zur Welthandelsorganisation vorgesehen sind.

New Trade Rules for China? Opportunities and Threats for the EU

23-02-2016

Paragraph (a) (ii) of Article 15 in China’s Accession Protocol to the WTO - which determines the basis on which dumping margins are calculated in Anti-dumping proceedings against China - is about to expire in December 2016. This ad hoc briefing aims to shed light on the economic and political implications that may arise for the EU from different strategies related to the treatment of China after this date, including the possibility of granting it market economy status. The study provides an economic ...

Paragraph (a) (ii) of Article 15 in China’s Accession Protocol to the WTO - which determines the basis on which dumping margins are calculated in Anti-dumping proceedings against China - is about to expire in December 2016. This ad hoc briefing aims to shed light on the economic and political implications that may arise for the EU from different strategies related to the treatment of China after this date, including the possibility of granting it market economy status. The study provides an economic, legal, as well as political overview of EU Anti-dumping regulation and compares it to that of China’s other main trading partners. It demonstrates that Anti-dumping constitutes a significant and frequently used trade defence instrument, although its use is extremely heterogeneous across countries and sectors. Even though market economy status is associated with lower Anti-dumping duties, granting it to China would not render the EU defenceless against dumping. Beyond first order effects on the magnitudes of AD duties, a unilateral decision will have much wider implications, both for the EU’s relations with China as well as with other countries, particularly the USA. These have to be taken into account in the decision making process. This ad hoc briefing can only be a first step towards a full understanding of the impacts of granting MES to China on EU trade policy and European welfare. The briefing illustrates that more research is required.

Externe Autor

Erdal YALCIN, Gabriel FELBERMAYR, Alexander SANDKAMP

Selected International Third-Country Tax-Governance Issues

13-10-2015

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on various key tax issues, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the TAXE Special Committee of the European Parliament. It examines some of the pressures that European countries will face over the coming decade as they move towards a more transparent tax environment and continue to push for better tax compliance and the impact on promoting good governance in third countries. The first part of this paper provides a brief overview of ...

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on various key tax issues, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the TAXE Special Committee of the European Parliament. It examines some of the pressures that European countries will face over the coming decade as they move towards a more transparent tax environment and continue to push for better tax compliance and the impact on promoting good governance in third countries. The first part of this paper provides a brief overview of some of the megatrends that will affect tax systems and then looks at some of the trends in tax levels and structures. This is followed by an examination of some of the challenges that EU tax policy makers facing and how EU governments are responding to these challenges.

Competition Policy: Delivering for Consumers, Proceedings of the Workshop

10-08-2015

Allowing consumers to have a fair share of the benefits resulting from effective competition is one of the targets of competition policy. Better quality and innovative products, more choice and lower prices are the most prominent practical results. However, distortion of competition by antitrust infringements or an inefficient enforcement of competition rules still causes consumer harm. This workshop aims to examine in which areas consumers actually benefit from competition and where there is still ...

Allowing consumers to have a fair share of the benefits resulting from effective competition is one of the targets of competition policy. Better quality and innovative products, more choice and lower prices are the most prominent practical results. However, distortion of competition by antitrust infringements or an inefficient enforcement of competition rules still causes consumer harm. This workshop aims to examine in which areas consumers actually benefit from competition and where there is still room for improvement. This workshop and the respective document were prepared by the Policy Department A at the request of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON).

Externe Autor

Frédéric JENNY, Peter FREEMAN and Isabelle BUSCKE

Cross Competition among Information (Digital) Platforms

09-06-2015

The workshop, prepared by Policy Department A for the ITRE committee, addressed the questions “should we avoid global information monopolies, and what place for European platforms?” It concludes that it is unclear how dominant large digital platforms actually are. Markets are often contestable due to dynamic competition for the market. Policy should focus on paving the way for European champions and there is a need for revising non-digital policies governing traditional industries in order to remove ...

The workshop, prepared by Policy Department A for the ITRE committee, addressed the questions “should we avoid global information monopolies, and what place for European platforms?” It concludes that it is unclear how dominant large digital platforms actually are. Markets are often contestable due to dynamic competition for the market. Policy should focus on paving the way for European champions and there is a need for revising non-digital policies governing traditional industries in order to remove barriers for enterprises to adapt to new realities.

European film in the digital era

20-04-2015

The fast pace of technological change is creating both challenges and opportunities for the film industry, notably in terms of distribution via new release channels (video on demand, downloading, streaming) and release windows (release chronology), and resulting changes in audience behaviour. New business models also raise questions over copyright for access to content.

The fast pace of technological change is creating both challenges and opportunities for the film industry, notably in terms of distribution via new release channels (video on demand, downloading, streaming) and release windows (release chronology), and resulting changes in audience behaviour. New business models also raise questions over copyright for access to content.

The Echelon Affair: The EP and the global interception system 1998 - 2002

04-11-2014

During the second half of the 1990s press and media reports revealed the existence of the Echelon network. This system for intercepting private and economic communications was developed and managed by the states that had signed the UKUSA and was characterised by its powers and the range of communications targeted: surveillance was directed against not only military organisations and installations but also governments, international organisations and companies throughout the world. This study recounts ...

During the second half of the 1990s press and media reports revealed the existence of the Echelon network. This system for intercepting private and economic communications was developed and managed by the states that had signed the UKUSA and was characterised by its powers and the range of communications targeted: surveillance was directed against not only military organisations and installations but also governments, international organisations and companies throughout the world. This study recounts the uncovering of the network, notably through the STOA investigations, questions by MEPs, debates in plenary, the setting up of a temporary committee and the final position adopted by the European Parliament. It also takes account of statements by researchers and journalists on the technical aspects and legal implications of the Echelon network. Finally, it considers the views of the political groups in the European Parliament and of the Commission and Council. Fifteen years after the events, The Echelon Affair draws on the European Parliament’s archives to describe and analyse a worldwide scandal which had an impact on the history of Parliament and which today is echoed in the revelations of Edward Snowden and Julian Assange and in other cases of spying on a grand scale.

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