12

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What if policy anticipated advances in science and technology?

26-06-2019

What if blockchain revolutionised voting? What if your emotions were tracked to spy on you? And what if we genetically engineered an entire species? Science and policy are intricately connected. Via monthly 'What if' publications, the Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA; part of the European Parliamentary Research Service) draws Members of the European Parliament's attention to new scientific and technological developments relevant for policy-making. The unit also provides administrative support to the ...

What if blockchain revolutionised voting? What if your emotions were tracked to spy on you? And what if we genetically engineered an entire species? Science and policy are intricately connected. Via monthly 'What if' publications, the Scientific Foresight Unit (STOA; part of the European Parliamentary Research Service) draws Members of the European Parliament's attention to new scientific and technological developments relevant for policy-making. The unit also provides administrative support to the Panel for the Future of Science and Technology (STOA), which brings together 25 Members from nine different parliamentary committees who share a strong interest in science and technology in the context of policy-making.

Boosting cooperation on health technology assessment

15-04-2019

The European Commission has proposed a regulation on health technology assessment (HTA). HTA is a research-based tool that supports decision-making in healthcare by assessing the added value of a given health technology compared to others. The proposal would provide the basis for permanent EU-level cooperation in four areas. Member States would still be responsible for assessing the non-clinical (economic, ethical, social, etc.) aspects of health technology, and for pricing and reimbursement. While ...

The European Commission has proposed a regulation on health technology assessment (HTA). HTA is a research-based tool that supports decision-making in healthcare by assessing the added value of a given health technology compared to others. The proposal would provide the basis for permanent EU-level cooperation in four areas. Member States would still be responsible for assessing the non-clinical (economic, ethical, social, etc.) aspects of health technology, and for pricing and reimbursement. While Member States could choose to delay participation in the joint work until three years after the rules enter into force, it would become mandatory after six years. Stakeholders have broadly welcomed the proposal. National parliaments, however, are divided in their appreciation of it. The Council has not yet agreed its position; technical discussions continue. Parliament's Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety adopted its report on 13 September 2018, and the report was voted in plenary on 3 October. However, with interinstitutional trilogue negotiations unable to start, on the Council side, Parliament adopted its final position at first reading on 14 February 2019.

Strengthening EU cooperation on health technology assessment

18-06-2018

The impact assessment (IA) accompanying the Commission proposal on strengthening EU cooperation on Health Technology Assessment clearly defines the problem, as well as the general and specific objectives. However, the IA does not appear to have succeeded in presenting a very convincing range of options. The analysis of impacts focuses on the economic dimension, which is consistent with the manner in which the problems have been defined. In light of the reported concentration of SMEs in the medical ...

The impact assessment (IA) accompanying the Commission proposal on strengthening EU cooperation on Health Technology Assessment clearly defines the problem, as well as the general and specific objectives. However, the IA does not appear to have succeeded in presenting a very convincing range of options. The analysis of impacts focuses on the economic dimension, which is consistent with the manner in which the problems have been defined. In light of the reported concentration of SMEs in the medical technologies sector (95 %), more emphasis could have been put on analysing the impacts of the retained options on them. The stakeholders' views have been illustrated in a satisfactory way. The evidence included or referenced in the IA is copious and up to date. The IA appears to have addressed most of the RSB's recommendations. Finally, the legislative proposal appears to be consistent with the analysis carried out in the IA.

Untersuchunk für den TRAN-Ausschuss - Selbstfahrende Autos: die Zukunft des Strassenverkehrs?

15-03-2016

Selbstfahrende Autos haben das Potenzial, zur Gestaltung eines neuen Mobilitätsszenarios beizutragen, in dem nachhaltigere Verkehrslösungen an die Stelle des traditionellen Paradigmas des Autoeigentums/der Autonutzung treten. Allerdings sind auch ungünstige Entwicklungen denkbar, wenn z. B. die Marktdiffusion automatisierter Fahrzeuge letztendlich nur zu einem Anstieg des privaten Mobilitätsbedürfnisses und der damit zusammenhängenden negativen externen Effekte führen würde. Europäische, nationale ...

Selbstfahrende Autos haben das Potenzial, zur Gestaltung eines neuen Mobilitätsszenarios beizutragen, in dem nachhaltigere Verkehrslösungen an die Stelle des traditionellen Paradigmas des Autoeigentums/der Autonutzung treten. Allerdings sind auch ungünstige Entwicklungen denkbar, wenn z. B. die Marktdiffusion automatisierter Fahrzeuge letztendlich nur zu einem Anstieg des privaten Mobilitätsbedürfnisses und der damit zusammenhängenden negativen externen Effekte führen würde. Europäische, nationale und lokale Behörden sollten die Entwicklung automatisierter Verkehrssysteme unterstützen bzw. koordinieren, um darauf hinzuwirken, dass durch vernetzte und hochautomatisierte Fahrzeuge das Ziel erreicht wird, die externen Effekte des Straßenverkehrs zu reduzieren.

Externe Autor

Roberta Frisoni, Andrea Dall’Oglio, Craig Nelson, James Long, Christoph Vollath, Davide Ranghetti and Sarah McMinimy

Scientific advice for policy-makers in the European Union

19-06-2015

Scientific knowledge has become a key element in the policy-making process, alongside societal values and political considerations. As a consequence, stronger science advice systems have been developed to provide timely and useful scientific advice to policy-makers in both legislative and executive bodies. Such systems for the provision of advice integrate various institutions and structures in order to address adequately the specific needs of policy-makers: providing strong scientific expertise ...

Scientific knowledge has become a key element in the policy-making process, alongside societal values and political considerations. As a consequence, stronger science advice systems have been developed to provide timely and useful scientific advice to policy-makers in both legislative and executive bodies. Such systems for the provision of advice integrate various institutions and structures in order to address adequately the specific needs of policy-makers: providing strong scientific expertise in an accessible format; informing the development of long-term policies as well as providing advice during emergencies and crises; and providing advice proactively through foresight activities and reactively at the request of policy-makers. Global challenges put additional pressure on science advice systems, requiring them to address issues that are both multidisciplinary and multijurisdictional. The improvement of cooperation between science advisory bodies across geo-political borders has been recognised. Experts also call for the definition of common guidelines and principles for the production of science advice. In the European Union, systems are evolving at national level as well as in the EU institutions. Following the abolition of the position of Chief Scientific Adviser to the President of the European Commission in 2014, a new Science Advice Mechanism (SAM) consisting of a 'High Level Group' and a unit in DG Research is expected to be established in Autumn 2015. The SAM aims to improve the coordination of the science advice system within the European Commission and the interaction with the science advice systems of Member States.

The Echelon Affair: The EP and the global interception system 1998 - 2002

04-11-2014

During the second half of the 1990s press and media reports revealed the existence of the Echelon network. This system for intercepting private and economic communications was developed and managed by the states that had signed the UKUSA and was characterised by its powers and the range of communications targeted: surveillance was directed against not only military organisations and installations but also governments, international organisations and companies throughout the world. This study recounts ...

During the second half of the 1990s press and media reports revealed the existence of the Echelon network. This system for intercepting private and economic communications was developed and managed by the states that had signed the UKUSA and was characterised by its powers and the range of communications targeted: surveillance was directed against not only military organisations and installations but also governments, international organisations and companies throughout the world. This study recounts the uncovering of the network, notably through the STOA investigations, questions by MEPs, debates in plenary, the setting up of a temporary committee and the final position adopted by the European Parliament. It also takes account of statements by researchers and journalists on the technical aspects and legal implications of the Echelon network. Finally, it considers the views of the political groups in the European Parliament and of the Commission and Council. Fifteen years after the events, The Echelon Affair draws on the European Parliament’s archives to describe and analyse a worldwide scandal which had an impact on the history of Parliament and which today is echoed in the revelations of Edward Snowden and Julian Assange and in other cases of spying on a grand scale.

Messung wissenschaftlicher Leistungen für bessere Politikgestaltung

15-04-2014

In dieser Studie soll vor allem untersucht werden, inwieweit die Schaffung eines grenzüberscheitenden Systems für die Erhebung und Überwachung von Daten zur Forschungsleistung (bezüglich Aufwand, Leistung und Produktivität) wünschenswert und möglich ist, durch die die Politikgestaltung verbessert und zur Ermittlung der entsprechenden forschungspolitischen Optionen beigetragen werden soll. Dazu gehen wir auf die zentralen politischen Zielsetzungen ein, d. h. auf die wesentlichen Gründe dafür, dass ...

In dieser Studie soll vor allem untersucht werden, inwieweit die Schaffung eines grenzüberscheitenden Systems für die Erhebung und Überwachung von Daten zur Forschungsleistung (bezüglich Aufwand, Leistung und Produktivität) wünschenswert und möglich ist, durch die die Politikgestaltung verbessert und zur Ermittlung der entsprechenden forschungspolitischen Optionen beigetragen werden soll. Dazu gehen wir auf die zentralen politischen Zielsetzungen ein, d. h. auf die wesentlichen Gründe dafür, dass der Druck, die Forschung in Europa zu überwachen und ihre Leistung zu messen, zunimmt, worin sich letztlich der Wunsches nach einem umfassenderen gemeinsamen Verständnis nicht nur der Leistung, sondern auch der Wirkung und Auswirkungen von Forschung ausdrückt. Wir widmen uns zudem den derzeitigen Konzepten zur Erfassung strategischer Informationen und zur Bewertung der Forschungsleistung in Europa und auf einzelstaatlicher Ebene sowie den damit verbundenen Vorteilen und Problemen.

Externe Autor

Bea Mahieu, Erik Arnold and Peter Kolarz

Der europäische elektronische Mautdienst

15-04-2014

Die vorliegende Studie wurde erstellt, um die aktuellen und zukünftigen technologischen Möglichkeiten für den europäischen elektronischen Mautdienst zu überprüfen. Sie umfasst eine Behandlung der Stärken und Schwächen der sechs derzeit bestehenden technischen Lösungen. Es werden außerdem laufende technologische Entwicklungen und das weitere Vorgehen der Europäischen Union bewertet.

Die vorliegende Studie wurde erstellt, um die aktuellen und zukünftigen technologischen Möglichkeiten für den europäischen elektronischen Mautdienst zu überprüfen. Sie umfasst eine Behandlung der Stärken und Schwächen der sechs derzeit bestehenden technischen Lösungen. Es werden außerdem laufende technologische Entwicklungen und das weitere Vorgehen der Europäischen Union bewertet.

Externe Autor

Francesco Dionori, Lucia Manzi and Roberta Frisoni (Steer Davies Gleave) ; José Manuel Vassallo, Juan Gómez Sánchez and Leticia Orozco Rendueles (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain) ; José Luis Pérez Iturriaga ; Nick Patchett (Pillar Strategy)

ITER, Fusion Energy and European Energy Scenarios

16-05-2011

The aim of the workshop was to present the future energy scenarios in Europe beyond 2050 with a focus on fusion energy including ITER and alternative approaches. The invited speakers explored European and global energy supply needs and its forecasts as well as the main features of the ITER nuclear fusion research project, its technological capacities, potential and limits, and its environmental impact. The workshop was organised in view of a joint delegation of the Committees on Budgets and on Budgetary ...

The aim of the workshop was to present the future energy scenarios in Europe beyond 2050 with a focus on fusion energy including ITER and alternative approaches. The invited speakers explored European and global energy supply needs and its forecasts as well as the main features of the ITER nuclear fusion research project, its technological capacities, potential and limits, and its environmental impact. The workshop was organised in view of a joint delegation of the Committees on Budgets and on Budgetary Control to the ITER site Cadarache, France, in May 2011.

Externe Autor

Jean-Marie Brom, Sibylle Günter and Werner Zittel

Workshop „Bewertung des Potenzials und Förderung von Technologien der neuen Generation im Bereich erneuerbare Energien“ - Brüssel, 22. März 2011

15-03-2011

Ziel des Workshops war es, das Potenzial für die Entwicklung und den Einsatz neuer Technologien für erneuerbare Energien in den Bereichen Solarenergie, Meeresenergie und Geothermik zu bewerten. Die Gastredner sondierten die wichtigsten Merkmale dieser Technologien, ihre technologischen Kapazitäten, ihr Potenzial und ihre Grenzen sowie ihre Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt. Darüber hinaus erörterten sie die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Sektors unter Berücksichtigung der Kapitalkosten und der Stromerzeugungskosten ...

Ziel des Workshops war es, das Potenzial für die Entwicklung und den Einsatz neuer Technologien für erneuerbare Energien in den Bereichen Solarenergie, Meeresenergie und Geothermik zu bewerten. Die Gastredner sondierten die wichtigsten Merkmale dieser Technologien, ihre technologischen Kapazitäten, ihr Potenzial und ihre Grenzen sowie ihre Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt. Darüber hinaus erörterten sie die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Sektors unter Berücksichtigung der Kapitalkosten und der Stromerzeugungskosten.

Externe Autor

Milou Beerepoot (Renewable Energy Division, International Energy Agency - IEA), Ruggero Bertani (Geothermal Business Development, Enel S.p.A.), Anthony Brenninkmeijer (HINICIO), Max Carcas (Pelamis Wave Power, Edinburgh), Luis Crespo (Protermosolar, Spain), Antonio Falcão (Technical University of Lisbon) and Arnulf Jäger-Waldau (EC Joint Research Centre, Ispra)

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