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Recent trends in female employment

27-10-2020

Statistics and research results show that in recent decades, before the coronavirus pandemic, the EU's labour market witnessed an increase in female employment rates. Women's employment seems to have been more resilient than men's to the economic and financial crisis in 2008. This was due in part to long-term developments and changes in the institutional framework, but also to women's tendency to work in particular sectors and accept flexible working arrangements (such as part-time work or teleworking ...

Statistics and research results show that in recent decades, before the coronavirus pandemic, the EU's labour market witnessed an increase in female employment rates. Women's employment seems to have been more resilient than men's to the economic and financial crisis in 2008. This was due in part to long-term developments and changes in the institutional framework, but also to women's tendency to work in particular sectors and accept flexible working arrangements (such as part-time work or teleworking). The coronavirus crisis, however, has had a harsher impact on women than on men when it comes to the labour market. One of the main reasons is that men tend more to work in sectors considered as essential economic activities (with the exception of healthcare), whereas women's work often involves contact with customers and clients, making teleworking impossible. Women have also been faced with increased childcare needs, reducing their ability to work, while enjoying a lower level of social protection owing to their working arrangements. Although EU legislation takes account of the situation of women in the labour market, and a number of legislative and non-legislative initiatives have recently been taken at EU level, a number of challenges remain. Areas where action is required include: the harmonisation of retirement schemes, to take the specific nature of women's careers into account; better reconciliation of work and family life by means of more flexible employment arrangements; and action to address the perennial gender pay gap. This is an update of an earlier briefing on Trends in female employment, from October 2015, PE 569.049.

Women in parliaments

18-12-2019

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the EP elections in May 2019. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous ...

This 'Women in parliaments' infographic provides information on the proportion of women in national parliaments, compares representation of women in national parliaments with their numbers in the European Parliament and shows the number of women in the EP by political group. It also gives an overview of female representatives in the EP by Member State and outlines the gender quotas applicable to the EP elections in May 2019. This is a further updated version of an infographic of which the previous edition was published in February 2019.

Externe Autor

CHAHRI, Samy

The professional status of rural women in the EU

27-05-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, gives an overview of the professional status of rural women in the EU, as well as their employment situation and position in the labour market in rural areas in most relevant Member States. The study provides identification of the best practices implemented in the Member States and concludes with policy recommendations on the improvement of ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, gives an overview of the professional status of rural women in the EU, as well as their employment situation and position in the labour market in rural areas in most relevant Member States. The study provides identification of the best practices implemented in the Member States and concludes with policy recommendations on the improvement of the employment situation and legal status of women living in rural areas of the EU.

Externe Autor

Ramona FRANIĆ, Tihana KOVAČIĆEK

Women, Gender Equality and the Energy Transition in the EU

03-05-2019

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, examines the evidence on the role of women in the energy transition in the European Union and the extent of gender equality in the process particularly in respect of the renewable energy sector. The study identifies gender inequalities preventing women from the involvement in the energy transition and career advancement in this area and assesses ...

This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the FEMM Committee, examines the evidence on the role of women in the energy transition in the European Union and the extent of gender equality in the process particularly in respect of the renewable energy sector. The study identifies gender inequalities preventing women from the involvement in the energy transition and career advancement in this area and assesses how the transfer to the sustainable energy model will affect gender equality and the role of women as actors of change. It provides best practices in overcoming the barriers to gender equality in the energy transition and concludes with recommendations to the EU and national decision makers.

Externe Autor

Joy CLANCY; Marielle FEENSTRA

Women in CSDP missions

06-12-2017

Promoting women’s participation in CSDP missions and operations is important to sustain EU’s credibility, to improve effectiveness, to promote equality at home and abroad, to increase the talent pool for personnel, and to make the best use of our financial resources. More needs to be done by both member states and the EU to fulfil promises to implement the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. This report looks at three issues that contribute to more inclusion ...

Promoting women’s participation in CSDP missions and operations is important to sustain EU’s credibility, to improve effectiveness, to promote equality at home and abroad, to increase the talent pool for personnel, and to make the best use of our financial resources. More needs to be done by both member states and the EU to fulfil promises to implement the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security. This report looks at three issues that contribute to more inclusion and better effectiveness: First, the structures that promote equality in the security sector institutions within the EU; second, the effects of women’s participation in missions and operations; third, how CSDP structures and EU member states policies could be further adapted to create a working environment that is conducive to both men and women contributing their full potential to better solutions to security challenges. Political commitment and hands-on leadership by the EU and its Member States is key to more diversity and inclusivity in CSDP structures. A pro-active approach to recruitment and retention of female staff, adapted job-descriptions, comprehensive family policies, and employing an approach that values diversity and creates a positive work environment are all necessary in this regard.

Externe Autor

WIIS, Women in International Security Brussels, Belgium

Tunisia: Progress achieved and prospects for the social dimension

30-11-2017

In 2011, following the outbreak of protests – known as the Jasmine Revolution – which toppled President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's regime, Tunisia embarked on a path to democratic transition and socio-economic transformation, emulating the reforms and governance practices of established liberal democracies. Nearly eight years on, the country has made significant progress, including in the social sphere, and has emerged as a regional leader in institutional reform. However, to avoid jeopardising the ...

In 2011, following the outbreak of protests – known as the Jasmine Revolution – which toppled President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's regime, Tunisia embarked on a path to democratic transition and socio-economic transformation, emulating the reforms and governance practices of established liberal democracies. Nearly eight years on, the country has made significant progress, including in the social sphere, and has emerged as a regional leader in institutional reform. However, to avoid jeopardising the stability and progress achieved, further reforms are needed.

Armut, Geschlecht und Lebenszyklus: Armutsprofile in der Europäischen Union

30-11-2017

2015 ist fast jeder Vierte (23,8 %) in der Europäischen Union von Armut oder sozialer Ausgrenzung bedroht. Die Lebensbedingungen, der Grad der Armut und die Wege in und aus der Armut unterscheiden sich abhängig vom Alter und vom Geschlecht, aber auch während des gesamten Lebenszyklus. Kinder sind in Europa die am stärksten betroffene Altersgruppe, junge Erwachsene zwischen 18 und 24 Jahren haben in der Union derzeit einen Anteil von 10 % an den von Armut und sozialer Ausgrenzung bedrohten Personen ...

2015 ist fast jeder Vierte (23,8 %) in der Europäischen Union von Armut oder sozialer Ausgrenzung bedroht. Die Lebensbedingungen, der Grad der Armut und die Wege in und aus der Armut unterscheiden sich abhängig vom Alter und vom Geschlecht, aber auch während des gesamten Lebenszyklus. Kinder sind in Europa die am stärksten betroffene Altersgruppe, junge Erwachsene zwischen 18 und 24 Jahren haben in der Union derzeit einen Anteil von 10 % an den von Armut und sozialer Ausgrenzung bedrohten Personen. In diesem Alter fällt der Geschlechterunterschied geringer aus, bei älteren Menschen ist er größer. Das Lebensumfeld hängt heute sehr stark vom Geschlecht, der familiären und/oder der beruflichen Situation ab. Frauen, Einelternfamilien, kinderreiche Familien oder arme Erwerbstätige sind in dieser Phase ihres Lebens stärker von Armut oder sozialer Ausgrenzung bedroht. Ältere Menschen schließlich sind im Durchschnitt am wenigsten von Armut betroffen, gehören gleichzeitig aber zu den am stärksten gefährdeten Gruppen, wenn es sich um ältere Frauen handelt.

Saudi Arabia: Economic indicators and trade with EU

22-11-2017

The EU is Saudi Arabia's first trading partner in goods, with 16.3 % of Saudi Arabia’s global trade, followed by China with 14.1 % and the US with 11.8 %. Saudi Arabia is the EU's 15th trading partner in goods, with an EU market share of 1.5 %. The trade balance is positive for the EU, as this infographic illustrates. Trade between the EU and Saudi Arabia takes place within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia and the United ...

The EU is Saudi Arabia's first trading partner in goods, with 16.3 % of Saudi Arabia’s global trade, followed by China with 14.1 % and the US with 11.8 %. Saudi Arabia is the EU's 15th trading partner in goods, with an EU market share of 1.5 %. The trade balance is positive for the EU, as this infographic illustrates. Trade between the EU and Saudi Arabia takes place within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The GCC countries formed their own customs union on 1 January 2015. The EU exports a wide range of goods and services to the region; however, around 50 % of the EU's exported goods to the GCC are machinery, including power generation plants, railway locomotives, aircrafts, electrical machinery and mechanical appliances. Meanwhile, approximately 70 % of all EU imports from the GCC consist of fuels and their derivatives. Following a reliance on oil revenues for about 90% of its budget in recent years, Saudi Arabia has embarked on an ambitious plan to restructure its oil-dependent economy, known as Vision 2030, involving diversification, privatisation, tax increases and subsidy cuts. Saudi Arabia has significant defence relationships with a rising number of EU Member States, primarily driven by the trade in arms (and often also related contracts for training and maintenance).

Differences in Men's and Women's Work, Care and Leisure Time

15-03-2016

The economic crisis has profoundly affected the labour market and private life of men and women. This study examines the interrelation of policies with the ways women and men allocate time to paid work, care and leisure and the gendered outcomes produced in different socio-economic and cultural settings. It shows that policies are powerful tools which contribute to a better work-life balance and transform gender roles in accordance to the targets of EU2020 strategy and EU28 commitment to gender equality ...

The economic crisis has profoundly affected the labour market and private life of men and women. This study examines the interrelation of policies with the ways women and men allocate time to paid work, care and leisure and the gendered outcomes produced in different socio-economic and cultural settings. It shows that policies are powerful tools which contribute to a better work-life balance and transform gender roles in accordance to the targets of EU2020 strategy and EU28 commitment to gender equality.

Externe Autor

Konstantina DAVAKI (Department of Social Policy, London School of Economics and Political Science, the UK)

Gender balance on company boards

30-11-2015

In line with the Commission's increased emphasis on improving gender equality in leadership positions, and after unsuccessful calls for voluntary measures, in 2012 the Commission proposed a directive aimed at increasing female presence on company boards. Despite support from the European Parliament and efforts by several Council presidencies, this proposal has not yet been adopted. On 7 December, the Council is due again to discuss the topic.

In line with the Commission's increased emphasis on improving gender equality in leadership positions, and after unsuccessful calls for voluntary measures, in 2012 the Commission proposed a directive aimed at increasing female presence on company boards. Despite support from the European Parliament and efforts by several Council presidencies, this proposal has not yet been adopted. On 7 December, the Council is due again to discuss the topic.

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The impact of Brexit on the level playing field in the area of taxation
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