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Artificial intelligence in transport: Current and future developments, opportunities and challenges

27-03-2019

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities ...

Artificial intelligence is changing the transport sector. From helping cars, trains, ships and aeroplanes to function autonomously, to making traffic flows smoother, it is already applied in numerous transport fields. Beyond making our lives easier, it can help to make all transport modes safer, cleaner, smarter and more efficient. Artificial intelligence-led autonomous transport could for instance help to reduce the human errors that are involved in many traffic accidents. However, with these opportunities come real challenges, including unintended consequences and misuse such as cyber-attacks and biased decisions about transport. There are also ramifications for employment, and ethical questions regarding liability for the decisions taken by artificial intelligence in the place of humans. The EU is taking steps to adapt its regulatory framework to these developments, so that it supports innovation while at the same time ensuring respect for fundamental values and rights. The measures already taken include general strategies on artificial intelligence and rules that support the technologies enabling the application of artificial intelligence in transport. In addition, the EU provides financial support, in particular for research.

Piraterie und bewaffnete Raubüberfälle vor der Küste Afrikas: Auswirkungen auf die EU und weltweit

19-03-2019

Die maritime Sicherheit Afrikas wird durch eine Vielzahl illegaler Aktivitäten gefährdet. Im Vordergrund dieser Studie stehen Piraterie und bewaffnete Raubüberfälle auf See, wobei die rechtlichen Aspekte und gesell¬schaft¬lichen Auswirkungen dieser Formen von Gewalt unter¬sucht werden. Piraterie und bewaffnete Raub¬über¬fälle vor der Küste Afrikas stellen auch eine Bedro¬hung für die Sicherheit und Wirtschaft der Europäischen Union dar. Seit 2008 verfolgt die Europäische Union mittels verschiedener ...

Die maritime Sicherheit Afrikas wird durch eine Vielzahl illegaler Aktivitäten gefährdet. Im Vordergrund dieser Studie stehen Piraterie und bewaffnete Raubüberfälle auf See, wobei die rechtlichen Aspekte und gesell¬schaft¬lichen Auswirkungen dieser Formen von Gewalt unter¬sucht werden. Piraterie und bewaffnete Raub¬über¬fälle vor der Küste Afrikas stellen auch eine Bedro¬hung für die Sicherheit und Wirtschaft der Europäischen Union dar. Seit 2008 verfolgt die Europäische Union mittels verschiedener regionaler Strategien im Golf von Aden und Golf von Guinea eine Strategie für maritime Sicherheit (EUMSS).

The first climate change strategy for shipping

18-05-2018

Not covered by the 2015 Paris Agreement, international shipping is now joining efforts to tackle climate change. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), a body of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), closed its 72nd session on 13 April 2018 with the adoption of an initial strategy to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping, setting clear emission reduction targets for the first time.

Not covered by the 2015 Paris Agreement, international shipping is now joining efforts to tackle climate change. The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), a body of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), closed its 72nd session on 13 April 2018 with the adoption of an initial strategy to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping, setting clear emission reduction targets for the first time.

Challenges to Freedom of the Seas and Maritime Rivalry in Asia

14-03-2017

China’s New Maritime Silk Road policy poses geostrategic challenges and offers some opportunities for the US and its allies in Asia-Pacific. To offset China’s westward focus, the US seeks to create a global alliance strategy with the aim to maintain a balance of power in Eurasia, to avoid a strong Russia-China or China-EU partnership fostered on economic cooperation. For the EU, the ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative by improving infrastructure may contribute to economic development in neighbouring ...

China’s New Maritime Silk Road policy poses geostrategic challenges and offers some opportunities for the US and its allies in Asia-Pacific. To offset China’s westward focus, the US seeks to create a global alliance strategy with the aim to maintain a balance of power in Eurasia, to avoid a strong Russia-China or China-EU partnership fostered on economic cooperation. For the EU, the ‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative by improving infrastructure may contribute to economic development in neighbouring countries and in Africa but present also risks in terms of unfair economic competition and increased Chinese domination. Furthermore, China’s behaviour in the South China Sea and rebuff of the ruling of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, in July 2016, put the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) at risk with possible consequences to freedom of the seas. Increasing relations with China could also affect EU-US relations at a time of China-US tension. To face these challenges, a stronger EU, taking more responsibility in Defence and Security, including inside NATO, is needed.

Externe Autor

Patrick HÉBRARD (Fondation pour la recherche stratégique - FRS, Paris, France)

China, the 16+1 cooperation format and the EU

01-03-2017

The 16+1 sub-regional cooperation format brings together China and 16 central and eastern European countries (CEECs), consisting of 11 EU Member States and five EU candidate countries. The format is controversial, given the concerns expressed about arrangements made under its umbrella being in conflict with EU law and about a perceived erosion of EU norms, values and unity. Nearly five years on from its creation, mutually satisfactory results still lag behind expectations.

The 16+1 sub-regional cooperation format brings together China and 16 central and eastern European countries (CEECs), consisting of 11 EU Member States and five EU candidate countries. The format is controversial, given the concerns expressed about arrangements made under its umbrella being in conflict with EU law and about a perceived erosion of EU norms, values and unity. Nearly five years on from its creation, mutually satisfactory results still lag behind expectations.

IMO: Reducing global emissions from shipping

16-11-2016

Although emissions from international aviation and shipping were not included in the Paris Agreement on climate change, separate emission negotiations have been under way in these sectors. When the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) – a body of the International Maritime Organization – met in London in October 2016 for its 70th session, its agenda featured two items concerning air pollution from ships. While the MEPC took a clear step towards cutting sulphur emissions, progress on curbing ...

Although emissions from international aviation and shipping were not included in the Paris Agreement on climate change, separate emission negotiations have been under way in these sectors. When the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) – a body of the International Maritime Organization – met in London in October 2016 for its 70th session, its agenda featured two items concerning air pollution from ships. While the MEPC took a clear step towards cutting sulphur emissions, progress on curbing global greenhouse gas emissions has been slower.

Key Issues at Stake at the 69th Session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 69)

15-04-2016

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be six times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. In 2011, the IMO adopted two efficiency measures to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) sets compulsory ...

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be six times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. In 2011, the IMO adopted two efficiency measures to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) sets compulsory energy efficiency standards for new ships built after 2013, and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) requires ships to develop a plan to monitor and possibly improve their energy efficiency; shipping was the first sector to set global efficiency standards; earlier efforts to establish a Market-based Mechanism (MBM) have not been successful to date and are still in limbo. The main issues at stake at MEPC 69 are the review of the EEDI target values, the potential adoption of a GHG data collection system and proposals for a work programme geared to determining a fair share for international shipping in global GHG mitigation efforts. Particularly the outcome of the latter will reveal the extent to which IMO Member States consider the Paris Agreement as a mandate to enhance GHG mitigation efforts under the IMO. It is recommended that the ENVI delegation use opportunities such as bilateral meetings with delegations from other countries, informal conversations or the side events to promote the adoption of an ambitious data collection system and to highlight the importance of a work programme geared to determining international shipping’s fair share in global GHG mitigation efforts.

The IMO – for 'safe, secure and efficient shipping on clean oceans'

15-02-2016

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations specialised agency responsible for regulating international shipping. Since 1959, when it met for the first time, the IMO's overarching objectives have been the improvement of maritime safety and the prevention of marine pollution, to which maritime security was added later. The organisation's functioning reflects the diverging interests of its 171 member states acting in diverse capacities as port, coastal and flag states on the ...

The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations specialised agency responsible for regulating international shipping. Since 1959, when it met for the first time, the IMO's overarching objectives have been the improvement of maritime safety and the prevention of marine pollution, to which maritime security was added later. The organisation's functioning reflects the diverging interests of its 171 member states acting in diverse capacities as port, coastal and flag states on the one hand, and as developed, developing or least developed states, on the other. The main legal instruments used by the IMO are conventions. Generally regarded as being of a high standard, the body of technical rules adopted through these conventions is widely accepted. In contrast, the IMO received criticism in 2015 for its approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, perceived as insufficient. While all EU Member States and the European Commission take part in IMO meetings, the EU has over the years developed and applied its own maritime legislation, which has on occasion stirred debate within the international shipping community. In 2015, the European Parliament sent its first-ever delegation to an IMO meeting. Furthermore, the Parliament added its voice to the international community calling on the IMO to step up action on reducing shipping emissions.

Verbesserung des Konzepts der „Meeresautobahnen“

15-12-2014

Diese Studie gibt einen Überblick über das Programm „Meeresautobahnen“ seit seiner Einführung. Auf der Grundlage der durchgeführten Studien wurden drei Haupthindernisse ermittelt. Diese Hindernisse betreffen folgende Punkte: 1) Interessenträger sind nicht ausreichend über das Programm informiert. 2) Nach Auslaufen der Projektfinanzierung mangelt es an Kontinuität. 3) Die Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Interessenträgern ist nicht immer optimal. In Kombination mit anderen Hindernissen bewirken diese ...

Diese Studie gibt einen Überblick über das Programm „Meeresautobahnen“ seit seiner Einführung. Auf der Grundlage der durchgeführten Studien wurden drei Haupthindernisse ermittelt. Diese Hindernisse betreffen folgende Punkte: 1) Interessenträger sind nicht ausreichend über das Programm informiert. 2) Nach Auslaufen der Projektfinanzierung mangelt es an Kontinuität. 3) Die Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Interessenträgern ist nicht immer optimal. In Kombination mit anderen Hindernissen bewirken diese drei Faktoren, dass die Auswirkungen des Programms geringer waren, als man hätte erwarten können. Daher wurden Empfehlungen und mögliche Szenarien für die Verbesserung des Konzepts der Meeresautobahnen formuliert.

Externe Autor

Karel Vanroye, Bas van Bree and Frank de Bruin (Buck Consultants International)

Hafendienste: Erste Bewertung einer Folgenabschätzung der Europäischen Kommission

08-11-2013

Im vorliegenden Dokument wird versucht, eine erste Bewertung der Stärken und Schwächen der Folgenabschätzung der Kommission durchzuführen, einer Begleitunterlage zum Vorschlag der Kommission für eine Verordnung des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zur Schaffung eines Rahmens für den Zugang zum Markt für Hafendienste und für die finanzielle Transparenz der Häfen (COM(2013)0296), die am 23. Mai 2013 eingereicht wurde. Es analysiert, ob die in den eigenen Leitlinien der Kommission zur Folgenabschätzung ...

Im vorliegenden Dokument wird versucht, eine erste Bewertung der Stärken und Schwächen der Folgenabschätzung der Kommission durchzuführen, einer Begleitunterlage zum Vorschlag der Kommission für eine Verordnung des Europäischen Parlaments und des Rates zur Schaffung eines Rahmens für den Zugang zum Markt für Hafendienste und für die finanzielle Transparenz der Häfen (COM(2013)0296), die am 23. Mai 2013 eingereicht wurde. Es analysiert, ob die in den eigenen Leitlinien der Kommission zur Folgenabschätzung festgelegten wichtigsten Kriterien sowie die vom Parlament in seinem Handbuch zur Folgenabschätzung identifizierten zusätzlichen Faktoren durch die Folgenabschätzung erfüllt werden. Es versucht nicht, sich mit dem Inhalt des Vorschlags zu befassen. Die Folgenabschätzung wird zur Bereitstellung allgemeiner Informationen und von Hintergrundinformation erstellt, um die jeweiligen Parlamentsausschüsse und Abgeordneten umfassender bei ihrer Arbeit zu unterstützen.

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