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Understanding EU counter-terrorism policy

14-01-2021

Faced with a persistent international terrorist threat, the European Union (EU) is playing an ever more ambitious role in counter-terrorism. Even though primary responsibility for combating crime and ensuring security lies with the Member States, the EU provides cooperation, coordination and (to some extent) harmonisation tools, as well as financial support, to address this borderless phenomenon. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as between ...

Faced with a persistent international terrorist threat, the European Union (EU) is playing an ever more ambitious role in counter-terrorism. Even though primary responsibility for combating crime and ensuring security lies with the Member States, the EU provides cooperation, coordination and (to some extent) harmonisation tools, as well as financial support, to address this borderless phenomenon. Moreover, the assumption that there is a connection between development and stability, as well as between internal and external security, has come to shape EU action beyond its own borders. EU spending in the area of counter-terrorism has increased over the years, to allow for better cooperation between national law enforcement authorities and enhanced support by the EU bodies in charge of security and justice, such as Europol, eu-LISA and Eurojust. The many new rules and instruments that have been adopted in recent years range from harmonising definitions of terrorist offences and sanctions, and sharing information and data, to protecting borders, countering terrorist financing, and regulating firearms. However, implementing and evaluating the various measures is a challenging task. The European Parliament has played an active role not only in shaping legislation, but also in evaluating existing tools and gaps through the work accomplished by its Special Committee on Terrorism (TERR) in 2018. In line with the Parliament's recommendations, as well as the priorities set by the new European Commission and its counter-terrorism agenda presented in December 2020, future EU counter-terrorism action will focus on better anticipating threats, countering radicalisation and reducing vulnerabilities, by making critical infrastructures more resilient and better protecting public spaces. Upcoming developments also include increased information-sharing, by means of better implementation and modernisation of existing tools, a reinforced mandate for Europol, as well as possible investigation and prosecution of terrorist crimes at EU level, through the proposed extension of the mandate of the recently established European Public Prosecutor's Office. This briefing builds on an earlier one, entitled 'The fight against terrorism', published in 2019.

Hetze und Hassverbrechen in der EU und die Evaluierung von Ansätzen zur Regulierung von Online-Inhalten

15-07-2020

Diese Studie wurde von der Fachabteilung Bürgerrechte und konstitutionelle Angelegenheiten des Europäischen Parlaments auf Ersuchen des Ausschusses für bürgerliche Freiheiten, Justiz und Inneres des Europäischen Parlaments in Auftrag gegeben In dieser Studie wird argumentiert, dass durch Hetze und Hassverbrechen Gesellschaften vergiftet werden, indem dadurch individuelle Rechte, die Menschenwürde und Gleichheit bedroht, Spannungen zwischen sozialen Gruppen verstärkt, der öffentliche Frieden und die ...

Diese Studie wurde von der Fachabteilung Bürgerrechte und konstitutionelle Angelegenheiten des Europäischen Parlaments auf Ersuchen des Ausschusses für bürgerliche Freiheiten, Justiz und Inneres des Europäischen Parlaments in Auftrag gegeben In dieser Studie wird argumentiert, dass durch Hetze und Hassverbrechen Gesellschaften vergiftet werden, indem dadurch individuelle Rechte, die Menschenwürde und Gleichheit bedroht, Spannungen zwischen sozialen Gruppen verstärkt, der öffentliche Frieden und die öffentliche Ordnung gestört und die friedliche Koexistenz gefährdet werden. Durch das Fehlen angemessener Mittel zur Prävention und Reaktion werden die in Artikel 2 des EUV verankerten Werte verletzt. Die Mitgliedstaaten haben unterschiedliche Regeln und die nationalen öffentlichen Verwaltungen sind durch Meinungsverschiedenheiten über Werte gespalten. Daher ist eine EU-Regelung erforderlich, um die bestehenden Standards zu stärken und Maßnahmen zu ergreifen, um Hetze entgegenzuwirken und gegen Hetze und Hassverbrechen vorzugehen. In der Studie – die auf der Grundlage eines länderübergreifenden Vergleichs erstellt wurde – werden konkrete, durchsetzbare und systematische Maßnahmen aus dem Bereich des nicht zwingenden und des zwingenden Rechts vorgeschlagen, um EU-weit effizient gegen Hetze und Hassverbrechen vorzugehen.

Externe Autor

Judit BAYER, Petra BÁRD

Coronavirus and the cost of non-Europe: An analysis of the economic benefits of common European action

11-05-2020

This EPRS paper focuses on the economic benefits of common action at European level and the risk involved if the current coronavirus crisis and its aftermath were to stall or reverse the process of European integration. It attempts to quantify the losses from: (i) any gradual dismantling of the EU project - where cautious estimates suggest that erosion of the EU single market alone would cost the European economy between 3.0 and 8.7 per cent of its collective GDP (this would be existing 'European ...

This EPRS paper focuses on the economic benefits of common action at European level and the risk involved if the current coronavirus crisis and its aftermath were to stall or reverse the process of European integration. It attempts to quantify the losses from: (i) any gradual dismantling of the EU project - where cautious estimates suggest that erosion of the EU single market alone would cost the European economy between 3.0 and 8.7 per cent of its collective GDP (this would be existing 'European added value' permanently lost); and (ii) a parallel failure to take advantage of the unexploited potential of collective public goods that have yet be achieved (this would be future GDP growth foregone). The latter 'cost of non-Europe' in 50 policy areas was identified by EPRS in 2019 as around 14 per cent of EU GDP by the end of a ten-year running-in period.

Europäische Grenz- und Küstenwache: Gefälschte und echte Dokumente online (FADO)

05-02-2020

2018 nahm die Kommission einen Vorschlag für eine neue Verordnung über die Europäische Grenz- und Küstenwache (Frontex) an. Neben vielen anderen Aspekten sieht der Vorschlag die Integration des Systems für gefälschte und echte Dokumente online (FADO) in den Rahmen der Europäischen Grenz- und Küstenwache vor. Die Mitgesetzgeber haben die neue Verordnung über die Europäische Grenz- und Küstenwache bereits angenommen, beschlossen jedoch, einen gesonderten Rechtsakt zu erlassen, um den Rechtsrahmen für ...

2018 nahm die Kommission einen Vorschlag für eine neue Verordnung über die Europäische Grenz- und Küstenwache (Frontex) an. Neben vielen anderen Aspekten sieht der Vorschlag die Integration des Systems für gefälschte und echte Dokumente online (FADO) in den Rahmen der Europäischen Grenz- und Küstenwache vor. Die Mitgesetzgeber haben die neue Verordnung über die Europäische Grenz- und Küstenwache bereits angenommen, beschlossen jedoch, einen gesonderten Rechtsakt zu erlassen, um den Rechtsrahmen für das FADO-System festzulegen. Das Europäische Parlament soll auf seiner Tagung im Februar über die mit dem Rat ausgehandelte Vereinbarung abstimmen.

Hearings of the Commissioners-designate: Ylva Johansson - Home Affairs

26-09-2019

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication ...

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication skills'. At the end of the hearings process, Parliament votes on the proposed Commission as a bloc, and under the Treaties may only reject the entire College of Commissioners, rather than individual candidates. The Briefing provides an overview of key issues in the portfolio areas, as well as Parliament's activity in the last term in that field. It also includes a brief introduction to the candidate.

Externe Autor

Théron, François

Use of financial data for preventing and combatting serious crime

19-07-2019

On 17 April 2018, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive intended to facilitate law enforcement authorities' access to and use of financial information held in other jurisdictions within the EU for investigations related to terrorism and other serious crime. The proposed directive would grant competent authorities direct access to bank account information contained in centralised registries set up in each Member State, according to the Fifth Anti-Money-Laundering Directive. The ...

On 17 April 2018, the European Commission adopted a proposal for a directive intended to facilitate law enforcement authorities' access to and use of financial information held in other jurisdictions within the EU for investigations related to terrorism and other serious crime. The proposed directive would grant competent authorities direct access to bank account information contained in centralised registries set up in each Member State, according to the Fifth Anti-Money-Laundering Directive. The proposal also aims to strengthen domestic and cross-border exchange of information between EU Member States' competent authorities, including law enforcement authorities and financial intelligence units, as well as with Europol. The provisional agreement reached in February 2019 in interinstitutional negotiations was adopted by the European Parliament on 17 April 2019, followed by the Council on 14 June. On 20 June 2019, the directive was signed into law and then published in the Official Journal on 11 July. Member States have until 1 August 2021 to transpose its provisions into national law.

Interoperability between EU border and security information systems

14-06-2019

To enhance EU external border management and internal security, the European Commission has made several proposals to upgrade and expand European border and security information systems. As part of a broader process to maximise their use, the Commission presented legislative proposals for two regulations in December 2017 (amended in June 2018), establishing an interoperability framework between EU information systems on borders and visas, and on police and judicial cooperation, asylum and migration ...

To enhance EU external border management and internal security, the European Commission has made several proposals to upgrade and expand European border and security information systems. As part of a broader process to maximise their use, the Commission presented legislative proposals for two regulations in December 2017 (amended in June 2018), establishing an interoperability framework between EU information systems on borders and visas, and on police and judicial cooperation, asylum and migration. After completion of the legislative procedure at first reading in the Parliament and in the Council, the final acts were signed by the co-legislators on 20 May 2019 and published in the Official Journal two days later. Both acts came into force on 11 June 2019. The new rules aim to improve checks at the EU’s external borders, allow for better detection of security threats and identity fraud, and help in preventing and combating irregular migration. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Area of freedom, security and justice: Cost of Non-Europe

08-05-2019

Substantial progress has been made since creating an area of freedom, security and justice became a major political objective for the EU 20 years ago. Still, there is a lack of consistent monitoring and enforcement of EU values and norms as well as outstanding gaps in the EU’s framework in certain areas. These deficiencies have a significant impact at individual level, notably in terms of preventing the effective exercise of fundamental rights by EU citizens and third country nationals alike. They ...

Substantial progress has been made since creating an area of freedom, security and justice became a major political objective for the EU 20 years ago. Still, there is a lack of consistent monitoring and enforcement of EU values and norms as well as outstanding gaps in the EU’s framework in certain areas. These deficiencies have a significant impact at individual level, notably in terms of preventing the effective exercise of fundamental rights by EU citizens and third country nationals alike. They also have a negative effect on budgetary spending, growth and tax revenue, which is estimated at at least €180 billion annually, with the lack of enforcement of EU values still to be assessed in more detail. Further EU action in four main areas: 1. monitoring and enforcement; 2. the creation of safe legal pathways for migrants and asylum seekers to enter the EU; 3. ingraining a European law enforcement culture; and 4. completing the Union’s fundamental rights framework, would have significant benefits. In particular, it could allow individuals to fully enjoy their fundamental rights and make EU society more secure, open, fair and prosperous. This would also foster trust in the EU on the basis of its ability to deliver on its aims

Die zehn Prioritäten der Kommission Juncker: Eine Bewertung zum Ende der Amtszeit

03-05-2019

Mit dieser Ausgabe von April 2019 wird der Zyklus der halb¬jährlichen Überwachung der zehn Prioritäten der Kom¬mission Juncker durch den Wissenschaftlichen Dienst des Europäischen Parlaments abgeschlossen. Nach der letzten Plenartagung des Zeitraums 2014-2019 und vor dem Ende der Amtszeit der Kommission enthält die vorliegende Veröffentlichung einen aktuel¬len Überblick über den derzeitigen Stand der geleis¬teten Arbeit in Bezug auf die verschiedenen legislativen und anderweitigen politischen Initiativen ...

Mit dieser Ausgabe von April 2019 wird der Zyklus der halb¬jährlichen Überwachung der zehn Prioritäten der Kom¬mission Juncker durch den Wissenschaftlichen Dienst des Europäischen Parlaments abgeschlossen. Nach der letzten Plenartagung des Zeitraums 2014-2019 und vor dem Ende der Amtszeit der Kommission enthält die vorliegende Veröffentlichung einen aktuel¬len Überblick über den derzeitigen Stand der geleis¬teten Arbeit in Bezug auf die verschiedenen legislativen und anderweitigen politischen Initiativen, die aus den von Präsident Jean-Claude Juncker zum Zeitpunkt des Amtsantritts der Kommission im Jahr 2014 festgelegten zehn Prioritäten abgeleitet wurden. Aus der Analyse geht hervor, dass von den 547 von der Kom¬mission vorgesehenen Vorschlägen 512 vorgelegt wur¬den (94 %), von denen 361 angenommen wur¬den (66 %). Es gibt 151 Vorschläge (28 %), die noch nicht an¬ge¬nommen wurden und bei denen das Ergebnis von dem Übergang in den neu¬en institutionellen Zyklus der EU in diesem Jahr abhän-gen kann. Von diesen Vorschlä¬gen haben 115 (21 %) den Legislativprozess ordnungs¬gemäß durch¬laufen; bei 36 Vorschlägen (7 %) wurden ent¬we¬der nur lang-sa¬me Fortschritte verzeichnet oder aber sie wurden blockiert. Am Vorabend der Europawahl 2019 soll mit dieser Studie sowohl bewertet werden, inwieweit die Kommission Juncker die von ihr selbst gesteckten Ziele erreicht hat, als auch Kenntnis von dem bislang Erreichten genom¬men und Bereiche ermittelt werden, in denen sich Schwierigkeiten eingestellt haben oder weiterhin einstellen.

Victims of terrorism

01-03-2019

The European Day of Remembrance of Victims of Terrorism has been established as 11 March each year, marking the Madrid bombings in 2004. The protection of victims of terrorism constitutes an essential part of the EU’s action to address all dimensions of the terrorist threat. Following the wave of terror that has hit Europe in recent years, rules and sanctions related to terrorist activities have been strengthened, while better protection and support to victims of terrorism is being ensured through ...

The European Day of Remembrance of Victims of Terrorism has been established as 11 March each year, marking the Madrid bombings in 2004. The protection of victims of terrorism constitutes an essential part of the EU’s action to address all dimensions of the terrorist threat. Following the wave of terror that has hit Europe in recent years, rules and sanctions related to terrorist activities have been strengthened, while better protection and support to victims of terrorism is being ensured through action at EU level.

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