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CO2 emission standards for heavy-duty vehicles

09-04-2019

In May 2018, the Commission proposed a regulation setting the first-ever CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles in the EU, as part of the third mobility package. It would require the average CO2 emissions from new trucks in 2025 to be 15 % lower than in 2019. For 2030, the proposal sets an indicative reduction target of at least 30 % compared to 2019. Special incentives are provided for zero- and low-emission vehicles. The proposed regulation applies to four categories of ...

In May 2018, the Commission proposed a regulation setting the first-ever CO2 emission performance standards for new heavy-duty vehicles in the EU, as part of the third mobility package. It would require the average CO2 emissions from new trucks in 2025 to be 15 % lower than in 2019. For 2030, the proposal sets an indicative reduction target of at least 30 % compared to 2019. Special incentives are provided for zero- and low-emission vehicles. The proposed regulation applies to four categories of large trucks, which together account for 65 %-70 % of CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles. The Commission proposes to review the legislation in 2022 in order to set a binding target for 2030, and to extend its application to smaller trucks, buses, coaches and trailers. In the European Parliament, the proposal was referred to the Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, which adopted its report on 18 October 2018. Parliament voted on the report on 14 November 2018. Trilogue negotiations were concluded on 18 February 2019 with an agreement that sets a legally binding 30 % reduction target for the average fleet emissions of new trucks by 2030. The Parliament is expected to vote on the agreed text during the April II plenary session. Third edition. The 'EU Legislation in Progress' briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure.

Effort sharing regulation, 2021-2030: Limiting Member States' carbon emissions

19-07-2018

In July 2016, the European Commission presented a proposal for a regulation to limit post-2020 national emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system (ETS). These include transport, buildings and agriculture. The proposed regulation would be the successor of the Effort Sharing Decision that sets annual national GHG emission limits for the period 2013-2020. The proposed regulation is part of the EU’s efforts to reduce its GHG emissions by at least 40% ...

In July 2016, the European Commission presented a proposal for a regulation to limit post-2020 national emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system (ETS). These include transport, buildings and agriculture. The proposed regulation would be the successor of the Effort Sharing Decision that sets annual national GHG emission limits for the period 2013-2020. The proposed regulation is part of the EU’s efforts to reduce its GHG emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. This target was set by the European Council in October 2014, and also constitutes the EU’s international commitment under the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change. After completion of the legislative procedure, the final act was signed on 30 May 2018. The Regulation entered into force on 9 July 2018. Fifth edition. The ‘EU Legislation in Progress’ briefings are updated at key stages throughout the legislative procedure. Please note this document has been designed for on-line viewing.

Motor vehicles: new approval and market surveillance rules

05-07-2018

The automotive industry is a major player in the European economy, accounting for 6.4% of gross domestic product and 2.3 million jobs in the European Union (EU). In September 2015, the Volkswagen (VW) case highlighted weaknesses in the implementation of type-approval rules for motor vehicles in the European Union, in particular as regards standards on emissions of air pollutants and carbon dioxide. In 2016, as part of preparations from previous years but also in response to the VW case, the European ...

The automotive industry is a major player in the European economy, accounting for 6.4% of gross domestic product and 2.3 million jobs in the European Union (EU). In September 2015, the Volkswagen (VW) case highlighted weaknesses in the implementation of type-approval rules for motor vehicles in the European Union, in particular as regards standards on emissions of air pollutants and carbon dioxide. In 2016, as part of preparations from previous years but also in response to the VW case, the European Commission proposed strengthening the type-approval system for motor vehicles. Its goal is to ensure effective enforcement of rules (including through market surveillance), to strengthen the quality and independence of technical tests and to introduce EU oversight on the type-approval process. After completion of the legislative procedure, the final act was signed on 30 May 2018. The regulation will apply from 1 September 2020.

Cities: Front line of climate action

16-02-2018

Cities have a crucial role to play in addressing the climate change challenge and delivering on the ambitions of the Paris Agreement. In the European Union (EU), where nearly three quarters of the population live in urban areas, many cities are leading the way in this regard, taking action in three areas central to increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions – namely, buildings, energy supply, and transport – and acting as living laboratories of climate-change-related innovation. The EU supports ...

Cities have a crucial role to play in addressing the climate change challenge and delivering on the ambitions of the Paris Agreement. In the European Union (EU), where nearly three quarters of the population live in urban areas, many cities are leading the way in this regard, taking action in three areas central to increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions – namely, buildings, energy supply, and transport – and acting as living laboratories of climate-change-related innovation. The EU supports cities in their efforts by providing guidance, promoting experience-and knowledge-sharing, fostering cooperation, and funding climate action. Climate-relevant initiatives are in place in various policy fields, from transport to the environment, research and innovation, the most high-profile being the Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy, which currently counts over 7 700 signatories. A supportive framework is essential to ensure city-level initiatives have enough resources and potential to effect meaningful change. Easing access to climate funding and strengthening the role of cities in climate governance are among the main challenges ahead, and the main demands of city associations. The latter issue is currently in the spotlight, notably in relation to the proposal for a regulation on energy union governance, part of the EU clean energy package. The European Parliament adopted amendments to the proposed regulation in January 2018. The role of EU regions and cities in implementing the Paris Agreement is also the subject of an own-initiative report, scheduled for debate during the March plenary session. This briefing is an update of an earlier one published in October 2017.

Review of CO2 emission standards for new cars and vans

31-01-2018

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 8 November 2017 and referred to European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). According to the IA, road transport caused 22 % of all EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2015, 73 % of which came from cars and vans (IA, p. 19). The transport sector (except for aviation) is not covered by ...

This note seeks to provide an initial analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the European Commission's impact assessment (IA) accompanying the above proposal, adopted on 8 November 2017 and referred to European Parliament's Committee on Environment, Public Health and Food Safety (ENVI). According to the IA, road transport caused 22 % of all EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2015, 73 % of which came from cars and vans (IA, p. 19). The transport sector (except for aviation) is not covered by the EU's emissions trading system (ETS), adopted in 2005 in the context of international efforts to reduce GHG. Instead, the EU has put sector-specific legislation in place, in particular to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. When it became clear that a 1999 voluntary emissions reduction agreement between the European Commission and the Association of European Automobile Manufacturers had not delivered, the EU adopted two regulations on mandatory CO2 standards for all new passenger cars and vans, in 2009 and 2011 respectively. Both were amended in 2014 with new emissions targets. After the Paris Agreement, countries such as China, the United States of America (USA) and Japan quickly began implementing ambitious policies for low-carbon transport. To comply with the agreement, the EU included the proposal to amend the current legislation in the European Commission's 2017 work programme. The review of the current regulations started in 2015, with publication of the European Commission's extensive ex-post evaluation. It found the current regulations effective and more efficient than expected, but also identified weaknesses. These included the measurement of emissions (test procedures), the utility parameter (mass or footprint) and emissions from energy and vehicle production, currently not covered (IA, pp. 15-16). As announced in its May 2017 communication, Europe on the Move, the Commission is pursuing an integrated approach to address all factors and actors relevant for CO2 emissions, from environment to industry (IA, p. 11). This proposal is therefore part of a comprehensive legislative package aiming to ensure 'clean, competitive and connected mobility for all' (IA, pp. 11-12, 17) and is flanked by important initiatives such as the EU action plan on alternative fuels infrastructure, revision of the Clean Vehicles Directive and the battery initiative.

CO2 emissions from aviation

23-01-2018

CO2 emissions from all flights to and from airports in the European Economic Area (EEA) have been included in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) since 2012. Although this would include flights between an airport within the EEA and an airport outside it, the application of the ETS to such flights was temporarily suspended, until the end of 2016, to allow for the development of emission-reduction measures with a global scope by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and to avoid conflicts ...

CO2 emissions from all flights to and from airports in the European Economic Area (EEA) have been included in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) since 2012. Although this would include flights between an airport within the EEA and an airport outside it, the application of the ETS to such flights was temporarily suspended, until the end of 2016, to allow for the development of emission-reduction measures with a global scope by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and to avoid conflicts with international trading partners. In October 2016, ICAO adopted a global market based measure (GMBM), which would become operational in 2021. In February 2017, the European Commission proposed a regulation to prolong the derogation for extra-EEA flights, gradually reduce the number of aviation allowances from 2021 onwards, and prepare for the implementation of the GMBM. After its adoption by Council and Parliament, the regulation entered into force on 29 December 2017.

Städte: Frontlinie des Klimaschutzes

05-10-2017

Städte spielen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Bewältigung der Herausforderungen des Klimawandels und beim Erreichen der Ziele des Übereinkommens von Paris. In der Europäischen Union (EU), wo annähernd drei Viertel der Bevölkerung in Stadtgebieten leben, geben viele Städte den Takt vor, indem sie Maßnahmen in drei Bereichen ergreifen, die für die Erhöhung der Energieeffizienz und die Senkung der Emissionen zentral sind – und zwar Gebäude, Energieversorgung und Verkehr –, und damit als lebende Laboratorien ...

Städte spielen eine wichtige Rolle bei der Bewältigung der Herausforderungen des Klimawandels und beim Erreichen der Ziele des Übereinkommens von Paris. In der Europäischen Union (EU), wo annähernd drei Viertel der Bevölkerung in Stadtgebieten leben, geben viele Städte den Takt vor, indem sie Maßnahmen in drei Bereichen ergreifen, die für die Erhöhung der Energieeffizienz und die Senkung der Emissionen zentral sind – und zwar Gebäude, Energieversorgung und Verkehr –, und damit als lebende Laboratorien für klimawandelbedingte Innovationen agieren. Die EU unterstützt Städte in ihren Anstrengungen, Beratung anzubieten, den Austausch von Erfahrungen und Wissen zu fördern, die Zusammenarbeit auszubauen und die Klimapolitik zu finanzieren. Klimarelevante Initiativen wurden in verschiedenen politischen Bereichen umgesetzt, vom Verkehr über die Umwelt bis hin zur Forschung und Entwicklung. Zu den bekanntesten Initiativen gehört der Konvent der Bürgermeister für Klima und Energie, der gegenwärtig annähernd 7 600 Unterzeichnerstädte zählt. Ein unterstützender Rahmen ist entscheidend, wenn Initiativen auf Städteebene über genügend Ressourcen und das Potenzial verfügen sollen, um einen entscheidenden Wandel herbeizuführen. Der erleichterte Zugang zur Finanzierung von Klimaschutzmaßnahmen und die Stärkung der Rolle von Städten bei der Steuerung dieser Maßnahmen gehören zu den wichtigsten Herausforderungen der Zukunft und zu den wichtigsten Forderungen von Städteverbunden. Diese Forderungen werden nun vom Europäischen Parlament geprüft, insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit dem Vorschlag für eine Regulierung des Governance-Systems der Energieunion. In Vorbereitung befinden sich zudem zwei Initiativberichte über die Rolle von Städten erstens bei der Umsetzung des Übereinkommens von Paris und zweitens innerhalb des institutionellen Rahmens der Union.

Cleaner air for Europe: EU efforts to fight air pollution

23-06-2017

Air pollution knows no borders. Wind can carry pollutants over thousands of kilometres. Poor air quality impacts negatively on human health, ecosystems, crop yields and buildings. It is one of the main environmental causes of premature death, having claimed 5.5 million lives globally and over 430 000 in the EU in 2013. The European Commission estimates the cost of air pollution linked to the degradation of health in European society to amount to €330 billion to €940 billion per year. Developed since ...

Air pollution knows no borders. Wind can carry pollutants over thousands of kilometres. Poor air quality impacts negatively on human health, ecosystems, crop yields and buildings. It is one of the main environmental causes of premature death, having claimed 5.5 million lives globally and over 430 000 in the EU in 2013. The European Commission estimates the cost of air pollution linked to the degradation of health in European society to amount to €330 billion to €940 billion per year. Developed since 1970 in the wake of acid rain fall that had been destroying European forests and polluting freshwaters, EU air quality policy, in combination with technological change, has contributed to reducing air pollution substantially.

Key Issues at Stake at the 71st Session of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC 71)

15-06-2017

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be two to five times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. The main issue at stake at MEPC 71 is the development of the Comprehensive IMO Strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from ships. MEPC 71 ...

Despite efficiency improvements, CO2 emissions from international shipping are projected to be two to five times higher in 2050 than in 1990. At the Paris climate conference, countries agreed to limit climate change to well below 2°C. Without considerable contributions of the shipping sector to global mitigation efforts this goal will be much harder to achieve. The main issue at stake at MEPC 71 is the development of the Comprehensive IMO Strategy on reduction of GHG emissions from ships. MEPC 71 will be preceded by a weeklong meeting of the GHG Working Group that will discuss issues relating to the Initial Strategy that should be adopted next year.

Externe Autor

Jakob Graichen, Martin Cames, Vanessa Cook

Einschränkung der Anwendung auf Luftverkehrstätigkeiten im EU-EHS

24-05-2017

In der FA werden die Probleme und Ziele der vorgeschlagenen Initiative klar definiert und umfassende und aktualisierte Informationsquellen eingesetzt. Insgesamt scheinen die meisten Ziele relevant, ausreichend messbar und umsetzbar zu sein, auch wenn sie nicht immer spezifisch oder zeitlich gebunden sind. Die Auswahl der politischen Optionen in Bezug auf den Zeitraum 2017-2020 ist nicht ganz überzeugend, vor allem wenn man bedenkt, dass die in der Vorauswahl enthaltenen Optionen schnell verworfen ...

In der FA werden die Probleme und Ziele der vorgeschlagenen Initiative klar definiert und umfassende und aktualisierte Informationsquellen eingesetzt. Insgesamt scheinen die meisten Ziele relevant, ausreichend messbar und umsetzbar zu sein, auch wenn sie nicht immer spezifisch oder zeitlich gebunden sind. Die Auswahl der politischen Optionen in Bezug auf den Zeitraum 2017-2020 ist nicht ganz überzeugend, vor allem wenn man bedenkt, dass die in der Vorauswahl enthaltenen Optionen schnell verworfen wurden. In der FA werden die ökologischen, wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Auswirkungen der beibehaltenen Optionen mit einem beträchtlichen Maß an Tiefgründigkeit bewertet. Die Analyse ist im Allgemeinen ausgewogen, klar und umfassend und stützt sich auf zwei quantitative Modelle (AERO-MS und PRIMES), die bereits zuvor von der Kommission eingesetzt wurden. Die Wahl dieser Modelle ist aus den in diesem Briefing hervorgehobenen Gründen jedoch nicht ganz überzeugend. Die Analyse der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Kleinemittenten (KMU) ist ausreichend ausgearbeitet und umfasst spezifische Abschnitte, die sich mit dem Wettbewerb zwischen direkten Städteverbindungen, Flügen mit Zwischenlandung und Touristenzielen befassen. Allerdings ist die FA nicht immer leicht zu lesen und zumindest in dem Abschnitt, in welchem die Auswirkungen einer Kraftstoffpreiserhöhung beschrieben werden, nicht ganz eindeutig. Die Kommission konsultierte ein breites Spektrum von Interessenträgern, deren Ansichten ausführlich beschrieben und analysiert wurden. Die meisten Empfehlungen des RSB scheinen in der FA berücksichtigt worden zu sein. Allerdings wurde die vollständige Anwendung des EU-EHS als Ausgangssituation beibehalten, obwohl vom RSB die Fortsetzung der aktuellen Politik als realistischere Möglichkeit empfohlen worden war. Darüber hinaus scheinen noch immer ausreichende Informationen über EU- und ICAO-Strategien im Hinblick auf Flugzeugtechnologien, operative Maßnahmen und nachhaltige alternative Kraftstoffe, wie vom RSB empfohlen wurde, zu fehlen.

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