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Artificial intelligence (AI) policy debates are replete with metaphors. Even the term ‘AI’ relies upon a metaphor for the human quality of intelligence, and its development is regularly described as a ‘race’. While metaphors are useful in highlighting some features of their subject, they are so powerful that it can be difficult to imagine or discuss their subject in other terms. Here, we explore some challenges presented by the central metaphor of ‘intelligence’, examine how AI metaphors emphasise ...

Lack of reciprocity in access to the Chinese market and the absence of a level playing field for EU investors in China have posed major challenges for EU-China investment relations in recent years, with the negotiation of a comprehensive agreement on investment (CAI) being considered by the EU a key instrument to remedy this state of play. The CAI negotiations are aimed at establishing a uniform legal framework for EU-China investment ties by replacing the 25 outdated bilateral investment treaties ...

China is a major strategic partner for the European Union, despite divergences on human rights issues, as well as on some economic and foreign policies. At their 20th EU-China summit in July, the two sides agreed to further develop their partnership and to seek to avoid global trade wars, which many analysts fear could be triggered by US President Donald Trump’s protectionist policies. They agreed, in principle, to support reform of the World Trade Organization, which has been snubbed by President ...

Free and fair trade for all?

Λεπτομερής ανάλυση 21-11-2017

With its strategy paper entitled ‘Trade for all’ in 2015, the Commission launched an EU trade policy that focussed on values such as human rights, workers’ rights, environmental protection and sustainable development. The idea was that free trade should be fair for both consumers in Europe and for citizens elsewhere. This approach was pursued in bilateral trade negotiations and in legislative proposals on, for example, conflict minerals, dual-use goods or the investment court system. But by the end ...

Transatlantic relations: USA and Canada

Θεματολογικά δελτία της ΕΕ 01-09-2017

The EU, US and Canada share the values of democracy, human rights, and economic and political freedom, and overlapping foreign policy and security concerns. The EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement and the Strategic Partnership Agreement were signed on 30 October 2016, receiving the European Parliament’s consent on 15 February 2017. Negotiations on an EU-US Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership, launched on 8 July 2013, have been halted since President Trump was elected.

De jure versus de facto labour rights in China

Εν συντομία 20-06-2017

For China, striking the right balance between using its abundant, cheap workforce as a competitive advantage and protecting labour rights has been a major challenge. Although China has developed a considerable body of law governing labour relations, there is still a huge gap between the labour rights on the statute books and those enjoyed by workers in practice. Over-riding economic interests to attract foreign investors and to boost economic growth have seriously undermined effective labour rights ...

Dumping margin is at the heart of findings by importing countries of the existence of dumping practices, as well as in setting the duty they may apply. This paper sets out the different methods of calculation in use as well as possible modifications that could be applied. It focuses on the case of China, in the context of the forthcoming decision on whether the country should gain market economy status. The calculation of the dumping margin is fundamental for two reasons in antidumping investigations ...

Paragraph (a) (ii) of Article 15 in China’s Accession Protocol to the WTO - which determines the basis on which dumping margins are calculated in Anti-dumping proceedings against China - is about to expire in December 2016. This ad hoc briefing aims to shed light on the economic and political implications that may arise for the EU from different strategies related to the treatment of China after this date, including the possibility of granting it market economy status. The study provides an economic ...

Selected International Third-Country Tax-Governance Issues

Λεπτομερής ανάλυση 13-10-2015

This paper forms part of a series of analytical pieces on various key tax issues, prepared by Policy Department A at the request of the TAXE Special Committee of the European Parliament. It examines some of the pressures that European countries will face over the coming decade as they move towards a more transparent tax environment and continue to push for better tax compliance and the impact on promoting good governance in third countries. The first part of this paper provides a brief overview of ...

Allowing consumers to have a fair share of the benefits resulting from effective competition is one of the targets of competition policy. Better quality and innovative products, more choice and lower prices are the most prominent practical results. However, distortion of competition by antitrust infringements or an inefficient enforcement of competition rules still causes consumer harm. This workshop aims to examine in which areas consumers actually benefit from competition and where there is still ...