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This paper provides an overview of stakeholders’ activities at national, regional and local level, in relation to national Recovery and Resilience Plans (RRPs). The overview is based on two surveys, recently conducted. Furthermore, it presents the latest opinions and assessments by EU stakeholders and other relevant institutions and bodies on the implementation of these plans. This paper is a follow-up of previous EGOV publications on the involvement and views expressed by stakeholders in the context ...

Following the division of the Korean peninsula into a southern and a northern part at the end of the Second World War, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) was established in its southern part in 1948. The 1950 attack by the communist regime established in the northern part provoked a three-year war, which completely devastated the peninsula. When an armistice was signed in 1953, the Republic of Korea was one of the poorest countries in the world. Its political system was marked by a very strong attitude ...

This paper summarises the findings and provides some further details of the replies received from a survey on the involvement of national parliaments in scrutinising the implementation of Recovery and Resilience Facility, notably the Recovery and Resilience Plans at the national level. This survey aimed to keep stock of whether and how EU national parliaments are involved in the implementation of the RRF. It was addressed directly to EU national parliament services and reflected developments in the ...

The Czech Republic (Czechia) has a parliamentary system of government. The Czech Parliament consists of Poslanecká sněmovna (the Chamber of Deputies) and Senát (the Senate), both elected directly. It is considered an imperfect bicameral system, with the Chamber of Deputies able to overrule the Senate in most instances (Chapter II of the Czech Constitution adopted in 1992). Equal powers between the two chambers are limited to constitutional and electoral laws, the ratification of international agreements ...

Since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty (2009), the EU national parliaments have had the right to control the principle of subsidiarity through the Early Warning System (EWS). This study, commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the JURI Committee, examines how the EWS has worked over the past 12 years. It also looks into the interaction of the European Commission, local and regional entities, the Committee ...

This paper looks at the evolution of the European Parliament's question time since its introduction in 1973 to the present day. It tracks this evolution through successive reforms and examines the reasons why question time was discontinued in January 2013. In looking at how question time is designed in selected Member States and in the United Kingdom, this paper also highlights the various elements that may have an impact on the dynamics of question time.

The contemporary federal state of Canada was formed in 1867, when the Province of Canada merged through confederation with two other British colonies in North America, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Canada's 1867 constitution sets out the rules by which the country is governed and divides government responsibilities into three separate branches: parliament, executive and judiciary. In addition to being a federation, Canada is also a representative democracy and a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth ...

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in March 2020 presented parliamentary institutions around the world with a new and unprecedented scenario. Parliamentary rules of procedure in representative democracies are commonly built upon the principles of pluralism, deliberation and transparency, aiming to provide an arena in which representatives of the people have the opportunity to publicly confront each other's points of view in a free and fair setting. It is, therefore, safe to say that ordinary ...

The role of the French Parliament has varied under successive French Republics. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic, adopted in 1958, was amended by referendum in 1962 to establish the direct election of the President by universal suffrage. This created a hybrid political regime with some presidential and some parliamentary characteristics, sometimes described as a 'semi-presidential regime' or a 'hyper-presidential' regime. The government is responsible to Parliament, but contrary to classical ...

Kyrgyz political landscape ahead of elections

Εν συντομία 18-11-2021

Kyrgyzstan is the most democratic but also the least stable of the former Soviet Central Asian republics. The most recent upheaval resulted in the cancellation of the October 2020 parliamentary elections. New elections scheduled for November 2021 are likely to consolidate the position of Sadyr Japarov, the country's new president. A controversial new constitution raises concerns over the future of Kyrgyz democracy.