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Xi-Jinping won a third term in China's top job, as secretary general of the Communist Party, at its Congress in October, solidifying his grip on power over a country which has become increasingly autocratic and abrasive in its foreign policy during his 10-year reign to date. Xi's re-election for a third term broke with China's recent tradition of leaders being replaced after two terms, in a sign he will yield power in a manner reminiscent of communist China's founder Mao Zedong. His new reign begins ...

China was responsible for more than a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2019. China's per-capita emissions of 9 tonnes CO2 equivalent in 2019 were well above EU levels and far above the global average. This is one of a series of EPRS briefings on major economies outside the European Union, looking at their climate policies in the run-up to the COP27 United Nations climate change conference of parties being held in November 2022.

China: Economic indicators and trade with EU

Εν συντομία 19-10-2022

The economies of the EU and China both showed signs of quick and strong recovery in terms of GDP growth, GDP per capita and foreign direct investment in 2021, following a year marked by the COVID-19 pandemic. The value of trade between the two blocs reached record levels for exports and imports, and for goods and services in 2021. This infographic is a further update of one originally published in December 2019.

China's 20th Party Congress

Briefing 19-10-2022

The 20th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) opened in Beijing on 16 October 2022. Its main task is, in theory, to decide on the composition of the Central Committee, which in the legal fiction in turn decides, immediately following the Congress, whether to grant current General Secretary Xi a third mandate, and determines the composition of the Standing Committee of the Politburo (SCPB). Observers are alert for any sign that the principle of collective leadership has eroded further and ...

Securing the EU's supply of critical raw materials

Εν συντομία 07-07-2022

Critical raw materials are essential to sustain Europe's economic and environmental ambitions. As geoeconomic aggression and geopolitical tensions rise, the EU is re-thinking its reliance on certain imports. Can the EU secure its supply of critical materials?

The six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo,* Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) are all countries with substantial economic catch-up potential. The EU-led Berlin Process estimated an annual investment need of some €7.7 billion, which would provide the region with an additional 1 % GDP growth and a positive employment effect of up to 200 000 people. However, quality investments are scarce, or often attached to political, environmental and social conditionalities ...

Stresses and contradictions in the Chinese economy in the early 2020s

Λεπτομερής ανάλυση 20-05-2022

EPRS invites leading experts and commentators to share their thinking and insights on important topics of relevance to debate in the European institutions. In this paper, Jacob Funk Kirkegaard, Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and the German Marshall Fund of the United States, looks at the current state of the Chinese economy, and at the various factors likely to influence its evolution in the coming years. He argues that Chinese growth will slow to below the levels ...

EU officials say that the 23rd summit between the European Union and China on Friday 1 April will focus on Russia’s war on Ukraine, the engagement of the international community to support Ukraine, the dramatic humanitarian crisis created by the conflict, its destabilising nature for the international order and its inherent global impact. The meeting, to be conducted by video-conference, is also expected to discuss bilateral issues and areas of shared interest, such as climate change, biodiversity ...

Hours before the Beijing Winter Olympics officially opened on 4 February 2022, Chinese President Xi Jinping had a long meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. In the joint statement issued after the meeting, the Chinese leader for the first time voiced his country's outright opposition to NATO enlargement and support for Russia's 'proposals to create long-term legally binding security guarantees' in Europe. This stance might be seen as the culmination of a relationship, formed in 1992, between ...

US Congress and trade policy tackling China

Εν συντομία 04-03-2022

In the first year of the 117th US Congress (2021-2022), members of both the House and the Senate saw an urgent need both for a trade policy offensive specifically for the Indo-Pacific region to maintain US leadership in setting international standards and norms, and for an upgrade of defensive trade policy tools to address China's unfair trade practices. Congressional initiatives have coincided with debates in the European Parliament on the EU's Indo-Pacific strategy and on legislative proposals ...