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Ημερομηνία

Hearings of the Commissioners-designate: Valdis Dombrovskis – Vice-President: An Economy that works for people

26-09-2019

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication ...

This briefing is one in a set looking at the Commissioners-designate and their portfolios as put forward by Commission President-elect Ursula von der Leyen. Each candidate faces a three-hour public hearing, organised by one or more parliamentary committees. After that process, those committees will judge the candidates' suitability for the role based on 'their general competence, European commitment and personal independence', as well as their 'knowledge of their prospective portfolio and their communication skills'. At the end of the hearings process, Parliament votes on the proposed Commission as a bloc, and under the Treaties may only reject the entire College of Commissioners, rather than individual candidates. The Briefing provides an overview of key issues in the portfolio areas, as well as Parliament's activity in the last term in that field. It also includes a brief introduction to the candidate.

Trump, trade and tariffs [What Think Tanks are thinking]

16-03-2018

US President, Donald Trump, has imposed tariffs on steel and aluminium imports, raising fears of a trade war with other countries. He has argued that the levies, of 25 % on steel and 10 % on aluminium, are needed to protect US national security. But many analysts and politicians believe that they are actually meant to protect domestic producers and meet Trump's pre-election promise to return manufacturing jobs to the US. The European Union is seeking an exemption from the tariffs, which has already ...

US President, Donald Trump, has imposed tariffs on steel and aluminium imports, raising fears of a trade war with other countries. He has argued that the levies, of 25 % on steel and 10 % on aluminium, are needed to protect US national security. But many analysts and politicians believe that they are actually meant to protect domestic producers and meet Trump's pre-election promise to return manufacturing jobs to the US. The European Union is seeking an exemption from the tariffs, which has already been granted, in principle, to Canada and Mexico. If this does not happen, the EU could respond in several ways, including by imposing its own tariffs on US products. This note offers links to a series of recent commentaries and reports from major international think tanks and research institutes in reaction to Trump's decision. More reports on international trade can be found in a previous edition of 'What Think Tanks are thinking' published in June 2017.

New US tariffs: Potential impact on the WTO

13-03-2018

On 8 March 2018, US President Donald Trump signed orders imposing tariffs of 25 % on steel imports and 10 % on aluminium imports. These tariffs will apply to all countries, except Canada and Mexico (and possibly also Australia). President Trump has expressed a willingness to discuss the measures with individual countries and make additional exceptions if US (security) concerns are addressed. The European Commission and other US trading partners have expressed their concern at the measures, fearing ...

On 8 March 2018, US President Donald Trump signed orders imposing tariffs of 25 % on steel imports and 10 % on aluminium imports. These tariffs will apply to all countries, except Canada and Mexico (and possibly also Australia). President Trump has expressed a willingness to discuss the measures with individual countries and make additional exceptions if US (security) concerns are addressed. The European Commission and other US trading partners have expressed their concern at the measures, fearing that they could lead to a wider trade dispute. The Trump administration's justification of the tariffs on national security grounds is also viewed as a threat to the multilateral trading system.

The EU and China [What Think Tanks are thinking]

16-06-2017

The European Union and China made limited progress towards improving bilateral ties at their summit in early June, and they remain at odds over a number of controversial trade issues. However, analysts say the EU and China look poised to strengthen cooperation on fighting climate change, especially after the new US President, Donald Trump, withdrew from the Paris deal on cutting greenhouse gas emissions. China is also eager to push ahead with its Belt and Road Initiative – a strategic plan to boost ...

The European Union and China made limited progress towards improving bilateral ties at their summit in early June, and they remain at odds over a number of controversial trade issues. However, analysts say the EU and China look poised to strengthen cooperation on fighting climate change, especially after the new US President, Donald Trump, withdrew from the Paris deal on cutting greenhouse gas emissions. China is also eager to push ahead with its Belt and Road Initiative – a strategic plan to boost transport, trade, connectivity and cooperation between China and Europe. This note offers links to recent commentaries, studies and reports from major international think tanks on relations between China and the EU, as well as on other issues related to the country.

Foreign direct investment screening: A debate in light of China-EU FDI flows

17-05-2017

In 2016, the flow of Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) into the EU hit record levels, in sharp contrast to the continued decline in EU FDI flows to China. Chinese FDI was mainly driven by market-seeking and strategic asset-seeking motives and focused on big EU economies, targeting cutting-edge technologies in particular. In 2016, a number of Chinese proposals for transactions in strategic sectors came under scrutiny during security reviews at EU Member-State level. Some were delayed, and some ...

In 2016, the flow of Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) into the EU hit record levels, in sharp contrast to the continued decline in EU FDI flows to China. Chinese FDI was mainly driven by market-seeking and strategic asset-seeking motives and focused on big EU economies, targeting cutting-edge technologies in particular. In 2016, a number of Chinese proposals for transactions in strategic sectors came under scrutiny during security reviews at EU Member-State level. Some were delayed, and some were ultimately withdrawn by the Chinese investors. In this context, new challenges going beyond national security have emerged in terms of economic security. Such challenges may arise from alleged 'unfair competition' from China, which the current regulatory framework seems unable to address. This has sparked a debate about whether the patchwork of different mechanisms for screening FDI on national security grounds currently in place in nearly half of the EU Member States, coupled with the scrutiny of mergers and acquisitions under EU competition rules, are adequate regulatory tools for tackling the perceived new challenges. It also raises the question of whether the Member States' diverging approaches should be upgraded, better coordinated or even replaced by a new consistent FDI screening mechanism at EU level. Australia, Canada, Japan and the USA operate FDI screening mechanisms, which the EU could use as sources of reference but not emulate entirely. The use of these screening mechanisms for, and their deterrence effect on, Chinese investors in a growing protectionist climate is, however, likely to have an impact on the EU.

China's WTO accession: 15 years on - Taking, shaking or shaping WTO rules?

01-12-2016

11 December 2016 marks the 15th anniversary of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 2001, after arduous negotiations with key WTO members, China agreed not only to extensive market access commitments but also to substantial non-reciprocal rules obligations. This was unprecedented in WTO history. Most WTO disputes involving China, notably in the field of trade remedies, have been linked to these tailor-made rules for China. China has exhibited timely and qualitatively sound ...

11 December 2016 marks the 15th anniversary of China's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). In 2001, after arduous negotiations with key WTO members, China agreed not only to extensive market access commitments but also to substantial non-reciprocal rules obligations. This was unprecedented in WTO history. Most WTO disputes involving China, notably in the field of trade remedies, have been linked to these tailor-made rules for China. China has exhibited timely and qualitatively sound compliance with WTO rulings. But its narrow letter of the law compliance has at times been found not to reflect the spirit of the legal provisions at issue, with WTO-inconsistent regulations having remained in place or re-emerged. In the Doha Development Round of WTO multilateral negotiations China has so far taken a backseat rather than a leadership role. Domestic resistance to reform in sensitive areas on economic and ideological grounds has been a crucial factor in China's absence from the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement. Past US opposition has been key for its non-participation in the Trade in Services Agreement. Uncertainties about ratification by the US Congress of the US-led Trans-Pacific Partnership and future US trade policy under President Donald Trump may reverse the past trend of China's marginalisation from shaping global rules outside the WTO. At the same time this may lower China's ambition to shift gradually from rather shallow to EU-style 'deep and comprehensive' free trade agreements (FTAs) and may induce it to promote its own rules more assertively by leveraging its economic weight in predominantly bilateral relations under its One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative.

Moldova: A small, vulnerable economy

26-07-2016

The economy of this small former Soviet republic, located to the north-east of Romania, is influenced by its proximity to both the EU and Russia. In recent years, Moldova's economy has been affected by political instability, exacerbated by perceptions of corruption as well as drought, the Russian and Ukrainian crises, and trade restrictions imposed by Russia after Moldova signed an Association Agreement with the EU in 2014.  

The economy of this small former Soviet republic, located to the north-east of Romania, is influenced by its proximity to both the EU and Russia. In recent years, Moldova's economy has been affected by political instability, exacerbated by perceptions of corruption as well as drought, the Russian and Ukrainian crises, and trade restrictions imposed by Russia after Moldova signed an Association Agreement with the EU in 2014.  

The impact of globalisation: Winners and losers in the EU and the USA

04-07-2016

Does globalisation level up living standards or increase inequality? Economists have long been debating the role free trade plays in creating winners and losers. By opening up markets, globalisation reduces the number of monopolies, while consumers benefit from the resulting increase in competition. But globalisation also leads to losses, or at least smaller net gains, for some and it can also increase economic inequality. Once a purely economic and social issue, the question of who wins and who ...

Does globalisation level up living standards or increase inequality? Economists have long been debating the role free trade plays in creating winners and losers. By opening up markets, globalisation reduces the number of monopolies, while consumers benefit from the resulting increase in competition. But globalisation also leads to losses, or at least smaller net gains, for some and it can also increase economic inequality. Once a purely economic and social issue, the question of who wins and who loses in globalisation has become a topic for heated political debate in Europe and the USA.

Calculation of dumping margins: EU and US rules and practices in light of the debate on China's Market Economy Status

31-05-2016

Dumping margin is at the heart of findings by importing countries of the existence of dumping practices, as well as in setting the duty they may apply. This paper sets out the different methods of calculation in use as well as possible modifications that could be applied. It focuses on the case of China, in the context of the forthcoming decision on whether the country should gain market economy status. The calculation of the dumping margin is fundamental for two reasons in antidumping investigations ...

Dumping margin is at the heart of findings by importing countries of the existence of dumping practices, as well as in setting the duty they may apply. This paper sets out the different methods of calculation in use as well as possible modifications that could be applied. It focuses on the case of China, in the context of the forthcoming decision on whether the country should gain market economy status. The calculation of the dumping margin is fundamental for two reasons in antidumping investigations: firstly it is a fundamental requirement for the introduction of an antidumping measure; in order to find dumping the dumping margin has to be greater than de minimis (i.e. less than 2%); secondly it defines the upper boundary of the antidumping duty if applied. The method for dumping margin calculations differs depending whether the country of export is considered a market economy or a non-market economy. This paper looks at the differences in the methods for calculation of dumping margin and in particular normal values in investigation against exporters in a market economy and against exporters in non-market economies. It also looks at the differences in the European Union and United States approaches towards non-market economies, and uses empirical analysis to see how different methodologies are used in investigations against China, before concluding on the policy options provided for in the framework of the 2016 amendment of section 15 to China's Protocol of Accession to the World Trade Organization. On this topic, see also other EPRS publications: Gisela Grieger, 'Major EU-China anti-dumping cases', May 2016; Laura Puccio, 'Granting Market Economy Status to China: An analysis of WTO law and of selected WTO members' policy', November 2015.

Workshop on "Market Economy Status for China after 2016?"

16-03-2016

Section 15 of China’s Protocol of Accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) allows importing WTO members to determine, under their national law, whether China is considered to be a market economy for the purpose of price comparability and of calculating dumping margins. Some provisions of this section expire on 11 December 2016, leaving uncertainty as to how China should be treated in antidumping investigations thereafter. The European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade (INTA) organised ...

Section 15 of China’s Protocol of Accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) allows importing WTO members to determine, under their national law, whether China is considered to be a market economy for the purpose of price comparability and of calculating dumping margins. Some provisions of this section expire on 11 December 2016, leaving uncertainty as to how China should be treated in antidumping investigations thereafter. The European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade (INTA) organised a workshop jointly with the Policy Department of the Directorate-General for External Policies in order to hear the views of different academic experts on both the legal and the economic implications.

Προσεχείς εκδηλώσεις

01-12-2020
FISC Public Hearing on 1st December 2020
Ακρόαση -
FISC
01-12-2020
Inter-parliamentary Committee meeting on the Evaluation of Eurojust Activities
Άλλη δραστηριότητα -
LIBE
02-12-2020
Public Hearing on AI and Health
Ακρόαση -
AIDA

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