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Ημερομηνία

Common agricultural policy

12-01-2018

After World War II, Europe was in pieces, devastated and facing a shortage of food. The main objective of the European Coal and Steel Community, a new institution set up in 1952, was therefore to work to unite a fragmented Europe. Lack of food was one of earliest challenges; action at European level was necessary in order to make Europe self-sufficient in food and to secure an adequate food supply and the free flow of food and agricultural products within Europe. The common agricultural policy (CAP ...

After World War II, Europe was in pieces, devastated and facing a shortage of food. The main objective of the European Coal and Steel Community, a new institution set up in 1952, was therefore to work to unite a fragmented Europe. Lack of food was one of earliest challenges; action at European level was necessary in order to make Europe self-sufficient in food and to secure an adequate food supply and the free flow of food and agricultural products within Europe. The common agricultural policy (CAP) was formed in 1962 to ensure that people could have food at affordable prices and that farmers would earn a fair living for their work. CAP is one of the European Union's oldest common polices

Common Agricultural Policy – Pillar I

13-07-2016

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) concerns the pooling of European Union resources spent on agriculture and aimed at protecting the viable production of food, the sustainable management of natural resources and to support rural vitality. It consists of two pillars, the first includes direct payments (i.e. annual payments to farmers to help stabilise farm revenues in the face of volatile market prices and weather conditions) and market measures (to tackle specific market situations and to support ...

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) concerns the pooling of European Union resources spent on agriculture and aimed at protecting the viable production of food, the sustainable management of natural resources and to support rural vitality. It consists of two pillars, the first includes direct payments (i.e. annual payments to farmers to help stabilise farm revenues in the face of volatile market prices and weather conditions) and market measures (to tackle specific market situations and to support trade promotion). The second pillar concerns rural development policy. Nearly 38% of the EU budget is spent on the CAP; for the Multiannual Financial Framework 2014-2020 the CAP amounts to €408.31 billion, of which €308.72 billion is allocated to the first pillar.

ETS Market Stability Reserve

29-06-2015

In order to tackle the over-supply of allowances in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), the European Commission has proposed a new mechanism under which surplus allowances would be placed in a Market Stability Reserve (MSR), starting in 2021. In a trilogue agreement, Parliament and Council brought forward the start date to 2019, and agreed to place 'backloaded' and unallocated allowances directly into the reserve.

In order to tackle the over-supply of allowances in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), the European Commission has proposed a new mechanism under which surplus allowances would be placed in a Market Stability Reserve (MSR), starting in 2021. In a trilogue agreement, Parliament and Council brought forward the start date to 2019, and agreed to place 'backloaded' and unallocated allowances directly into the reserve.

Workshop on the ETS Market Stability Reserve

16-02-2015

This report summarises the presentations and discussions during the workshop on the ETS Market Stability Reserve (MSR), held on the 5th November 2014. The aim of the workshop was to allow an exchange of views between MEPs, the European Commission, stakeholders from energy and industry sectors and NGOs on the need to intervene in the EU ETS in order to address the current oversupply of allowances that are undermining the effectiveness of the policy instrument. There was a general consensus amongst ...

This report summarises the presentations and discussions during the workshop on the ETS Market Stability Reserve (MSR), held on the 5th November 2014. The aim of the workshop was to allow an exchange of views between MEPs, the European Commission, stakeholders from energy and industry sectors and NGOs on the need to intervene in the EU ETS in order to address the current oversupply of allowances that are undermining the effectiveness of the policy instrument. There was a general consensus amongst all participants for greater supply-side flexibility of allowances in the EU ETS with the majority of speakers arguing in favour of an earlier implementation date for the MSR and the prevention of backloaded allowances from re-entering the market before 2020 to create a stronger and more stable price signal for low carbon investments.

Reform of the EU carbon market - From backloading to the market stability reserve

07-11-2014

The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) aims to achieve cost-efficient reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a market for trading emission allowances. The amount of available allowances is fixed in advance, in line with the EU's GHG reduction targets.

The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) aims to achieve cost-efficient reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a market for trading emission allowances. The amount of available allowances is fixed in advance, in line with the EU's GHG reduction targets.

Shadow Banking - Minimum Haircuts on Collateral

15-07-2013

The Financial Stability Board proposes to dampen the pro-cyclicality that may be caused by changes in haircuts in repo and securities lending during a crisis, by introducing minimum standards for the calculation of haircuts, in order to stabilise them across the cycle. They are also considering putting a floor under calculations, at least on risky assets that exhibit pro-cyclicality. Higher haircuts would also help curtail the build-up of excessive leverage.

The Financial Stability Board proposes to dampen the pro-cyclicality that may be caused by changes in haircuts in repo and securities lending during a crisis, by introducing minimum standards for the calculation of haircuts, in order to stabilise them across the cycle. They are also considering putting a floor under calculations, at least on risky assets that exhibit pro-cyclicality. Higher haircuts would also help curtail the build-up of excessive leverage.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

Richard COMOTTO (ICMA Centre, Henley Business School, University of Reading, the UK)

Shadow Banking: Legal Issues of Collateral Assets and Insolvency Law

14-06-2013

In many financial markets repurchase agreements (repos) and securities lending agreements benefit from special insolvency treatment which - broadly speaking consists of an exemption from a number of insolvency law mechanisms. In line with FSB Recommendation 13 on repos and securities lending, insolvency treatment of these transactions should not be changed. Instead, the regulators should be given the power to temporarily stay close-out netting, as in bank resolution proceedings. Regulatory haircuts ...

In many financial markets repurchase agreements (repos) and securities lending agreements benefit from special insolvency treatment which - broadly speaking consists of an exemption from a number of insolvency law mechanisms. In line with FSB Recommendation 13 on repos and securities lending, insolvency treatment of these transactions should not be changed. Instead, the regulators should be given the power to temporarily stay close-out netting, as in bank resolution proceedings. Regulatory haircuts (FSB Recommendations 6 and 7) may buffer systemic consequences but are unable to act as a circuit breaker. Repo and securities lending collateral assets face increased enforcement difficulties in cross-border settings, stemming from different national rules regarding good-faith acquisition and close-out netting. Haircuts are not an appropriate solution. Instead, only harmonisation of securities law and of the relevant insolvency rules can guarantee a consistent cross-border framework.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

Philipp PAECH (London School of Economics and Political Science)

European Central Bank: (Un)Conventional policy measures

02-10-2012

The European Central Bank has taken a series of standard and non-standard measures throughout the financial turmoil, the global financial crisis and the eurozone debt crisis. After several measures meant to revitalise financial markets, the ECB announced its second action on the sovereign-debt market on 6 September 2012, the Outright Monetary Transactions programme.

The European Central Bank has taken a series of standard and non-standard measures throughout the financial turmoil, the global financial crisis and the eurozone debt crisis. After several measures meant to revitalise financial markets, the ECB announced its second action on the sovereign-debt market on 6 September 2012, the Outright Monetary Transactions programme.

The Mechanisms of the Single CMO and Risk Management Instruments under the New CAP

15-03-2012

This note analyses the European Commission’s proposals for reform of the common agricultural policy for the period 2014–2020. The analysis focuses on measures intended to respond to the volatility of agricultural markets. After explaining the possible justifications for public action aimed at mitigating and managing risks in agriculture, we will examine the effectiveness of the new measures that have been proposed, which include a crisis reserve and mutual funds for economic losses, as well as the ...

This note analyses the European Commission’s proposals for reform of the common agricultural policy for the period 2014–2020. The analysis focuses on measures intended to respond to the volatility of agricultural markets. After explaining the possible justifications for public action aimed at mitigating and managing risks in agriculture, we will examine the effectiveness of the new measures that have been proposed, which include a crisis reserve and mutual funds for economic losses, as well as the effectiveness of the measures that will be kept in place. Our recommendations include in particular the establishment of transparent and credible rules for public action in order to promote the development of risk management markets.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

Alexandre Gohin (UMR SMART Agrocampus Ouest, INRA, Rennes, France)

Rural Development in the CAP post 2013

14-01-2011

This note examines the role of rural development policy in the CAP after 2013. As the official Communication of the Commission on the future CAP remains at a high level of generality, many uncertainties exist regarding the role of rural development in the future. However, as the new framework seems to be set in place, this note examines the consistency of proposals which are aimed at meeting the predefined challenges and objectives as well as providing policy recommendations.

This note examines the role of rural development policy in the CAP after 2013. As the official Communication of the Commission on the future CAP remains at a high level of generality, many uncertainties exist regarding the role of rural development in the future. However, as the new framework seems to be set in place, this note examines the consistency of proposals which are aimed at meeting the predefined challenges and objectives as well as providing policy recommendations.

Εξωτερικός συντάκτης

Attila JAMBOR (Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary)

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