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Posted on 02-07-2019

The First Treaties

01-01-2018

The disastrous effects of the Second World War and the constant threat of an East-West confrontation meant that Franco-German reconciliation had become a top priority. The decision to pool the coal and steel industries of six European countries, brought into force by the Treaty of Paris in 1951, marked the first step towards European integration. The Treaties of Rome of 1957 strengthened the foundations of this integration, as well as the notion of a common future for the six European countries involved ...

The disastrous effects of the Second World War and the constant threat of an East-West confrontation meant that Franco-German reconciliation had become a top priority. The decision to pool the coal and steel industries of six European countries, brought into force by the Treaty of Paris in 1951, marked the first step towards European integration. The Treaties of Rome of 1957 strengthened the foundations of this integration, as well as the notion of a common future for the six European countries involved.

Posted on 01-07-2019

The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties

01-01-2018

The Maastricht Treaty altered the former European treaties and created a European Union based on three pillars: the European Communities, the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs (JHI). With a view to the enlargement of the Union, the Amsterdam Treaty made the adjustments needed to enable the Union to function more efficiently and democratically.

The Maastricht Treaty altered the former European treaties and created a European Union based on three pillars: the European Communities, the common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs (JHI). With a view to the enlargement of the Union, the Amsterdam Treaty made the adjustments needed to enable the Union to function more efficiently and democratically.

The Treaty of Nice and the Convention on the Future of Europe

01-01-2018

The Treaty of Nice prepared the European Union only partially for the important enlargements to the east and south on 1 May 2004 and 1 January 2007. Therefore, following up on the questions raised in the Laeken Declaration, the European Convention made an effort to produce a new legal basis for the Union in the form of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. Following ‘no’ votes in referendums in two Member States, that treaty was not ratified.

The Treaty of Nice prepared the European Union only partially for the important enlargements to the east and south on 1 May 2004 and 1 January 2007. Therefore, following up on the questions raised in the Laeken Declaration, the European Convention made an effort to produce a new legal basis for the Union in the form of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. Following ‘no’ votes in referendums in two Member States, that treaty was not ratified.

The Treaty of Lisbon

01-01-2018

This factsheet presents the background and essential provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon. The objective is to provide a historical context for the emergence of this latest fundamental EU text from those which came before it. The specific provisions (with article references) and their effects on European Union policies are explained in more detail in the factsheets dealing with particular policies and issues.

This factsheet presents the background and essential provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon. The objective is to provide a historical context for the emergence of this latest fundamental EU text from those which came before it. The specific provisions (with article references) and their effects on European Union policies are explained in more detail in the factsheets dealing with particular policies and issues.

The European Parliament: historical background

01-03-2018

The origins of the European Parliament lie in the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which became the common assembly of the three supranational European communities that existed at the time. The assembly subsequently acquired the name ‘European Parliament’. Over time, the institution, whose members have been directly elected since 1979, has undergone profound changes: evolving from an assembly with appointed members to an elected parliament that is recognised as a political ...

The origins of the European Parliament lie in the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which became the common assembly of the three supranational European communities that existed at the time. The assembly subsequently acquired the name ‘European Parliament’. Over time, the institution, whose members have been directly elected since 1979, has undergone profound changes: evolving from an assembly with appointed members to an elected parliament that is recognised as a political agenda-setter of the European Union.

The European Parliament: electoral procedures

01-02-2018

The procedures for electing the European Parliament are governed both by European legislation defining rules common to all Member States and by specific national provisions, which vary from one state to another. The common provisions lay down the principle of proportional representation, rules on thresholds and certain incompatibilities with the Member of the European Parliament mandate. Many other important matters, such as the exact electoral system used and the number of constituencies, are governed ...

The procedures for electing the European Parliament are governed both by European legislation defining rules common to all Member States and by specific national provisions, which vary from one state to another. The common provisions lay down the principle of proportional representation, rules on thresholds and certain incompatibilities with the Member of the European Parliament mandate. Many other important matters, such as the exact electoral system used and the number of constituencies, are governed by national laws.

The Court of Justice of the European Union

01-03-2018

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is one of the EU’s seven institutions. It consists of two courts of law: the Court of Justice proper and the General Court. It is responsible for the jurisdiction of the European Union. The courts ensure the correct interpretation and application of primary and secondary Union law in the EU. They review the legality of acts of the Union institutions and decide whether Member States have fulfilled their obligations under primary and secondary law. ...

The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is one of the EU’s seven institutions. It consists of two courts of law: the Court of Justice proper and the General Court. It is responsible for the jurisdiction of the European Union. The courts ensure the correct interpretation and application of primary and secondary Union law in the EU. They review the legality of acts of the Union institutions and decide whether Member States have fulfilled their obligations under primary and secondary law. The Court of Justice also provides interpretations of Union law when so requested by national judges.

Competences of the Court of Justice of the European Union

01-03-2018

This fact sheet describes the competences of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), which consists of two courts, the Court of Justice proper and the General Court, and offers various means of redress, as laid down in Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), Articles 251-281 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), Article 136 Euratom, and Protocol No 3 annexed to the Treaties on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

This fact sheet describes the competences of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), which consists of two courts, the Court of Justice proper and the General Court, and offers various means of redress, as laid down in Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), Articles 251-281 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), Article 136 Euratom, and Protocol No 3 annexed to the Treaties on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

The European Economic and Social Committee

01-10-2017

The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a consultative body of the European Union. It is composed of 329 members. Its opinions are required on the basis of a mandatory consultation in the fields established by the Treaties or a voluntary consultation by the Commission, the Council, or Parliament. It may also issue opinions on its own initiative. Its members are not bound by any instructions. They are to be completely independent in the performance of their duties, in the Union’s general ...

The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a consultative body of the European Union. It is composed of 329 members. Its opinions are required on the basis of a mandatory consultation in the fields established by the Treaties or a voluntary consultation by the Commission, the Council, or Parliament. It may also issue opinions on its own initiative. Its members are not bound by any instructions. They are to be completely independent in the performance of their duties, in the Union’s general interest.

The Committee of the Regions

01-04-2018

The Committee of the Regions is made up of 329 members representing the regional and local authorities of the 27 Member States of the European Union. It issues opinions sought on the basis of mandatory (as required by the Treaties) and voluntary consultation and, where appropriate, own-initiative opinions. Its members are not bound by any mandatory instructions. They are independent in the performance of their duties, in the European Union’s general interest.

The Committee of the Regions is made up of 329 members representing the regional and local authorities of the 27 Member States of the European Union. It issues opinions sought on the basis of mandatory (as required by the Treaties) and voluntary consultation and, where appropriate, own-initiative opinions. Its members are not bound by any mandatory instructions. They are independent in the performance of their duties, in the European Union’s general interest.

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The content of all documents contained in the Think Tank website is the sole responsibility of the author and any opinions expressed therein do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. It is addressed to the Members and staff of the EP for their parliamentary work.

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